Year by year, the cost of computer systems continues to drop dramatically the performance and capacity of the systems continue to rise equally dramactically. Find out and write about the evolution of microprocessor system. Give an example to support your answer.
2)Computer memory is one of the technologies that are used to store information in electronic device. Compare the various types of memory in terms of capacity, performance, access methods, physical types, and characteristics.
In computer world, computer architecture or digital computer organization is one of the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It is a blueprint and functional description of requirements and design implementations for the various parts of a computer, focusing largerly on the way by which the central processing unit (CPU) performs internally and accesses addresses in memory. It also can be defined as the science and art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance and cost goals.
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1)What is a microprocessor in a computer architecture? Microprocessor known as central processing unit (CPU). It is an integrated circuit built on a tiny piece of silicon. It contains thousands or even millions of transistors which are interconnected via superline traces of alluminium. The transistors work together to store and manipulate data so that the microprocessor can perform a wide variety of useful functions. The particular functions a microprocessor performs are dictated by software. One most common task microprocessors perform is to serve as ‘brain’ inside personal computer (PC), but they deliver ‘intelligence’ to other devices as well. There are so many type of microprocessors such as intel 4004, 8008, 8080, 8026, 80286, 80386 processor, 80486DX processor, and so on.
The first generation microprocessor in history is, Intel 4004 was a 4 bit CPU designed for usage in calculators or as we say now designed for “embedded applications”. Clocked at 740KHz, the 4004 executed up to 92 000 single word instructions per second, could access 4KB of program memory and 640 bytes of RAM. The Intel 4004 was a part of MSC-4 chipset, which included the following chips. Although the Intel 4004 was a perfect fit for calculators and similar applications it was not very suitable for microcomputer use due to its somewhat limited architecture. The 4004 lacked interrupt support, had only 3 level deep stack, and used complicated method of accessing the RAM. As the first microprocessor in history, the Intel 4004 is very popular with CPU collectors and non-collectors. Earlier Intel 4004 CPUs in white ceramic package are sought after by beginner and intermediate collectors, and are usually sold for hundreds of dollars.
The Intel 8008 was an early byte-oriented microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and introduced in April 1972. It was an 8-bit CPU with an external 14-bit address bus that could address 16KB of memory. Orginally known as the 1201, the chip was comissioned by computer Terminal Corporation (CTC) to implement an instruction set of their design for their Datapoint 2200 programmable terminal. One of the first teams to build a complete system around the 8008 team at California State University Sacramento. The Sac State 8008 was possibly the first true microcomputer, with a disk operating system built with IBM Basic Assembly Language in PROM all driving a color display, hard drive, keyboard, modem, audio/papertape reader and printer. The 8008 was the CPU for the very first commercial personal computers.
Furthermore, the Intel 8080 was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974. It was extended and enhanced variant of the earlier 8008 design, although without binary compatibility. The initial specified clock frequency limit was 2MHz and with common instruction having execution times of 4, 5, 7, 10, 11 cycles this meant a few hundred thousand instruction per second. The 8080 has sometimes been labelled the first truly usable microprocessor, despite the fact that earlier microprocessors were used for calculators and other applications. The Intel 8080 was successor to the 8008. It used the same basic instruction set as the 8008 and source code compatible with its predecessor.
Beside that, Intel Core is a brand name used for various mid-range to high end consumer and business microprocessors made by Intel. In general, processors sold as core are more powerful variants of the same processors marketed as entry level celeron and pentium. Similarily, identical or more capable version of core processors are also sold as Xeon processors for the server market. The current lineup of core processors includes the latest Intel Core i7, Intel Core i5, Intel Core i3. The Core i3 was intended to be the new low end of the performance processor line from Intel. The first Nehapm based Core i3 was based with an integrated GPU and two cores. The same processor is also available core i5 and pentium, with slightly different configurations. The core i3-3xxM processors are based on Arrandale, the mobile version of the Clarkdale desktop processor.
