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Corruption in Peru Over Time and the Peruvian Oppressive Structure

2070 words (8 pages) Essay in International Studies

08/02/20 International Studies Reference this

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Peru is a country with an estimated amount of 32.17 million people, near Bolivia and Ecuador.[1] Its beautiful beaches and a historic temple dating back to the Inca Empire from 1438-1532.[2] Seeing the population with 32.17 million to see that 46% of the population are indigenous with no education, poor homes, and no way to communicate with others only in their language.[3] These facts were caused because of the history they had during colonization and after their colonization with during the oppressive power structure and after with a dictatorship by the leader Simon[4] Bolivar who liberated them just to put his class on top instead of the Spanish. Although the natives were liberated from the Spanish, the social hierarchy did not change and the indigenous are still at the bottom even seen in modern-day seen as forced to change their names and saying that their culture is not allowed.

I will be writing a research paper on the transition of the Inca Empire to modern-day Peru bring in the focus to the minority group of indigenous and how they are still treated the same way they were when they were under Spanish rule. Seeing how its modern day you might think that times have changed and things would be different but there is no change things are the same. Still, at natives are at the bottom and treated badly no help and no translation because of the harsh treatment they were given over time


The Inca Empire had numerous trade system going from the heart of Peru to the tip of Chile.[5] The Empire was well known for the Inca Temple Machu Picchu seeing the architectural wonder and amazement of the structure and how it’s well made by the workers or the POW. Having seven main emperors in a monarchy broken up in feudal system, The top person would be the Sapa Inca which would be the emperor of the land passed down by family below him would be the royal family under the family would be those who had family connections with the Sapa Inca under them would be the citizens and POW . [6] The two most famous job positions in the Empire were Viracocha & Pachacuti those 2 job positions were for the nobility family and those who did well and meant well to the emperor they were the people who would go explore the land far to the south to see if it would be fit to expand the empire.[7] All the classes would be based on the family so unless a citizen did not have a blood or friend relationship with the emperor it would be hard in order to move up the social structure. Those conquered by the Incas or born into a slave class did not have a right or have a place in the society they would be seen as an outcast away from the rest.[8]

The Spanish led by Francisco Pizarro in 1532 with Atahualpa as the leader at the time. The emperor had a plan in mind in order to take prisoners the Spanish but Pizarro and his army attacked at night taking the emperor as prisoner.[9]Once under the Spanish rule they used effectively the Encomienda system making the indigenous under the Spanish having Spaniards from Spain at the top. Below the Spaniards were the creoles born in new Spain with 2 Spanish parents and below them were mestizos with one native parent and one Spanish parent. After is the Indians the natives not willing to be modernized by the Spaniards.

After the Viceroyalty Of Peru had been liberated by Simon Bolivar on July 28, 1821. In order for Peru to be liberated, they needed help from that outside in order to become an independent and in power country. In a new country, the ideal beginning would be a president to help those with a home and getting down to the conflicts but that’s not how it went. Simon Bolivar set in the structure of the creoles on top[10]instead of the natives who their land was taken from them. Simon put everything from government positions to shoemaking jobs to the creoles[11] and he did it at his command making himself the president ignoring the natives and keeping them at the bottom. It was strict social structure and if you were Spanish who was born in New Spain or either had at least 1 Spanish parents you were fine but Indians were seen as savages they couldn’t speak Spanish and outcasted from society at the time.[12] The ones who couldn’t move up were the slaves and Indians because of the simple fact that they couldn’t speak Spanish and they didn’t want to help them because of it.

Current Day

In modern-day Peru, the country has a Republic government having a constitution with the wealthy is on top if you would have money then you would be the most benefited. Below those with money were the poor but could still speak Spanish they have opportunities to have jobs but not as many jobs because of where they live or the economic class they have. Now at the bottom is the natives of Peru and other born in the class the biggest class mostly living in the rural part of Peru with no help from the government because of the language barrier in between those who speak Spanish and those who speak Quechua and Aymara They don’t have any translator or anything because no one only a few understand their language. In Article 2 line 19 it states that every Peruvian indigenous or not has the right to an interpreter and the right to have their culture freely used in the government.[13] The constitution paints the image of how every Peruvian indigenous or not has a right to an interpreter but behind the image, it’s the complete opposite seeing how the country might be prosperous but 46% of the population is in poverty. Most of the 46%  are indigenous without homes in the rural with no one to help them.[14] Forced to change their culture out in schools for an example forced to change their name in schools and legal documents. Having most of the schools filled with poor children and those with money putting their children in private schools in order to get the best education.

The Unitary State of Peru goes to show that the government might say something painting an image of a beautiful view but behind its borders it has the complete opposite. Indigenous Peruvian have faced oppression from colonization to the current day. A solution to the country wide problem would be having centers in both rural and urban places since they have to realize that not everyone speaks the language of spanish so they would have to help the natives.Another way would understanding their culture and having more jobs in the government for people who speak the language also having classes in school to help learn the diversity in the country.



[1] Bazo,Mariana,Peru Poverty, April 24 2018, Accessed May 2, 2019

[2] Lima Easy, 2006, May 5 2019

[3] Bazo,Mariana,Peru Poverty, April 24 2018, Accessed May 2, 2019

[4] Sampaolo, Marco, Discovery & Exploration, Oct 25 2018, Tue Apr 23

[5]Kris Hirist,Inca Road System,July 23 2017, April 22 2019

[6]Davis,Thomas ,Peru, Oct 25 2018, April 22 2019

[7] Davis,Thomas,Peru, Oct 25 2018, April 22 2019

[8] Kris Hirist,Inca Road System,July 23 2017, April 22 2019

[9] Gale,Thomas, Peru Under Spanish Rule, 2007, Apr 12 2019

[10]Sampaolo, Marco, Discovery & Exploration, Oct 25 2018, April 23

[11]Robert N. Burr, Achievements Of Independence, Oct 25 2018, Accessed April 24 2019

[12] Robert N. Burr, Achievements Of Independence, Oct 25 2018, Accessed April 24 2019

[13] Constitution Of Peru, Constitution Project, Accessed May, 21, 2019

[14] Bazo,Mariana,Peru Poverty, April 24 2018, Accessed May 2, 2019

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