This literature review also addresses on some areas like social and legal issues regarding fingerprint biometrics. Human factor that relates to biometric technology and some security issues for fingerprint biometric technology.
There are several social issues that affect fingerprint biometric technology like misunderstanding the usage of the device of technology. Hesitation is also one of the issues relating to biometric, new users sometime hesitate to use new technology.
No system that tend to be entirely secure there are some intrusiveness in the system including fingerprint technology. But implementing fingerprint biometric system can be somewhat secure as compare to stealing and copying passwords, there is a level of security. Mainly passwords can be broken by using some software but using fingerprints for authentication will be considered more secure and reliable.
The privacy concerns can be leaving the fingerprints all over the place on daily basis work we do. But when a user is involved in using fingerprint technology user might worry about the privacy.
Third party involvement in data
Other then privacy the concern for the fingerprint is that when the fingerprints are scanned they are stored in the digital format and are stored in the database. The data store in the database can be copied or deleted. The fear for the user fingerprint publicity or privacy can be a problem.
The health concern for the fingerprint is related to the safety of fingerprint technology. While user interaction there is a direct contact between user and device sensor , user might fear of electric shock or spreading germs or might experience some kind of pain while using the device.
The graph shows user uncomfortable using biometric technology
As per gender woman have slim and smaller fingers with long nails as compared to males. Due to the change the fingerprint scanning device may not be able to capture a good sample or authenticate well. The shape and size differs with regards to gender.
As people age increases the fingerprint becomes lighter and there is elasticity in skin. Such a problem can result with poor acquisition of fingerprint and will not be able to match with the original samples. It also varies from the sensor and hardware that is being used.
As some of people do labor jobs, they might deal with lifting up heavy things and working with chemical which may result in wearing of fingerprints. This might cause problem for the fingerprint scanner to match it or capture the sample. But there are some sensors available which use the second layer of the skin to be captured.
Percentage of population unable to enroll
Some people cannot use fingerprint scanner as it require physical movement and finger to be scanned.
System development life cycle
This SDLC model is used to develop a system. The process within this model makes sure that all the process is covered in it. It works in the systematic manner; if one stage is not completed we cannot proceed to other stage without completion. The phases track the information for the development planning for the project, analyzing the requirements, gathering information, designing the system, implementation and testing
SDLC is a whole set of methodologies which can be applied to software development. This includes the following:
Waterfall life cycle
Waterfall life cycle
Waterfall method is used mainly for the development of complex systems because its works according the phases and each phase need to be completed before moving forward.
In this life cycle the project need to be analyzed in many different ways like analysis the time and cost. Then for the next phase requirement and analysis deals with the client requirement and also the resources required by us for development of the system. In the design phase all the logical and physical designs are developed for the system and the forwarded to the next stage for implementation as and when the implementation of system is being over the testing takes place because need to test the system or any kind of error or bugs. After the successful testing and integration the system need to be updated and maintained regularly and in the final stage the maintenance of the system is done.
This model is considered the oldest paradigm for software development. But still it remains a very reasonable method when those requirements are well understood. It provides a very basic template into which methods for design m coding m analyzing, testing and implementation. This method still remains a very widely used procedural model for software engineering. This is a good and reliable model for developing the proposed system.
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Prototyping is the part of the process which helps in building the model of the system. It is included in analysis and system development. This process helps the developer to build a design for a system to know exactly how the system will work. During the requirement and analysis phase need to gather the data required for the system. Prototyping is sometimes intangible but still helps in enhancement of the project. The feedback that we receive from the users after developing the physical design of the system can help us in evaluate the response of the users to this system and then we can manipulate the system according to the requirements. Prototyping comes in many form it’s not only the physical design but can be the as low as paper sketch to any engineering design tools. Still now also some of the organization uses the paper sketch as the prototyping but some of them uses some computer aided software engineering tools to build a prototype.
There are some advantages of prototyping
It reduces the time in the development
It reduces the development cost
For the prototyping process we require user involvement
Helps the developer in future enhancements
Disadvantages of prototyping
Much analysis not done in prototyping
The expectations for the users are made according to the prototype
Even developers can also be attached to the prototype
The spiral model is a process for software development. The spiral uses the top-down and bottom up technique. It combines both design phase and prototyping. This model is basically used in information technology processes. This model is the combination of waterfall model and prototype. This model is used for large and expensive projects.
