A receptionist views the personal information and confidential healths record of his friend through the Electronic Health Record systems because he is concern on the health of his friend. Since his friend did not what to tell him about his embarrassing illness, he searches for his friend medical record which are contained within the ProprietaryMed.  In enterprise integration system perspective, the project manager responsible for EHR system did not consider the public health and safety environment. He did not configure carefully the level of access for the system and did not apply the administration privilege setting so that receptionist cannot further view the confidential information of the patient.
 Smith et. al., “Challenges for Protecting the Privacy of Health Information: Required Certification Can Leave Common Vulnerabilities Undetected”, SPIMACS ’10, October 8, 2010, Chicago, Illinois, USA. ACM 2010.
British Computer Society Code of Conduct
The scenario is an unethical scenario. The project manager should carefully create a system that regards the patient safety. Under the public interest, clause number 1:
“In your professional role you shall have regard for the public health, safety and environment.”
The Project Manager also violates the BSC Code of Conduct as the receptionist is allowed to view confidential information of his friend without the permission of the relevant authority and for personal reason. Under the duty of the relevant authority, clause number 8:
” You shall not disclose or authorize to be disclosed, or use for personal gain or to benefit a third party, confidential information except with the permission of your relevant authority, or at the direction of a court of law. “
The Project Manager also violating the public interest BCS Code of conduct, clause number 3 by not understanding the relevant legislation, regulations and standards that forbid receptionist to view confidential data of his friend:
“You shall ensure that within your professional field/s you have knowledge and understanding of relevant legislation, regulations and standards and that you comply with such requirements include the Public Interest Disclosure Act, Disability Discrimination Act, Data Protection or Privacy legislation, Computer Misuse law, legislation concerned with the export or import of technology, possibly for national security reasons, or law relating to intellectual property.”
In addition, the project manager fails to create a system that respects the client confidentiality. Under the public interest, clause 4:
“You shall conduct your professional activities without discrimination against clients. All clients have a right to be treated with dignity and respect.”
From the Islamic perspective, the receptionist is unethical because he misuse the authority given to him by viewing confidential data of patient without permission or job requirement. He has betrayed the trust that hospital has give to him.
Surah Al- Anfal verse 27: “O ye that believe! Betray not the trust of Allah not the Messenger nor misappropriate knowingly things entrusted to you.”
The project manager also fails to make a system that has different level of access according to different position which makes him not respect the trust that the hospital and patient has put on him.
(70:32) ÙˆÙŽØÙ„Ù‘ÙŽØ°ÙÙŠÙ†ÙŽ Ù‡ÙÙ…Ù’ Ù„ÙØ£ÙŽÙ…ÙŽØÙ†ÙŽØØªÙÙ‡ÙÙ…Ù’ ÙˆÙŽØ¹ÙŽÙ‡Ù’Ø¯ÙÙ‡ÙÙ…Ù’ Ø±ÙŽØØ¹ÙÙˆÙ†ÙŽ
(70:35) Ø£ÙÙˆÙ’Ù„ÙŽØ¦ÙÙƒÙŽ ÙÙÙŠ Ø¬ÙŽÙ†Ù‘ÙŽØØªÙ Ù…Ù‘ÙÙƒÙ’Ø±ÙŽÙ…ÙÙˆÙ†ÙŽ
Surah Al-Maarij verse 32: “And those who respect their trusts and promise”
Surah Al-Maarij verse 35:” Such will be the honoured ones in the Gardens (of Bliss).”
The project manager also should have knowledge and understanding of relevant regulations and follow it.
ØÙ„Ù‘ÙŽØ°ÙÙŠÙ†ÙŽ ÙŠÙŽØ³Ù’ØªÙŽÙ…ÙØ¹ÙÙˆÙ†ÙŽ ØÙ„Ù’Ù‚ÙŽÙˆÙ’Ù„ÙŽ ÙÙŽÙŠÙŽØªÙ‘ÙŽØ¨ÙØ¹ÙÙˆÙ†ÙŽ Ø£ÙŽØÙ’Ø³ÙŽÙ†ÙŽÙ‡Ù Ø£ÙÙˆÙ’Ù„ÙŽØ¦ÙÙƒÙŽ ØÙ„Ù‘ÙŽØ°ÙÙŠÙ†ÙŽ Ù‡ÙŽØ¯ÙŽØÙ‡ÙÙ…Ù ØÙ„Ù„Ù‘ÙŽÙ‡Ù ÙˆÙŽØ£ÙÙˆÙ’Ù„ÙŽØ¦ÙÙƒÙŽ Ù‡ÙÙ…Ù’ Ø£ÙÙˆÙ’Ù„ÙÙˆØ ØÙ„Ù’Ø£ÙŽÙ„Ù’Ø¨ÙŽØØ¨Ù
Surah Az-Zumur verse 18: “Those who listen to the word then follow the best of it. Such are those whom Allah has guided, and such are those who possess understanding. “
B2C E-Commerce exposes information within an enterprise to people or entities that exist outside the enterprise. It requires integration system to support web based selling and sharing information effort. Online shopping through Amazon.com is one example of B2C E-Commerce. People trust Amazon.com for online shopping and willing to use credit card in purchasing products at Amazon.com as it provide a secure transaction when their product is purchased. Amazon.com also provides integrity information about the product and vendor of the product.
