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The Andean Community of Nations
The history of the Andean Community of Nations started on the 26th of May 1969, when Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru signed the Cartagena Agreement. This was the launch of the Andean Integration process and was also known as the Andean Pact, (Andean Community of Nations, a brief history, par. 1). On February the 13th 1973, Venezuela joined the agreement and on the 30th of October 1976, and Chile withdraw itself out of de community. Also Venezuela withdraws itself out of de community. This happened in April 2006.
All the bodies and institutions of the Andean Community of Nations as we know today were created in the first ten years of the organisation except for the Andean Council of Presidents. This was created in 1990 ( Andean Community of Nations, a brief history, par. 4).
The Andean Community of Nations has six objectives:
- to promote the Member countries harmonious development throughout integration and economic and social cooperation
- to accomplish growth and to create employment
- to assist participation in terms of regional integration with the purpose of a creation of a Latin America common market
- to reduce the differences that exist between the member countries
- to consequently search for the improvement of the living conditions of the citizens living in the region of the Andean Community of Nations
- to improve the role of their member countries in the world and the international economy ( Andean Community of Nations, what are our objectives?).
Tactics and actions
Organisation and structure
The Andean Community of Nations consists of 4 members: Bolivia, Colombia, Peru and Ecuador. The observer countries are Mexico and Panama.
The Andean Community of Nations has thirteen bodies and institutions:
- Andean Council of Presidents
The Council of Presidents is highest body of the organisation and is responsible for the making guidelines for the rest of the organisation
- Andean Council of Foreign Affairs
This body is made up of all the foreign affairs ministers of the member countries and is responsible for making and carry out the foreign policy of the organisation
- Andean Community Commission
The Commission is the main policy- making body of the Andean Community of Nations
- Andean Community General Secretariat
The General Secretariat is the executive body of the organisation and has the responsibility of drawing decisions for the Council of Foreign Affairs
- Andean Community Court of Justice
This Community is the legislative body of the organisation and is made up of four judges of the four member countries. They are responsible for ensuring that the laws of the Community are being applied appropriately.
- Andean Parliament
The Andean Parliament is the body that represent the citizens of the member countries.
- Andean Development Corporation
This Corporation is the financial institution of the organisation. They support the public and private sector of the member countries as well as the governments.
- Latin America Reserve fund
The purpose of this Fund is to give financial assistance to the member countries by giving credits or loans and it also helps the member countries to harmonize their financial and monetary policies.
- Andean Business Advisory Council
- Andean Labour Advisory Council
- Andean Health Body
- Simon Rodriguez Convention
- Simon Bolivar University
All the above mentioned bodies and institutions are part of the Andean Integration System (SAI). This system was designed to allow effective coordination between al the bodies and institutions in order to maximize the Andean integration.
Introduction based on questions 1 -7
The purpose of this paper is to examine the role that e-government can play in Regional International Organizations in Central- en South America.
First it is important what is meant by e-government. E-government is also known as electronic government, e-gov, digital government or online government. Technology, or e-government, is the way of exchanging information and services with citizens, businesses, organisations and other arms of government. E-government also entails the use of information technology to free movement of information to overcome the physical bounds of traditional paper and psychical bases systems, as well as the use of technology to enhance the access to and delivery of government services to benefit citizens, business partners and employees. E-government comprises activities that take place by digital processes over a computer network, usually the internet. These activities generally involve the electronic exchange of information to acquire or provide products or service, to place or receive orders, to provide or obtain information, or to complete financial transactions.
Second it is important to examine what is meant by Regional Organizations in Central- en South America. Regional Organizations are international organizations which bring together countries occupying a certain region with shared needs and interest for the purpose of closer cooperation and or integration. According to the Yearbook of International organizations there are eight criteria for inclusion under the international organization:
- The aims must be genuinely international with the intention to cover at least three states
- Membership must be individual or collective participation, with full voting rights, and must be open to any individual or entity appropriately qualified in the organization's area of operations. Voting must be so that no national group can control the organization
- The constitution must provide for a formal structure giving members the right periodically to elect governing bodies and officers. Provision should be made for continuity of operations with a permanent headquarter
- Officers should not all be of the same nationality for more than a given period.