Furthermore, core i5 like core i7, is based on the Nehalem microarchitecture. The first Core i 5 was introduced on September 8, 2009 and was a mainstream variant of the earlier core i7. Intially only quad-core desktop processors based on Lynnfield were released, with dual- core mobile and desktop processors following in 2010. As of 2010, Core i7 is the high end of the Core brand, which was introduced with Bloomfield Quad-Core processor in late 2008. In 2009 new core i7 models based on the Lynnfield desktop quad-core mobile were added, and models based on the Arrandale dual-core mobile processor have been annouced. The first six-core processor in the core lineup is the Gulftown, which was launched on March 16,2010. Both the regular core i7 and the Extreme Edition are advertised as five stars in the Intel Processor Rating. In January 2011, Intel released the second generation of Core i7 processors. Both the first and second generation of Intel Core i7 processors are rated as five star in the Intel Processor Rating.
2)Computer memory is one of the technologies that are used to store information in electronic device. There are various types of memory in terms of capacity, performance, access methods, physical types and characteristic. The system unit contains two types of memory that is volatile and nonvolatile. When the computer’s power is turned off, volatile memory loses its contents. Nonvolatile memory, by contrast, does not lose its contents when power is removed from the computer. Thus, volatile memory is temporary and nonvolatile memory is permanent. RAM is the most common type of volatile memory. Examples of nonvolatile memory include ROM, flash memory, and CMOS.
User typically are referring to RAM when discussing computer memory. RAM (random access memory) also called as main memory, consists of memory chips that can be read from and written to by the processor and other devices. When you turn on power to a computer, certain operating system files load into RAM from a storage device such as a hard disk. These files remain in RAM as long as the computer has continuous power. Most RAM is volatile, which means it loses its contents when the power is removed from the computer. Saving is the process of copying data, instructions and information from RAM to a storage device such as a hard disk. The amount of RAM necessary in a computer often depends on the types of software you plan to use. A computer executes programs that are in RAM.
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Most of today’s computers improve their processing times with cache. Two types of cache are memory cache and disk cache. Memory cache helps speed the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used today have two types of memory cache. L1 cache is built directly in the processor chip. L1 cache usually has a very small capacity, ranging from 8KB to 12KB. The more common sizes for personal computers are 32KB or 64KB. L2 cache is slightly slower than L1 cache but has much longer capacity, ranging from 64KB to 16MB. When discussing cache, most users are referring to L2 cache. Current processors include Advanced Transfer Cache (ATC), a type of L2 cache built directly on the processor chip. Processors that use ATC perform at much faster rates than those do not use it. Personal computers today typically have from 512KB to 12 MB of advanced transfer cache. Servers and workstations have from12MB to 16MB of advanced transfer cache.
Otherwise, read only memory (ROM) refers to memory chips storing permanent data and instructions. The data on most ROM chips cannot be modified hence, the name read only. ROM is nonvolatile, which means its contents are not lost when power is removed from the computer. In addition, to computers many devices contain ROM chips. For examples, ROM chips in printers contain data for fonts. Manufacturers of ROM chips often record data, instructions, or information on the chips when they manufacture the chips. These ROM chips, called firmware, contain permanently written data, instructions, or information. A PROM (Programmable read only memory) chip is a blank ROM chip on which a programmer can write permanently. Programmers use microcode instructions to program a PROM chip. Once a programmer writes the microcode on the PROM chip, it functions like a regular ROM chip and cannot erased or changed. A variation of the PROM chip, called an EPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) chip, allows a programmer to erase the microcode with an electric signal.
Here I am Thanaletchemi. I would like to tell about my knowledge that i gain during i m doing my computer architecture assignment. I learn alot of thing during do my assignment. I learn how to use various type memory in a computer and also how many microprocessor have followed by generation and function towards its speed, capacity and manymore. Here i would like to thanked Mr.Alex my form lecturer teach me about computer architecture subject. Because of my lecturer i can finished my assignment on the time they given. Thank you.
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