Steps involved in spiral
Requirements are defined in detail which also involves the interviewing the users
The important phase in spiral model is creating preliminary design of the system which helps the users and developer to understand the system, this phase also helps in identifying the problems and solutions towards it.
The prototype is constructed from the preliminary design which represents the characteristics of the system
Then evaluating the prototype in terms of weakness, strength and risks.
Coming up with new requirements
Planning and design for second prototype
Implementing and testing the second prototype
Estimations are more realistic as most of the requirements are analyzed in details
It is easier to make changes in the systems as compared to others.
Highly customized limiting re-usability
Applied differently for each application
Risk of not meeting budget or schedule
Risk of not meeting budget or schedule
Rapid application development is used in the development of the project which requires minimal planning. RAD merges various structured and prototyping techniques. This development is mainly used in engineering process.
Advantages of the RAD methodology:
This methodology is flexible and able to adapt the changes in the project.
This methodology generally incorporates short development cycles
By using this methodology there is a reduction in overall project
RAD involves user participation thereby increasing chances of early user community acceptance.
Disadvantages of RAD methodology:
No planned cost and time; sometimes it can exceed the limit.
Chances of errors are very high.
ASP.Net is the product of Microsoft. It is the extended version of active server pages; which helps in the web development model that includes basic services required for the developer to develop the web applications.
It can support various languages like VB, C++, C#, J# Jscript. Net frame work does not only limit itself to any one language which is the good about it. It works on the windows environment and also support to the web pages
Web services means that we can run the applications having different web pages on different servers. We do not require combining all the pages into one server and then run the application. ASP.Net is a great future of web services. ASP.Net also supports the XML which is part of the web development.
It is a programming language used to develop the applications .it is the product sun Microsystems. It is easier to write and develop application using this language as compared to other languages. The limitation of this language is that it limits the developer to use only one language that is java. This language also contains the API through which we can develop the applications more easily and faster. It is platform independent the programs use java virtual machines for the abstraction and do not access the operating system directly.
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Justification of the programming language chosen
Before starting any project we need to analyze the resources required for the system and need to have a feasibility study for the system that we are going to develop. It is very important to have a deep knowledge about the system and gather more and more information regarding the system. As there are many book available in library and some online resources also accessible to fetch the information. Internet is being widely used these days for searching any type of topic you are looking for but we need to be very careful while referring to internet as it may also come up with some wrong information which can cause problem in our system development. While selecting the source information from the internet developer need to be careful about from which website or article is being data taken, make sure that data is authenticated and is verified. The developer can refer to journals, papers and university website because they are very reliable to use.
Review on similar systems
There are lots of products available in the market using bio metric technology. Before starting up the project developer need to find out the similar systems that have being already developed and need to review on the similar products. All this need to be done so that developer can get clear idea about the feasibility of the system that is going to be developed. I have done the analysis on the similar systems which are available in the market.
As my system is for web authentication using finger print technology which is not been developed yet in the market but there are systems that are using fingerprint technology for the authentications. I will be focusing on such systems that will be using the biometric technology for authenticating genuine user.
Lone wolf software, Inc was founded in 1991 which has evolved small computer resources to custom software with a client which includes most of the fortune 500 companies. Since the company have been developing systems of no just time and attendance but also for the patient disease management software, shipping software, trucking management software and much more.
The Juno uses the best finger print technology which highly rated in time attendance management system. It brings the manual work to automation and faster than before like it is used in automated time and attendance terminal.
It is easy to maintain and use, need not require much training procedures before using this device. It allows the user to clock in and out with just a touch of a finger. It’s not only used for clock in and out but user can also view the previous records and other information like departments, projects working etcâ€¦
For the audio assistance and verbal conformation speakers are attached on the board. This product also comes with the internal bell system which uses the internal speakers for a beep like common start, break time and end time. This product is capable for holding more than 1,500 templates and 30,000 transactions which makes it the perfect for any size of the company.