- There should be a substantial contribution to the budget from at least three states and there should be no attempt to make profit for distribution to members
- Those with an organic relationship with other organisation must show that it can exist independently and elect its own officials
- Evidence of current activities must be available
- Negative criteria are: size, politics, ideology, field of activity, geographical location of headquarters, nomenclature, is irrelevant deciding whether a set-up is an international organisation or not
There are two ways of defining Central America. It is possible to define Central America as a region of the North American continent. Geopolitically spoken, it comprises seven countries - Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Mexico is often included. In Latin America and in Europe, the Americas are considered to be a continent and Central America is a region of that continent. The United Nations geoscheme defines the region as all states of North America south of the United States; conversely; the European Union excludes Belize and Mexico from its definition of the region.
South America comprises the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela. Besides those countries are there also various islands, many of which belong to countries of the continent. Geopolitically, the islands states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are generally grouped as a part of sub region of North America.
Third, it is important to know what the main Regional Organisations are in Central- and South America. The main Regional International Organisations are:
- Mercado Comun del Sur (MERCOSUR)
- The Andean Community of Nations
- The Union of South American Nations (Unasur/Unasul)
- The Organization of American States (OAS)
- Pan American Institute of Geography and History (PAIGH)
- Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD)
- Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la AmÃ©rica Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL)
- The Inter- American Development Bank
- Associacao Latino-Americana de Intergracao / Asociacion Latino-Americana de Intergracion (ALADI)
- Association of Caribbean States (ACS)
- Latin American Economic System (SELA)
- Latin American Centre for Development Administration (CLAD)
Mercado Comun Del Sur and the Andean Community of Nations are two Regional International Organisations which have great influence in the region. The two organisations are the two main trading blocks and therefore the choice was made to examine them further in the rapport.
Mercosur (Mercado Comun del Sur)
Mercosur or Mercado Comun del Sur, is a trading bloc in South America. The trading bloc is the fourth-largest trading bloc in the world and the largest in South America. The bloc comprises Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay and was founded in 1991 by the treaty of Asuncion. In 1994 the treaty of Ouro Preto gave the organisation a wider international status and formalised a sustoms union.
The organisation's headquarters lies in the capital of Uruguay Montevideo. Mercosur has two official languages; Spanish and Portuguese. The rotation of the presidency of Mercosur between member states takes place every six months.
The Mercosur institutions include among others:
- Common Market Council
- Common Market Group
- Commission of Commerce of Mercosur
- Parliament of Mercosur
The parliament of Mercosur was inaugurated in December 2006. Initially, the parliament serves only as an advisory committee for the foreign ministers of the Mercosur member states.
The four states that conform Mercosur find expression in their democratic, defending societies of the fundamental liberties, the human rights. They unite to fight against poverty and unite to bring economic development and legal security.
The fundamental objective of the treaty of Asuncion is the integration of the four states parts, through the free movement of goods, capital, services and people among its member states, the establishment of a common external tariff and the adoption of a common commercial policy.
The Mercosur countries count a population of more than 220 million people and have a collective output of $1.1 trillion, accounting for over 75 percent of South America's GDP with $800 billion for Brazil's count. Mercosur has 5 associated members; Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. The fact that they are associated members means that can join free-trade agreements but they remain outside the bloc's customs union. There were moves to include Chile as full member, but these were suspended after Chile signed a free-trade deal with the United States in 2002.
On the 4th of July 2006, Venezuela became the fifth full member of Mercosur. Venezuela, a leading oil and gas producer gave Mercosur greter economic clout, but it raised fairs that the controversial Venezuelan leader Hugo Chavez could use the group as a platform for his anti-US stance.
- Klonsky, J. (2007). Mercosur: South America's Fractious Trade Bloc. Retrieved November 19, 2007, from Council on Foreign Relations Website: http://www.cfr.org/publication/12762/
- Mercosur, Quienes Somos. Retrieved November 19, 2007, from Mercosur's official website. Website: http://www.mercosur.int/msweb/portal%20intermediario/es/index.htm
- BBC, Profile: Mercosur - Common Market of the South. Retrieved November 19, 2007, from Internation Organisations Website: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/5195834.stm