 D. Gefen, “Reflections on the Dimensions of Trust and Trustworthiness among Online Consumers,” The Data Base for Advances in Information Systems, vol. 1, no. 3, 2002, pp. 38-53.
British Computer Society Code of Conduct
This scenario is example of ethical scenario where Amazon.com provides reliable shopping experiences to its online consumers. Amazon.com has the required knowledge and understands how to make the users trust them. Under the public interest, clause 3:
“You shall ensure that within your professional field/s you have knowledge and understanding of relevant legislation, regulations and standards, and that you comply with such requirements include the Public Interest Disclosure Act, Disability Discrimination Act, Data Protection or Privacy legislation, Computer Misuse law, legislation concerned with the export or import of technology, possibly for national security reasons, or law relating to intellectual property. This list is not exhaustive, and you should ensure that you are aware of any legislation relevant to your professional responsibilities.”
Amazon.com also follows the BCS Code of Conduct, under the duty to relevant authority, clause 9 as Amazon.com provides trustworthy information on the product and the product’s vendor on its website:
“You shall not misrepresent or withhold information on the performance of products, systems or services, or take advantage of the lack of relevant knowledge or inexperience of others.”
From Islamic perspective, Amazon.com is an ethical company that provide reliable and trustworthy information to its online users.
Surah Al- Anfal verse 8: “That He should establish the truth to be true and the falsehood to be false, even if the criminals might dislike it.”
Mr. B is a division manager at Company G that had been fails to gain access to the market in a large South American country. If he successful, the company can gain a high profit. Six month ago, a government official from the country contact Mr. B and assured that he could enter market access for a hefty cash payment. Company G has been granted access to the market after Mr B provides the money to the government official.  In context of enterprise integration system project, Mr. B is an employee that eager in searching for higher job title. He pays a hefty sum of money to a project team so that he becomes a project manager without doing the job.
 Karnes, A., J. Sterner, R. Welker, and F. Wu. (1989), ‘A Bicultural Study of Independent Auditors’ Perceptions of Unethical Business Practices’, The International Journal of Accounting Vol.24, pp.29-41.
British Computer Society Code of Conduct
In this scenario, Mr. B has done an unethical, immoral and illegal act. He has offer bribery and he has violated the BCS Code of Conduct under the public interest, clause 5:
“You shall reject and shall not make any offer of bribery or inducement.”
Mr. B also violates the BCS Code of Conduct under the professional competence and integrity, clause 15 and clause 17 as he did not possess the knowledge and skills that is required to become a project manager and did not responsible for the given works:
“You shall not claim any level of competence that you do not possess. You shall only offer to do work or provide a service that is within your professional competence.”
“You shall accept professional responsibility for your work and for the work of colleagues who are defined in a given context as working under your supervision.”
Bribery is a big sin action and we must avoid it whether receiving or offer bribery.
ÙˆÙŽÙ„ØÙŽ ØªÙŽØ£Ù’ÙƒÙÙ„ÙÙˆØÙ’ Ø£ÙŽÙ…Ù’ÙˆÙŽØÙ„ÙŽÙƒÙÙ… Ø¨ÙŽÙŠÙ’Ù†ÙŽÙƒÙÙ… Ø¨ÙØÙ„Ù’Ø¨ÙŽØØ·ÙÙ„Ù ÙˆÙŽØªÙØ¯Ù’Ù„ÙÙˆØÙ’ Ø¨ÙÙ‡ÙŽØ Ø¥ÙÙ„ÙŽÙ‰ ØÙ„Ù’ØÙÙƒÙ‘ÙŽØÙ…Ù Ù„ÙØªÙŽØ£Ù’ÙƒÙÙ„ÙÙˆØÙ’ ÙÙŽØ±ÙÙŠÙ‚Ù‹Ø Ù…Ù‘ÙÙ†Ù’ Ø£ÙŽÙ…Ù’ÙˆÙŽØÙ„Ù ØÙ„Ù†Ù‘ÙŽØØ³Ù Ø¨ÙØÙ„Ø¥ÙØ«Ù’Ù…Ù ÙˆÙŽØ£ÙŽÙ†ØªÙÙ…Ù’ ØªÙŽØ¹Ù’Ù„ÙŽÙ…ÙÙˆÙ†ÙŽ
Surah Al-Baqarah verse 188: “And do not devour your property among each other unjustly, and (do not) offer it (as bribery) to the rulers, that you may devour a portion of the property of the people in sin, and you know (it).”
We must also sincere s and be responsible on the job that has been given to us.
