Data processing is any computer process that converts data into information or knowledge. The processing is usually assumed to be automated and running on a computer. Because data are most useful when well-presented and actually informative, data-processing systems are often referred to as information systems to emphasize their practicality. Nevertheless, both terms are roughly synonymous, performing similar conversions; data-processing systems typically manipulate raw data into information.
Information : Information is data that has been processed for use.
Relationship between data processing and information in a computer system
When information is entered into and stored in a computer, it is generally referred to as data. After processing (such as formatting and printing), output data can again be perceived as information. Data processing is the actual process of converting the information into data and vice versa in a computer system.
2 Distinguish between data and information
data is what is entered into and stored in a computer after the data has been processed it is called information.
3 why are digital computer useful in data processing
A digital computer is the main mechanism used for transforming data in data processing.
4. Describe in detail the physical security, the social environment under which the computer performs best.
Computer perform best in a cool and clean environment as dirt and heat affect the performance of a computer system
SECTION B (COMPUTER PROGRAM)
I. Distinguish between low level language and high level language.
The main difference of high-level languages and low-level languages is that high-level languages are easier to read, write, and maintain. Ultimately, programs written in a high-level language must be translated into machine language by a compiler or interpreter.
II. Explain the acronyms
COBOL: Acronym for common business oriented language. Developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s,. It is particularly popular for business applications that run on large computers. COBOL is still the most widely used programming language in the world.
FORTRAN : Acronym for formula translator,. Designed by John Backus for IBM in the late 1950s, it is still popular today, particularly for scientific applications that require extensive mathematical computations.
BASIC: Acronym for Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASIC is one of the earliest and simplest high-level programming languages.
Despite its simplicity, BASIC is used for a wide variety of business applications. There is an ANSI standard for the BASIC language, but most versions of BASIC include many proprietary extensions. Microsoft’s popular Visual Basic, for example, adds many object-oriented features to the standard BASIC.
ALGOL: ALGOL (short for ALGOrithmic Language) the de facto way algorithms were described in text-books and academic works for almost the next 30 years.
These languages are best suited for text based data processing.
III Mention and explain three special purpose high level language.
1 Ruby : is a dynamic, reflective, general purpose object-oriented programming language.
Ruby supports multiple programming paradigms (including functional, object oriented and imperative), and features a dynamic type system and automatic memory management.
2 Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. Perl borrows features from a variety of other languages including C, shell scripting (sh), AWK, sed and Lisp. Perl was widely adopted for its strengths in text processing and lack of the arbitrary limitations of many scripting languages at the time.
3 Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes programmer productivity and code readability. Python’s core syntax and semantics are minimalist, while the standard library is large and comprehensive.
Python supports multiple programming paradigms (primarily functional, object oriented and imperative), and features a fully dynamic type system and automatic memory management; it is thus similar to Perl, Ruby, Scheme, and Tcl.
IV. What is a language processor and why are they necessary
A hardware device designed or used to perform tasks, such as processing program code to machine code. Language processors are found in languages such as Fortran and COBOL . They are necessary because they are used to convert your program code to machine code
V. what is the difference between a compiler and interpreter?
Â Compiler willÂ translate the sourceÂ code written in some kind of programming language, and then ultimately translates it into object code or machine language while
The interpreter translates instructions one at a time, and then executes those instructions immediately. The compiler is itself a computer program written usually in some implementation language.
Define the following
A field is a space allocated for a particular item of information. A tax form, for example, contains a number of fields: one for your name, one for your Social Security number, one for your income, and so on. In database systems, fields are the smallest units of information you can access. In spreadsheets, fields are called cells.
Most fields have certain attributes associated with them. For example, some fields are numeric whereas others are textual, some are long, while others are short. In addition, every field has a name, called the field name.
Records are composed of fields, each of which contains one item of information. A set of records constitutes a file. For example, a personnel file might contain records that have three fields: a name field, an address field, and a phone number field.
Some programming languages allow you to define a special data structure called a record. Generally, a record is a combination of other data objects. For example, a record might contain three integers, a floating-point number, and a character string.
A file is a collection of data or information that has a name, called the filename. Almost all information stored in a computer must be in a file. There are many different types of files: data files, text files , program files, directory files, and so on. Different types of files store different types of information. For example, program files store programs, whereas text files store text.
Short for binary digit, it is the smallest unit of information on a machine. A single bit can hold only one of two values: 0 or 1. More meaningful information is obtained by combining consecutive bits into larger units. For example, a byte is composed of 8 consecutive bits.
A character is any symbol that requires one byte of storage. This includes all the ASCII and extended ASCII characters, including the space character the term character is generally reserved for letters, numbers, and punctuation.
Identify three file organisation method known to you and state their merit and demerit.
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