Disclaimer: This is an example of a student written essay.
Click here for sample essays written by our professional writers.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com.

Issues of Immigration and Emigration in the Philippines

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: International Studies
Wordcount: 2507 words Published: 18th May 2020

Reference this

Statistical profile on the Philippines:

 (khaleejtimes 2018)

The latest population figures in the Philippines are “108,185,574 as of Monday, July 22, 2019, which are based on the latest United Nations estimates. The Philippines population is equivalent to 1.4% of the total world population.” (Worldometers.info, 2019). In 2018 the population of the Philippines was just 106.6 million (“THE PHILIPPINES” 2018) but by 2019 it has grown.

Levels of international migration in the Philippines:

In 2015 levels of international migration says (Tingga and Castillo 2017, page 15) were around 1,437,875 in total

913,958– were from the middle east

399,361– were from Asia

29,029– were from Europe

17,234– were from America

18.226– were from Africa

4,777– were from trust territories

18,850– were from Oceania

36,440– were from other places around the world

(Asis 2006) states that the Philippines is a largely country of immigration but every now and then they will receive some foreigners.

These statistics from (Tingga and Castillo 2017, page 20) shows figures from 2015 stating what counties the immigrants are coming from:

USA 1,361,984

CANADA 410,440

JAPAN 138,754


ITALY 34,789


GERMANY 15,566

UK 14,419


SPAIN 13,141

OTHERS 38,087

Levels of refugees and asylum seekers going to the Philippines,

The refugees who were accepted to go into the Philippines are as of 2018 table shows (“Refugees from the Philippines: Figures and development” 2018):

Turkey 17 were accepted

Syria 38 were accepted

Ivory coast 7 were accepted

Cameroon 10 were accepted

Yemen 7 were accepted

Iraq 6 were accepted

Pakistan 14 were accepted

There are no specific numbers recorded to state how many asylum seekers the Philippines take in but this was stated by (Andrada 2015) suggesting that the Philippines can accommodate the current Rohingyas and Bangladeshis stranded off the seas of Southeast Asian countries. That’s the view of the defunct Philippine Refugee Processing Centre’s Deputy Administrator Radito Manicad who dealt with the cases of Vietnamese asylum seekers in Bataan.

(Tingga and Castillo 2017, page 22) 2015, Statistical breakdown of immigrant groups according to their:

Age: 14 years old or below are around 50,0000

15-19 years old around 23,0000

20-24 years old around 23,5000

30-34 years old around 24,0000

35-39 years old around 155,000

40 – 44 years old around 12,0000

45 – 49 years old around 53,000

50 – 54 years old around 52,000

55 – 59 years old around 53,000

60 – 64 years old around 53,000

65 – 69 years old around 51,000

70 or above around 51,000


60% female

40% male

Religion: stated by (central intelligence agency 2019) these are the religions in the Philippines

Roman Catholic 80.6%,

Protestant 8.2% (includes Philippine Council of Evangelical Churches 2.7%, National Council of Churches in the Philippines 1.2%, other Protestant 4.3%)

Muslim 5.6%

tribal religions .2%

other 1.9%

none .1%


63% middle eastern

27% Asian

2.1% European

1.2% American

1.3% African

1.3% trusted territories 

1.4% Oceanian

3.3% from other countries 

What have been the main issues surrounding immigration or emigration in the Philippines?

(“IV Political Process: Public Opinion, Attitudes, Parties, Forces, Groups and Elections / Vie Politique: Opinion Publique, Attitudes, Partis, Forces, Groupes et Élections” 2019) in the Philippines where “millions of people are routinely affected by conflict and disaster-induced displacements, it argues that the failure to recognise the centrality of women’s health and bodily autonomy not only hinders the sustainable provision of care and domestic labour during and after crisis, but also fundamentally constrains how security is endorsed within these spaces.”(“IV Political Process: Public Opinion, Attitudes, Parties, Forces, Groups and Elections / Vie Politique: Opinion Publique, Attitudes, Partis, Forces, Groupes et Élections” 2019) this saying that there is a less confuse on women’s wellbeing and safety in the economy. Therefore, the article “highlights an urgent need to rethink the gendered political economy of crisis responses as a building block for stemming gendered violence and depletion of social reproductive labour at the household, state, and global levels”. (“IV Political Process: Public Opinion, Attitudes, Parties, Forces, Groups and Elections / Vie Politique: Opinion Publique, Attitudes, Partis, Forces, Groupes et Élections” 2019) This is saying that with more women migrating it is leaving a big window for violence to be directly targeted towards them, so having security sanctioned, it could possibly be stopped or even controlled by a higher authority.

Find Out How UKEssays.com Can Help You!

Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.

View our services

(Ireland 2018)” Existing explanations for sending-state actions stress dependence on remittances, receiving-country conditions, and the democratic incorporation of emigrants. Here, however, a stock of FMDWs with more highly valued human capital attributes, combined with a stronger civil society and greater gender equity, is shown to compel and enable the Philippine state to adopt a more assertive approach than its Sri Lankan counterpart in defending those migrants.”This saying that due to the stress of transferring money to family and individuals to their hometown it is causing stress towards the state and therefore implementing conditions to emigrants.

