Globalization in Europe and America since 1500

1296 words (5 pages) Essay in International Studies

18/05/20 International Studies Reference this

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Globalization in Europe and America since 1500

Introduction

Globalization includes the physical expansion of geographical domains in the world. Since the past two decades, globalization has become an international aspect of development in countries. Globalization has promoted the world both culturally and scientifically. The increased exchange of capital, trade, and knowledge worldwide, which result from technological innovations facilitate the socio-economic performance of states. In 1500, most trade regions idolized trade through the Indian Ocean, where the traders such as the Portuguese, British, French, and Dutch settled around the Indian Ocean trade routes[1]. The Europeans accelerated their competition in the trade sector by taking control of the sea through their military. The militants created an opportunity for the traders to access the ports for safe transit, leading to increased expansion of the trade domains. Globalization impacted the development of states from 1500 to the present as a result of exploring, finding new land and resources, increased trade deals, and sharing the religion beliefs such as the Americans and Europeans who spread their faith in Christianity globally.

Research and Analysis

Globalization includes various aspects such as economic, political, social and philosophical aspects. The process consists of international integration which arises from the exchange of world culture, ideas, products and views. The advances in industrialization, increased global travel and transportation, rapid population growth and technology advent exist as some of the impacts of globalization worldwide. The expansion of European countries in 1500 led to the development of the Atlantic System, which connected the New World, West Africa and Europe economies. Apart from the international relations creating a boost in European and American economy, the Atlantic system facilitated the development of the regions’ norms and values such as free labor, nuclear family and monogamy.

Social and Philosophical Forces

In 1500 the world traders practiced long-distance trade. Trade existed as the main reason for international communication and long travels through the sea and the Indian Ocean. As the traders from all regions in the world interacted in the trade centers, they practiced cultural globalization which included the transmission of world’s values, meanings and ideas. The traders settled around the trade routes and dominated different sections for instance, Europeans had control over the sea routes. International travel and settling facilitated the process of colonization and commodity exchange. Since the long-distance traders had different religious beliefs and social practices, the quest for settlement encouraged the spread and diversification of culture. For instance, the British and European missionaries who moved into the Asian and African countries ensured the spread of Christianity in the regions.

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On the other hand, the introduction of new education systems in Africa dates back to the missionaries. The existence of limited uniqueness in communities worldwide relates to cultural globalization. In the present day, American culture dominates the world. American and European countries consist of different races such as the African-Americans, Hispanics and Asians who moved and settled in the states during the post-colonial period because of trade, marriage and education.

Economic forces

Trade played a significant role in the period between 1500 to 1750. The long-distance traders performed the exchange of goods between Europe, Australia, America, Asia and Africa. As trade capitalism increased in the regions, the established economic relations promoted proto-globalization because of the increase in interconnected national markets, transport and infrastructure development and creation of trade institutions. During the 19th century, Europe dominated international trade development because it gained power over sea routes. At the beginning of the 21st century, the Asian countries, especially China, invested more in exports[2]. The United States gained economic dependence from the exchange of lumber, tobacco, dried fish and rice. On the other hand, Europe supplied silver across Africa and Asia. The creation of colonies in the world expanded the German-speaking population, European cities which include Milan, Naples, Genoa and Venice increased in the community.

Political Forces

During the First World War and Industrial revolution, France, Germany and Britain had power over the economic growth of global markets because they focused on industrial products’ exportation and raw materials’ importation. After the Second World War, international traders adopted national concepts instead of currency and foreign economic policies. Political institutions which were formed during the period ensured proper relations and connection of the global markets. The Bretton Woods Conference, which was held in 1944, facilitated the regulation of financial order and international monetary where many nations were forced to lower trade barriers[3]. The World Trade Organization and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which were created after the second world war ensured reduced transport costs, free trade zones, global corporations’ subsidies and capital controls’ elimination.

 Forces of Globalization

With the increase in exportation and importation of raw materials and industrial goods, European and American regions gained macro-economic stabilization and structural reforms. The settlement of traders in the regions’ neighborhood such as Asia and Africa encouraged economic investment in the countries. In the present day, China and India exist as the most productive nations in the international markets[4]. The Asian and Latin American nations changed to foreign trade liberalization to gain competition over Europe during the 19th century. The large population in the Asian countries reflects on the migration of traders into the nations.

Historical Perspective

Globalization originated in 1500 before the Europeans’ cross-country travel. The interaction between the world traders and the development of political trade institutions facilitated the socio-economic growth of the member states[5]. Before World War 1, Europe had the most contribution to the World Gross Domestic Product. America’s expansion began from its involvement in the worldwide exchange of raw material such as tobacco. In the present day, it exists as one of the best innovative nations in the world. It records the leading supplier of technology, for instance, Apple smartphones and iPads get their design from America.

Conclusion

Globalization promotes states developments through geographical regions’ expansion, exchange of cultures and interrelation among people. Globalization in Europe and America began in 1500 through the long-distance traders. The settlement of the traders around the sea and Indian Ocean routes facilitated culture exchange and increased demand in goods. Colonization and the spread of religions encouraged improved transportation and education systems in various regions such as Africa.

Bibliography

  • Berend, Ivan T. An economic history of twentieth-century Europe: economic regimes from laissez-faire to globalization. Cambridge University Press, 2016.
  • Gunn, Geoffrey C. First globalization: the Eurasian exchange, 1500-1800. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003.
  • Manning, Patrick. Slave trades, 1500–1800: Globalization of forced labour. Routledge, 2016.
  • Nederveen. “Periodizing globalization: Histories of globalization.” New Global Studies 6, no. 2 (2012).
  • Pieterse, Jan Nederveen. “Periodizing globalization: Histories of globalization.” New Global Studies 6, no. 2 (2012).

[1] Pieterse, Jan Nederveen. “Periodizing globalization: Histories of globalization.” New Global Studies 6, no. 2 (2012).

[2] Berend, Ivan T. An economic history of twentieth-century Europe: economic regimes from laissez-faire to globalization. Cambridge University Press, 2016.

[3] Manning, Patrick. Slave trades, 1500–1800: Globalization of forced labour. Routledge, 2016.

[4] Nederveen. “Periodizing globalization: Histories of globalization.” New Global Studies 6, no. 2 (2012).

[5] Gunn, Geoffrey C. First globalization: the Eurasian exchange, 1500-1800. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003.

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