Ù‚ÙÙ„Ù’ Ø£ÙŽØªÙØÙŽØ¢Ø¬Ù‘ÙÙˆÙ†ÙŽÙ†ÙŽØ ÙÙÙŠ ØÙ„Ù„Ù‘Ù‡Ù ÙˆÙŽÙ‡ÙÙˆÙŽ Ø±ÙŽØ¨Ù‘ÙÙ†ÙŽØ ÙˆÙŽØ±ÙŽØ¨Ù‘ÙÙƒÙÙ…Ù’ ÙˆÙŽÙ„ÙŽÙ†ÙŽØ Ø£ÙŽØ¹Ù’Ù…ÙŽØÙ„ÙÙ†ÙŽØ ÙˆÙŽÙ„ÙŽÙƒÙÙ…Ù’ Ø£ÙŽØ¹Ù’Ù…ÙŽØÙ„ÙÙƒÙÙ…Ù’ ÙˆÙŽÙ†ÙŽØÙ’Ù†Ù Ù„ÙŽÙ‡Ù Ù…ÙØ®Ù’Ù„ÙØµÙÙˆÙ†ÙŽ
Surah Al- Baqarah verse 139: “Say: Will ye dispute with us about Allah, seeing that He is our Lord and your Lord; that we are responsible for our doings and ye for yours; and that We are sincere (in our faith) in Him?”
Employer use GPS with their system as a surveillance device on employees. They track their employees to ensure their employee work honestly as well as increase profit as the worker work more efficiently. The system could also track employee’s information outside the working hours. In enterprise integration project, GPS integration can bring benefits to the employer but it can invade the employee’s or client’s privacy. This also applies in RFID integration project with the data warehouse system.
 K. Michael, A. McNamee, and M. G. Michael. “The Emerging Ethics of Humancentric GPS Tracking and Monitoring” International Conference on Mobile Business. Copenhagen, Denmark: IEEE Computer Society, 2006.
British Computer Society Code of Conduct
In this scenario, there are unethical and ethical act. It is ethical for the employee to adapt new technology such as GPS to ensure that their employee to work honestly and efficiently and thus increase profit the organization. Under professional competence and integrity, clause 14:
“You shall seek to upgrade your professional knowledge and skill, and shall maintain awareness of technological developments, procedures and standards which are relevant to your field, and encourage your subordinates to do likewise.”
It is unethical for the employer to track employee’s information outside the working hours. Furthermore, employer could use GPS for unfairly discipline the drivers. The employer could be violating the BCS code of conduct under the duty to relevant authority, clause 8. It is very unethical if the employer to collects information of their employee and uses it for other purposes. For RFID, the organization can actually collect information about customer’s behavior using the RFID tags:
“You shall not disclose or authorize to be disclosed, or use for personal gain or to benefit a third party, confidential information except with the permission of your relevant authority, or at the direction of a court of law.”
It is ethical for employer to use GPS to ensure honesty and trustworthy of its employees.
Ù‚ÙŽØÙ„ÙŽØªÙ’ Ø¥ÙØÙ’Ø¯ÙŽØÙ‡ÙÙ…ÙŽØ ÙŠÙŽØ Ø£ÙŽØ¨ÙŽØªÙ ØØ³Ù’ØªÙŽØ£Ù’Ø¬ÙØ±Ù’Ù‡Ù Ø¥ÙÙ†Ù‘ÙŽ Ø®ÙŽÙŠÙ’Ø±ÙŽ Ù…ÙŽÙ†Ù ØØ³Ù’ØªÙŽØ£Ù’Ø¬ÙŽØ±Ù’ØªÙŽ ØÙ„Ù’Ù‚ÙŽÙˆÙÙŠÙ‘Ù ØÙ„Ù’Ø£ÙŽÙ…ÙÙŠÙ†Ù
One of the two women said: “O my father, hire him. Indeed, the best one you can hire is the strong, the trustworthy.”
It is unethical for employer to use GPS to gain information about the employee outside the working hours without their consent as the employee trust their employer. The employer should not betray this trust.
ÙˆÙŽÙ„ØÙŽ ØªÙØ¬ÙŽØØ¯ÙÙ„Ù’ Ø¹ÙŽÙ†Ù ØÙ„Ù‘ÙŽØ°ÙÙŠÙ†ÙŽ ÙŠÙŽØ®Ù’ØªÙŽØÙ†ÙÙˆÙ†ÙŽ Ø£ÙŽÙ†ÙÙØ³ÙŽÙ‡ÙÙ…Ù’ Ø¥ÙÙ†Ù‘ÙŽ ØÙ„Ù„Ù‘Ù‡ÙŽ Ù„ØÙŽ ÙŠÙØÙØ¨Ù‘Ù Ù…ÙŽÙ† ÙƒÙŽØÙ†ÙŽ Ø®ÙŽÙˆÙ‘ÙŽØÙ†Ù‹Ø Ø£ÙŽØ«ÙÙŠÙ…Ù‹Ø
Surah An-Nisa verse 107: “And argue not on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Indeed, Allah does not love anyone who is a betrayer of his trust, sinful.”
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