Does the Notion of a ‘third World’ Continue to Have Any Validity in Today’s World?

2363 words (9 pages) Essay in International Studies

23/09/19 International Studies Reference this

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Does the notion of a ‘Third World’ continue to have any validity in today’s world?

The term ‘third world’ is used to referring to countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, which are still developing till this day. Usually, these countries are not lined up with the first world and second world.

The concept of the third world rose with regards to the cold war, and as utilized at first, conveyed explicit political and power connotations, The third force was generally to comprehend the nonaligned African and Asian nations which alluded to and portrayed so they psychologically restricted to imperialism and colonialism. Within the Cold war the ideology of the third world became its own segment, which involved a political space between the first world and the second world, Through this nonalignment that the states endeavoured to keep up freedom and a separation between the two contradicting superpower alliances, and if and when conceivable, to profit by this division.

The government and others were referring to the term third world, Africa, Latin America, Asia and Oceana, and the middle east are being stimulated politico diplomatic unity, which then allowed the European and North America to control those areas of the world, which layed beyond the soviet.

The history of western Europe and north American have been imposed to be a romanticised and idealised on the middle east, Asia, Oceana, Africa and Latin America. This theory is known to be modernisation where it approaches a methodology which appreciates proceeded with authority at the approach and well known dimension, and, in various scholastic circles, hypothesizes created and present day Western Europe and North America, where the issue of improvement had been comprehended, instead of an immature and customary Third World. With respect to this, Berger alludes to the contention made by Arturo Escobar, that by speaking to the Third World as immature, one isn’t creating an impression about ‘realities’, yet rather building up a routine of truth by methods for which the Third World is inevitably known, oversaw and mediated. Amid the previous four decades or more, learning and data have been separated from various parts of the globe and sifted through a variety of scholarly and strategy forms ruled by the supposed First World, the impact of which has been to add to the overseeing of the Third World Like methodologies which went before it, modernization hypothesis was focused on a time of tutelage and underscored the necessity of social change of the Third World as a precondition for the accomplishment of innovation. The hypothesis concentrated on the aggregate of progress, and saw modernization as a procedure, frequently called dissemination, which spread all through a general public influencing financial matters, the sort of government, social structure, qualities, religion and family structure Proponents of this methodology saw underdevelopment in the Third World as the result of weaknesses which were inside explicit to the immature social orders under scrutiny underdevelopment was seen as established in their pre-pilgrim history instead of an outcome of their provincial past. Modernization hypothesis was based on a homogenous vision of the Third World definitely following the Western European and North American way.

The concept of the third world has come across the modernisation theory to maintain western European and North American hegemony; but there’s another theoretical approach which also made the third world namely dependency theory but which approach development or underdevelopment from a different perspective.

The US driven task of modernizing the Third World had, by the latter part of the 1960s, increasingly come under challenge by economic nationalism and revolution in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Within these conditions, distinct radical discourses relating to the Third World surfaced to dispute and contest the dominant policy and academic discourses. To a large number of radical critics, the ideas of modernization theory, and policies of the US government that were based on these ideas, seemed to mask a narrow political agenda that sought to justify the dominance of three-market capitalism as a model and mechanism for economic, social and cultural development. One significant response to this agenda was the argument that dependence on the West had as a consequence the distortion of social and economic conditions in non-Western states, resulting in a shared experience of historical change in the peripheral areas of the global economy. This was the result of a situation in which the economy of certain countries is conditioned by the development and expansion of another economy to which the former is subjected. which questioned the notion that Third World states would ever realize developmental goals while they remained subject to the global reach of the advanced capitalist economies of the West, and also suggested that their experience of exploitation within that system might give them a common cause.

Albeit never a brought together voice, the reliance school contained vital contrasts of assessment identifying with the subject of regardless of whether advancement was at all conceivable inside the predominant global financial framework – with a few researchers underlining the basic obstructions to improvement that pursued from the division of the world economy into centre and periphery. Other authors concentrated on related ward development and contended this was conceivable under suitable nearby political encouragement. A critical part of the underdevelopment approach originated from dissatisfaction with the exercises of states monetary organizers in Third World countries, and the ties among these and the exercises of territorial and worldwide advancement organizations that was experienced by scholastics and dynamic learned people on the edges of such establishments. It is from this disappointment that a feeling of shared character developed around the situation of those experiencing underdevelopment both in the outskirts and in some extreme sentiment in centre countries. Although not really making up some portion of underdevelopment hypothesis, this distinguishing proof of a homogenous state of reliance which was not altogether different from the homogenous perspective of the Third World that modernization hypothesis constructed yet thoughts, for example, these surely gave a premise to some of its prominent variations, and encouraged into a view of the occupants of Third World nations as exploited people instead of specialists of their history. One such impact was a fast increment in the utilization of the term Third World amid the last phases of the 1960s and the 1970s, which has been related with the rise of a developing awareness among the people groups of various Third World Countries themselves that they shared basic issues and encounters in connection to other countries.

The above exchange has concentrated on the idea of the Third World, its development and the finishes to which the idea was utilized by the talks of modernization and reliance hypothesis. The rest of this segment will concentrate on the development of the Third World. Check T. Berger follows the foundations of Third World to the mind-boggling setting of expansionism and hostile to pioneer patriotism in the mid-twentieth century and finds the general solidification of Third World as established in the post-1945 setting of the Cold War, national freedom and decolonization. The term Third World had its beginning in the idea of a ‘third way’ or ‘third power’ in worldwide issues, and as has been referenced, Alfred Sauvy is credited with the main utilization of the term. The 1955 Bandung Conference, which united appointments from recently free states or patriot developments from Africa and Asia, was the principal endeavour at the creation and foundation of such a third power in worldwide governmental issues and is by and large observed as the minute denoting the rise of the Third World. As has been referenced, the term Third World was embraced to allude to a self-characterizing gathering of neutral states got between the ideological bifurcations of the Cold War, who found inside their mutual encounters a rally point from which to oppose Western European and North American authority and finish the task of decolonization, and in addition a system by which to redesign worldwide relationships.

