Graphical user interface

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Part A

Differences between the client and server type operating system.

The client has a lot better GUI(graphical user interface) the client operating system gives higher priority to the clients programmes like playing a game or Microsoft word and also browsing the internet.

The server would run processes that the client would connect to and it would get information things like email servers and web server programs. Servers are more likely to focus on security.

There is a lot of similarity between the two it is also possible for the client operating system to act as a server for some functions. The client could have a word processing where a server would have.

The client operating system is the operating that you run on your personal computer where a server is what you run on your computer to connect to.

Describe windows 3.1/95/95

Below is a description of the operating systems starting with MS-DOS up to windows 98


When things go wrong and you can't get into windows you will go to DOS commands to restore the system. When the pc is powered up the essential portion of MSDOS is loaded into the computer memory to save space. Only the most commonly used parts of DOS are loaded into the pc memory the users has little control over them. But some of the more common commands that users require are combined into a single file and loaded into memory. This means that theses commands are quickly available to the user and these are called resident commands. Many other utilities remain on the disk until called by the user if the user needs to use any of these commands they are called transient or external commands DOS loads them into the pc memory if all the utilities were loaded into the pc then there would not be enough memory left to do anything else after each command the enter key should be pressed.DOS extensions there are a number of extensions but the most important extensions are COM, EXE, BAT they are regarded by DOS to being a program file the COM and EXE files are composed of instructions usually many thousands of instructions in a special machine code recognisable by the computers cpu but unreadable by humans.BAT files are also program files but in plain English format they are less versatile than the machine code programs but are much easier to write. DOS also claim a number of other file extensions such as SYS,CPI,BIN for its own internal use DOS filling system holds files in different compartments called directories or folders on the disk the creation of DOS compartments (directories) containing other compartments (sub-directories) results in a structure called a tree. Although the stricter is called a tree the top level is called a root directory because all other directories grow from it. To get any file a path is taken from the root directory through any other directories and sub-directories until the file is reached. So in DOS each file can be fully described in terms of its name and where it is stored.

Example of path if I wanted the folder angels the path would be


Using DOS is not a user friendly the user requires knowledge of the DOS commands or has to continually consult reference manual to overcome this problem there has been a number of utilities developed under the heading of (shells) or (environments) these utilities seek to carry out computer functions through assistance in the form of menus and pictures.

Windows 3.1

Windows 3.1 is a 32 bit operating system it was an upgrade from the windows 3.0.

It has been designed to have backward compatibility with previous versions of windows operating systems. Windows 3.1 has a file manager and also a program manager which are new as the previous versions don't have theses. Also windows 3.1 support a 32 bit disk access. Windows 3.1 has a special version for central and eastern that allowed use of the Cyrillic and had fonts with diacritical marks characteristic for central and eastern European languages. There was also a Winsock package that was need to support TCP/IP networking and an add on package that allowed limited TCP/IP support in windows for workgroups.

Windows 3.1 uses the file system FAT (file allocation table).

Windows 3.1 was one of the first to have GUI (graphical user interface) and the other new feature that it has is the uses of a mouse to allow you to navigate instead of using MS-DOS commands it also allows you to multitask.


Windows 3.1

Processor 80386 or higher Drives 3.5" / 5.25" floppy Video VGA Operating System DOS 3.1 and higher

Windows 95

Windows 95 is the follow up version of windows 3.11 operating system.

Windows 95 has merged a 32 bit TCP/IP (transmission control protocol / internet protocol) stack for built in internet support with dial up networking the 32 bit allows the computer to run a lot faster and is more efficiently and it also has new plug and play which makes it easy for users to install printers, mouse's as it applies the correct drivers for them to work theses devices. It also has multimedia and mobile computing and intergraded networking.

Windows 95 is not classed as a full operating system as it needs DOS to be installed.

But Windows 95 does have its own drivers for the memory management and that is why it can also be classed as an operating system. Also because Windows 95 also has a graphical user interface in the package as well.

Windows 95 uses the file system called FAT32 (file allocation table)


Windows 95

Processor 386 DIX or higher Drives CD-ROM or Floppy Video VGA or higher resolution Operating System DOS 5.0 and higher

Windows 98

Windows 98 is upgraded from the windows 95 it is almost identical but this version of windows 98 was made for consumer users so they could find information more easily on their personal computers. It also has internet explorer update package and drivers included with windows 98 which is a bonus. With windows 98 also has protection for important files as it backups the registry. It is also finds information more easily on the internet. Also with this version you can open and close applications more quickly. This version also has support for reading DVD discs and supports for USB devices (universal serial bus) and it also supports MMX, agp, and 98 can also convert your drive to FAT32 and you won't lose any information. It has also improved PnP (plug and play) support to find device better.

Windows 98 uses the file system FAT32 (file allocation table).


Windows 98

Processor 486/66 MHz or higher Drives CD-ROM or Floppy Video VGA or higher resolution Operating System Windows 95 to upgrade

What is the real relationship between each and DOS?

I have compared the operating systems and these are some of my findings through research

User interface

DOS - command based the users must learn the command set in order to perform activities

WINDOWS - icons based user can access programs by selecting one of several icons available

Filing system

DOS - dos is restricted in the size of the names that can be given to files as well as being unable to use several reserved characters in the file name

WINDOWS - can have long file names


DOS - limited driver support many peripherals like printers need a separate driver also other applications

WINDOWS - all drivers are installed in device manager enabling any application to make use of any peripheral without needing additional drivers

Memory management

DOS - basic memory management DOS its self includes only the very basic memory management and requires several drivers to make effective use of extended memory

WINDOWS - virtual memory manager automatically uses all memory available and uses virtual memory without needing a driver

Process scheduler

DOS - single tasking with few limited exceptions DOS can run only one program at a time.

WINDOWS - multi-tasking many programs can run simultaneously which can improve versatility.


Functions provided for users

Process Management,Memory Management,Input/Output,File Management

Windows NT

Windows NT is a 32 bit application runs faster and it has the same interface as the Windows 95.

Windows NT 4.0 onwards replaced the program management and file manager with windows internet explorer that included taskbar and start menu. Windows NT is really two products in one which are Microsoft NT workstation and Microsoft NT server it was made for users and more so the business users the server is designed for business computers to provide services to network. It has tools for managing intranets it has support for networking and more secure access to the internet

Windows NT server was renamed windows 2000.

Windows NT uses the file system NTFS (new technology file system).


Windows NT

Processor 486 33MHz / Pentium highly recommended Drives CD-ROM Video VGA or higher resolution Operating System requires previous Version of NT for upgrade.

Windows 2000

Windows 2000 has a lot of similarity of Windows NT but there has been some improvements as well like making it easy to install and also administrate it is what they call more users friendly so it can be easier to use in personal computers and also servers. Other improvements are the music and videos along with home networking. The system also has a system restore which will let you set your computer back to a date when the computer was working it sets computer software configuration to that date before you had the problem. It also has windows movie maker that gives you tools to edit you own movies and to share them. there is also windows media player that plays your music and lets you organise them more easily .there was also a windows 2000 professional which added some new things like supports FAT16 ,FAT32 and NTFS also secure VPN(virtual private networking) windows 2000 uses the file system NTFS(new technology file system).


Windows 2000

Processor Intel Pentium 133 MHz or equivalent Drives CD-ROM and DVD drive Video VGA or higher Operating System Requires Windows 95, 98 NT 3.5 or 4.0 for upgrade.