Reason for developing such system
This system is fast replacing the traditional attendance registers. Huge number of employees works under one company and it’s very difficult to maintain each employee daily records manually like (attendance, time in and time out). Manually it takes so much time for the employees to mark the records. The old traditional system was not easy to maintain and was also so much time consumptions, generating a report manually can take so much time using manual attendance system. Reasons for developing or using these types of systems are mentioned below:
Security: These systems are considered to be most secure attendance and management system in the market. With the increase in security, your employees need to punch there finger on the sensor to enter the company and mark attendance, by this elimination of fake entry and a reduction of time theft. Moreover reduce the labour cost and saves lots of money.
Accuracy: With increase in security this system also provides increase in accuracy. Besides from time theft, calculating mistakes cost can be reduced easily. The automation of report generating will be accurate. You will be able to monitor attendance, breaks, vacations; holiday hours etcâ€¦ everything will be recorded correctly and fairly.
Easy to Use: Automated attendance and management system are easy to use and implement. Employees can just log their attendance easily just with a touch of the finger and managers can.
This system is similar with my system as per the technology perspective, because my system is also using biometric fingerprint technology, but my system is mainly based on the web authentication system. The backend working for the system above and my system will be similar as in my system developer will be also storing the fingerprints for the users that are going to use the system.
Biometric authentication is one of the technical improvements in information technology and looks set to change the way of majority of people. Security is now days becoming an issue and need for genuine authentication has become very important. Personal use of biometric systems in authentication now days being a response for issue of authentication and security. Mostly finger print recognition is used for authentication. This paper is organized as follows: by now, the reader should be already familiar with the content of section one which consisted for the current problem faced by the internet users and need for the system followed by the study of objective , level of challenge and project planning , section two consists of literature review followed by domain and technical research .Section three will illustrate how primary research (questionnaire and the survey)and investigation was done and which methodological choices were made.
Biometrics is defined as behavioral uniqueness that can be use to verify to identify an individual, which can include fingerprint verification, retinal scanning, face recognition, iris, and signature verification. Biometric authentication is automatic identification of an individual using either a biological feature they possess physiological characteristic like a fingerprint or something they do behavior characteristic like can be fingerprint, iris , face etc… The process of recognition and authentication is the ability to verify the genuine user.
The identification is by using any one of it or combination of the following three traditional identification techniques:
Something you possess: It’s mainly referred as token and it ca produced by multiple physical objects. The tokens are basically divided into two types:
Manually tokens : It refers to identification process in form of human intervention , means a person will make a decision for deciding whether the identify is approved or not E.g.: On airports the authentication is done manually by verifying passports , now the airport of immigration authority takes decision regarding the traveler authentication is verified or not.
Automated tokens: These token does not involve human intervention for identification. E.g. verification system like smart cards and magnetic strip cards
Something you know: This refers about knowledge you possess but it’s a secret . Example of regular use of secrets is personal identification number (PIN), passwords etcâ€¦
Something you are: It refers to more of their biological features. E.g. authentication using fingerprint, face or iris etcâ€¦
The following comparison between identification techniques
Can be fake and can be used without knowing to original holders. E.g. Someone can “steal an identity” and create a new fake ID using any others personal information.
It can be stolen, lost or given to someone for usage.
Can be cracked or obtained using hacking techniques or tools like password cracking.
Can be told. If the password is told to a person they can get into your account and can misuse your personal information.
It can be forgotten which can cause problem for an organization you are working for E.g. you are working in a organization you need to gain access to company email account urgently, forgetting password can cause you in trouble that time.
Cannot be fake
Can be cracked
Dealing with accuracy sometimes causes problem in biometric device like having a cut on finger, burn or excessive rubbing on hard surface can bring damage to your finger then it might not be possible that you can be authenticated by biometric system that time.
Table 1: Tokens vs. Passwords. Vs. Biometric
Comparison between each biometric methodology
Stable over time uniqueness
Needs to training user resistance
Workstation access control , ATM , airline tickets , physical access control , information system control
Cultural and religious issues
physical access control
Stable over time uniqueness
Needs to training user resistance
ATM , airline tickets , physical access control
Stable over time uniqueness
Slow read time user resistance
physical access control , information system control
Low failure to enroll small template
Size of device childish finger growth
physical access control , information system control, time attendance
Less training excellent user acceptance
Changes and unstable over time
Mobile phone banking
High user acceptance less training
Enrollment tasks long and unstable over time
Portable device stylus input
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