The Bandung Conference assumed the huge job in activating the counter-domineering powers of what was to end up referred to as the Third World, as at the meeting ten standards were proposed which were grounded in the Pancha Silla. This alludes to the five standards of tranquil coexistence proposed by India and China; in any case, the ten standards were not constrained to these, and furthermore included the enemy of dominion, hostile to expansionism, peacefulness, and compromise by means of the United Nations. Furthermore, the Bandung Conference finished up with a last report which “denounced all ‘signs’ of colonialism, and accordingly was seen not just as an analysis to the formal imperialism related with Western Europe, but on the other hand was seen as coordinated towards the control of Eastern Europe by the Soviet Union and American neo colonialism. Within this last dispatch there was a call for expanded social and specialized participation among African and Asian governments; the foundation for a monetary improvement reserve to be worked by the United Nations; expanded help for human rights and the self-conclusions of people groups and countries and transactions to decrease the building and storing of atomic weapons. In the Cold War setting, the Bandung Conference denoted the development of an uncommitted coalition from the two superpowers, and Hee-Yeon Cho contends that the Bandung soul isn’t ‘separation’ from the amazing Western nations, however neutral self-helped ‘association against’ the ground-breaking countries.

In such manner, the Bandung soul ought to be comprehended as one of ‘against predominance. Traditionally nonalignment eluded to neutrality, however, this Third World translation there of implied positive activity for securing the interests of the feeble and accomplishing positive points, which included harmony and open control of the universal routine, based on dynamic union and arrangement of ‘trans-fringe’ solidarity. It is vital to recollect that the Third World alliance is basically a political coalition, and thus, an ideal clarification in this way will make reference to certain authoritative and auxiliary qualities of the worldwide political economy. Firstly, creating nation solidarity comes from the way that these states can’t apply a huge effect on worldwide events. The global power structure is overwhelmed by the progressed industrialized countries, and by concentrating on any commonly acknowledged proportion of intensity military, monetary, ideological, social or political the main Western states rise as the significant performing artists in the worldwide system. To an expansive degree, chiefs of Third World states encounter sentiments of minimization in, and by, the worldwide strength system. Thus, this absence of capacity to apply an effect on strategy making, combined with the material shortcoming, alluded to above gives solid motivator and amazing inspiration for the foundation of a partnership of the powerless.

Moreover, Caroline Thomas attests that Third World states were recognized by two critical qualities, which likewise filled in as a reviving point around which to assemble. Right off the bat, in view of their situation in the worldwide economy, these states see themselves as defenceless against outside components outside their ability to control, and to choices and policies prevalently monetary in which they shared no possession. Furthermore, Third World states were home to most of the world’s poor who persevered through consistently survival dangers related to grave social problems. These two normal qualities activated shared and interrelated concerns: the longing exercises more noteworthy authority over national economies, and to quicken national improvement by means of arrangements, for example, the solidification of an expansive state segment and import substitution. A focal part of the procedure to address these issues was the bring in 1974 for a New International Economic Order (NIEO).

The second 50% of this area has managed the development of Third World, concentrating on the Bandung Conference, and the common issues around which Third World states have activated.

Regarding to the cold war, the idea of the Third World was utilized to different finishes: to be specific as a way to control what was known as the Third World, yet in addition as a preparing legend for the fruitful fulfilment of decolonisation and for the foundation of a counter domineering alliance. However, the finish of the Cold War and the crumbling of the USSR and the vanishing of the Second World have raised doubt about the importance of the idea of the Third World, and besides, an inability to execute its political financial ventures and in addition political contrasts, has prompted a decrease in Third World, to a degree where numerous researchers are scrutinizing the plain presence of the Third World. This paper has embarked to contend that the idea of the Third World appreciates proceeded with importance in the contemporary period and has stayed alive in both insightful and open domains well past the finish of the Cold War.

References

  • Berger, Mark T. “The End of the ‘Third World’?” Third World Quarterly 15 (1994): 257-275.
  • Berger, Mark T. “After the Third World? History, Destiny and the Fate of Third Worldism.” Third World Quarterly 25 (2004): 9-39.
  • Dirlik, Arif. “Spectres of the Third World: Global Modernity and the End of the Three Worlds.” Third World Quarterly 25 (2004): 131-148.
  • Holm, Hans-Henrik. “The End of the Third World?” Journal of Peace Research 27 (1990): 1-7.
  • Muni, S. D. “The Third World: Concept and Controversy.” Third World Quarterly 1 (1979): 119-128.
  • Pletsch, Carl E. “The Three Worlds, or the Division of Social Scientific Labour, Circa 1950-1975.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 23 (1981): 565-590.
  • Randall, Vicky. “Using and Abusing the Concept of the Third World: Geopolitics and the Comparative Political Study of Development and Underdevelopment.” Third World Quarterly 25 (2004): 41-53.
  • Thomas, Caroline. “Where is the Third World Now?” Review of International Studies 25 (1999): 225-244.
  • Weber, Heloise. “Reconstituting the ‘Third World’? Poverty Reduction and Territoriality in the Global Politics of Development.” Third World Quarterly 25 (2004): 187-206.

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