(Richa. 2017) “National sovereignty and security concerns are two major issues national     governments use in making unilateral migration policies in determining how people can enter and stay in their country and to develop instruments to regulate the outflow of their own citizens. As sovereign entities with legal authority, states are entitled to close their borders to any and all foreign influences as and when they choose. But in reality, it may be nearly impossible for states to stop foreign influences at the border because of constraints rooted in the international system.” This is saying that as a country they have a choice weather or not they would like to let in certain people who are trying to migrate to the Philippines, which means the citizens of the Philippines have a say who they want to come into their country.

(“UNHCR Population Statistics – Data – Overview” 2018) “The Philippines received about 525,331 refugees since 2018”. “The government’s Philippine Overseas Employment Agency manages the implementation of labour agreements with partner countries and exerts some control on the myriad of private agencies recruiting Philippine labour for foreign jobs. Many expatriate Filipino women are employed as domestic workers or nurses, while many men are hired to man ships on the world seas, both in the cargo business and on cruise ships. There are also many expatriate Filipino entertainers and technicians. Migration brings remittances for the families and the country’s economy, but critics deplore the brain drain suffered by the country, the disruptions of family life and the persistence of the image of the Philippines as a servant, even a “slave” nation.” (Boquet 2017) This is stating that the Philippines is a recruiting country because due to the information given the Philippines receives more immigrates than sending them, they put them to work straight away that’s why majority of women are put to work as domestic workers and or nurses.

(Pajaron 2016) state that “rural Philippines ensure their consumption and use remittances, informal loans or assets as ex post risk-coping mechanisms. Since these households have limited access to formal insurance and credit markets, any shocks to their volatile income can have substantial impacts.” This meaning overseas workers are transferring money to individuals to their home town. (SEGAL AND MURPHY 2019) there has been economic impact in the Philippines due to the events “prone to drastic weather differences. Social and economic income shocks may come in the form of loss of job, illness, tornados, drought and rainfall distinction. It is important to investigate how households cope with these shocks, especially in poor regions of developing countries the Government’s assistance and transfers can also be limited or non-existent to others in poor households.” (Pajaron 2016) This meaning others with low income cannot afford government assistance to help with damages of households or individuals who have been affected by natural disasters. “There were about 2.4 million overseas workers approximately 49 percent of which were male, and 51 percent female, female workers went to Hong Kong (19.3 percent), but according to the statistics there were more male than female overseas workers.” (Pajaron 2016). 


  • Andrada, E 2015, “Philippines Can Accept Asylum Seekers”, SBS Your Language, retrieved 2 August 2019, <https://www.sbs.com.au/yourlanguage/filipino/en/audiotrack/philippines-can-accept-asylum-seekers>.
  • Asis, M 2006, “The Philippines’ Culture of Migration”, migrationpolicy.org, retrieved 2 August 2019, <https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/philippines-culture-migration>.
  • Boquet, Y 2017, “Global Pinoys: The Archipelago of Migration”, Springer Geography, pp. 367-416, retrieved 5 August 2019, <https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-51926-5_13>.
  • Central intelligence agency, c 2019, “East Asia/Southeast Asia: Philippines — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency”, Cia.gov, retrieved 2 August 2019, <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html>.
  • “IV Political Process: Public Opinion, Attitudes, Parties, Forces, Groups and Elections / Vie Politique: Opinion Publique, Attitudes, Partis, Forces, Groupes et Élections” 2019, , vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 49-92, retrieved 5 August 2019, <https://journals-sagepub-com.ezproxy-b.deakin.edu.au/doi/pdf/10.1177/002083451906900104>.
  • khaleejtimes 2018, the Philippines, retrieved 2 August 2019, <https://www.khaleejtimes.com/international/rest-of-asia/earthquake-of-64-magnitude-strikes-southern-philippines>.
  • Ireland, P 2018, “The limits of sending-state power: The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and female migrant domestic workers”, International Political Science Review, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 322-337, retrieved 5 August 2019, <http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy-b.deakin.edu.au/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=f603d477-bc25-4008-b607-bc062f038e1f%40sessionmgr103&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=edselc.2-52.0-85048253407&db=edselc>.
  • Pajaron, M 2016, “The role of remittances as a risk-coping mechanism: Evidence from agricultural households in rural Philippines”, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 3-30, retrieved 5 August 2019, <https://journals-sagepub-com.ezproxy-b.deakin.edu.au/doi/pdf/10.1177/0117196816680625>.
  • Refugees from the Philippines: Figures and development” 2018, retrieved 2 August 2019, <https://www.worlddata.info/asia/philippines/asylum.php>.
  • Richa., S 2017, Multi-Layered Migration Governance in Asia: Lessons From Nepal and the Philippines, ProQuest Dissertations, Singapore, retrieved 5 August 2019, <https://search.proquest.com/docview/2088105706?pq-origsite=gscholar>.
  • “THE PHILIPPINES” 2018, retrieved 2 August 2019, <https://dfat.gov.au/trade/resources/Documents/phil.pdf>.
  • Tingga and Castillo, F 2017, “PHILIPPINE INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION DATA OUTFLOW ADMINISTRATIVE DATA AND INITIATIVES”, pages15,20,21,22, Unstats.un.org, retrieved 2 August 2019, <https://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic-social/meetings/2017/bangkok–international-migration-data/Session%207/Session%207%20Philippines.pdf>.
  • UNHCR Population Statistics – Data – Overview” 2018, retrieved 5 August 2019, <http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview>.
  • Worldometers.info. (2019). Philippines Population (2019) – Worldometers. [online] Available at: https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/philippines-population/ [Accessed 22 Jul. 2019].


Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: