Here i introduced a Globalization and difusion of ICTs and how they reduced the importance of geography, what’s the advatage and dis-advantage of Globalization and difusion of ICTs.
globalisation is very important for cultural structure,political,social and technological structures.It contains four principal feature in origion of globalisation so i introduced in shortly as below.
the multiplication into world markets of national economies, the transition from a “High grade economy into a High value economy”.The end of bipolarity and traditional prize-fight between socialism
Privatization + Deregulation + Globalization = Turbo-capitalism = Prosperity
(Luttwak quoted by Frank 2002: 17)
The ICTs (Information and communication technology)are understood about the computers and the internet but this consideration is limited.
Information and knowledge are critical components of poverty alleviation strategies, and ICTs offer the promise of easy access to huge amounts of information useful for the poor. However, the digital divide is argued to be the result rather than the cause of poverty, and efforts to bridge it must be embedded within effective strategies that address the causes of poverty. Moreover, earlier patterns of adoption and diffusion of technology suggest that ICTs will not achieve their full potential without suitable attention being paid to the wider processes that they are intended to assist and to the context within which they are being implemented. as it excludes the more traditional and usually more common technologies of radio, television, telephones, public address systems, and even newspapers, which also carry information. In particular, the potential value of radio as a purveyor of development information should not be overlooked, especially in view of its almost ubiquitous presence in developing countries, including the rural locations in which the vast majority of the poor live.
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Many of the factors that will define how ICTs will be integrated into existing community and national development initiatives are highly contextual in nature; dependent on existing norms of institutional behaviour and on how vigorously reforms can be implemented. As a result, diffusion and replication rates will vary among communities and between nations. In some cases, we can expect slow progress towards further diffusion of ICTs for poverty alleviation.
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Advantages and disadvantges of globalisation
Increased free trade between nations .
Increased liquidity of capital allowing investors in developed nations to invest in developing nations.
Corporations have greater flexibility to operate across borders.
Global mass media ties the world together .
Increased flow of communications allows vital information to be shared between individuals and corporations around the world.
Greater ease and speed of transportation for goods and people.
Reduction of cultural barriers increases the global village effect .
Spread of democratic ideals to developed nations .
Greater interdependence of nation-states.
Reduction of likelihood of war between developed nations.
Increases in environmental protection in developed nations .
Increased flow of skilled and non-skilled jobs from developed to developing nations as corporations seek out the cheapest labor.
Increased likelihood of economic disruptions in one nation effecting all nations.
Corporate influence of nation-states far exceeds that of civil society organizations and average individuals.
Threat that control of world media by a handful of corporations will limit cultural expression.
Greater chance of reactions for globalization being violent in an attempt to preserve cultural heritage .
Greater risk of diseases being transported unintentionally between nations.
Spread of a materialistic lifestyle and attitude that sees consumption as the path to prosperity.
International bodies like the World Trade Organization infringe on national and individual sovereignty.
Increase in the chances of civil war within developing countries and open war between developing countries as they vie for resources.
Decreases in environmental integrity as polluting corporations take advantage of weak regulatory rules in developing countries.
Globalization: Advantages and Disadvantages
Instead of giving a few pointers here and a few pointers there, explanation on these concepts should do more justice to the subject. Have a look at the following
Advantages and Disadvantages of Global Marketing
There has to be operational differences between various companies in different countries. What I mean to say is, a car manufacturer of UK will manufacture a car with a different operation than a car manufacturer in Italy (for example Jaguar and Ferrari). Both are trying to take advantage of the operational difference that they have between them. And both companies are trying to sell a car in America for a greater value. So if you want your product to have an appeal on a global scale, then obviously, marketing on a global scale is required.
Advantages of Global Marketing
Lower Marketing Costs: If you are to consider lump-some cost then, yes, it is high, but the same cost even goes even higher if the company has to market a product differently in every country that it is selling.
Global Scope: Scope of this kind of marketing is so large that it becomes a unique experience.
Brand image Consistency: Global marketing allows you to have a consistent image in every region that you choose to market.
Quick and Efficient Use of Ideas: A global entity is able to use a marketing idea and mould it into a strategy to implement on a global scale.
Uniformity in Marketing Practices: A global entity can keep some degree of uniformity in marketing through out the world.
Disadvantages of Global Marketing
Inconsistency in Consumer Needs: American consumer will be different from the South African. Global marketing should be able to address that.
Consumer Response Inconsistency: Consumer in one country may react differently than a consumer in another country.
Country Specific Brand and Product: A Japanese might like a product to have a traditional touch, where as an American might like to add a retro modern look to it. In this case, a global strategy is difficult to device.
The Laws of the Land Have to be Considered: Original company policies may be according to the laws of home countries. The overseas laws may be conflicting in these policies.
Infrastructural Differences: Infrastructure may be hampering the process in one country and accelerating in another. Global strategy cannot be consistent in such a scenario.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Globalization in Developing Countries
Overall globalization has been a big boon for the developing countries, but there are a few who say that it has been a curse. Let us take a look at both these aspects of globalization.
GDP Increase: If the statistics are any indication, GDP of the developing countries have increased twice as much as before.
Percapita Income Increase: The wealth has had a trickling effect on the poor. The average income has increased to thrice as much.
Unemployment is Reduced: This fact is quite evident when you look at countries like India and China.
Education has Increased: Globalization has been a catalyst to the jobs that require higher skill set. This demand allowed people to gain higher education.
Competition on Even Platform: The companies all around the world are competing on a single global platform. This allows better options to consumers.
Uneven Distribution of Wealth: Wealth is still concentrated in the hands of a few individuals and a common man in a developing country is yet to see any major benefits of globalization.
Income Gap Between Developed and Developing Countries: Wealth of developed countries continues to grow twice as much as the developing world.
Different Wage Standards for Developing Countries: A technology worker may get more value for his work in a developed country than a worker in a developing country.
Reversal of Globalization: In future, factors such as war may demand the reversal of the globalization (as evident in inter world war years), current process of globalization may just be impossible to reverse.
Advantages and Disadvantages of ICT
ICT has made my project easier to do.
Making a catalogue is a long process, involving a lot of design and
research plans, using a computer and IT based materials has cut down
the time it would take of I had done it manually.
For example, before starting to make my catalogue I had to do some
research on the items I wanted to advertise, using the internet was a
faster more efficient way of doing this. The internet showed the
websites I needed to go on that had the right information.
If I had not used a computer I would have had to carry task out
manually, which is very time consuming, for example,
Cropping pictures down to the right size to fit the catalogue.
The computer does this accurately and more precise than a human can
Also copying and pasting, doing this on a computer, then printing
means no Pritt Stick: This can look tacky and bad quality. Using ICT
gives the best presentation possible.
Key skill 12
There is so much technical equipment in the ICT rooms, precautions
need to be taken, so that nobody gets hurt, when I was in the ICT
room, I made sure that drinks and food were not near the computers, so
that the equipment would operate in the right order.
Also I made sure that bags were not left in the walking areas, so that
others would not trip over them and hurt themselves.
To prevent fires, fore extinguishers were present in the room and the
sockets were not over loaded.
Work surfaces remained clear to avoid clutter.
Five minutes before the end of every lesson, I saved the work I had
done that day to make sure all my work is well documented and so I can
continue from where I stopped in the next lesson.
[IMAGE]I saved my work on my part of the school network, in My
Particularly working in this project I made a new folder called
Communications- the name of the project so that I can put all the work
I do in it, this saves confusion with other files.
I made a back up file of the communications folder and named it
communications just in case the first one got lost.
[IMAGE]i used floppy disks to get even more copies of my work
especially the unfinished class work so that I can complete it at
home. I used a floppy disk because the schools computers had the
facilities for floppy disk use.
It is not too heavy or too big for me to carry home and use on my own
When I found was having trouble or difficulties in my work or using
the computer I told my teacher Mrs Wenden to help me, or got sent to
the school’s computer technicians to help me, like when I could not
log in, the technicians gave me a new password for my username.
Key skill 24
There are many advantages and disadvantages of using ICT
Advantages of using ICT
* Using Microsoft word and software like Microsoft Publisher is that
you can change the text, mistakes without having to start from the
very beginning again.
* Work is easy to save and document, rather than someone keeping
them in folders were they can get misplaced.
* You can make back up files quickly.
* Can keep all files under one folder e.g. communications
* Crop pictures down accurately
* Use scanners to scan in pictures form magazine and books.
* Printer that produce high quality work
* Access to the internet
* You can email letters and document to people all over the world.
Disadvantages of using ICT
· The internet server can go down randomly, so you cannot connect to a
· Networks can get hacked into.
o Shopping online leaves shoppers prone to online credit card theft.
· Viruses can come through the internet damaging the files in your
· Some software can be difficult for some generations and people to
learn how to use
· People start to rely on computers too much and use them to do
· Repetitive strain injury, strain on tendon in the arms, back
problems and painful eyes are caused from prolonged use of computers.
· Work sometimes does not look exactly like what you want it to look
Tesco – Using ICT – Advantages and Disadvantages and the
Impact of ICT
This report is based around the information gathered on a
Business Information Day Provided by ELBP. The focus of this
case study is on Tesco Supermarket. The manager of the
Tesco.Net Business gave an interesting talk on the business
and in this case study I a going look at what they use ICT for
in their business and the disadvantage and the advantages of
ICT and the impact ICT has on the business I will draw out the
four main feature if using ICT.
The company that I am going to look at is Tesco. Tesco is a
shopping company. Tesco customers can buy online and deliver
it to your doorstep. Tesco use ICT for their company they use
it for various reasons like to get the stock and it alerts them
when there are low on stock.
The four main functions of using ICT in Tesco:
q The first main feature of using ICT is that it produces
Internet web site. They use it for Tesco customers can
buy online this is an
good advantage for
because if they live far
away and want to shop
and Tesco it will be very
difficult to get there
Tesco online shopping or
if Tesco is too crowded
online shopping will be
An Applied ICT Case Study For LEBP – Author – J.Cowell
q The second main feature of using ICT is that Tesco ICT
have created a PDA. Tesco staff
use it so if the customers can’t
find a particular item they can
type it in and then they can find
the item they want and it will tell
you the isle and this will make the company more efficient
and they will be less fuss about asking where is this
q The third main feature of using ICT is that is produced a
location label this is used to find items. It says the isle
number first then the row and then the shelf this is very
useful to Tesco customers if they can’t find what they
q The fourth main feature of using ICT is Tesco have
created a navigation system.
Truck drivers use this if they get
lost or don’t know the way to the
customer’s house or to make the
journey quicker to get very
groceries to your houses. This a
very good item of ICT and very reliable.
The advantages of using ICT in Tesco is:
q The first advantages of using ICT is that Tesco
customers can buy online so they don’t need to go to the
actual store to buy the products and you just click on the
product you want and they just deliver it to your house.
An Applied ICT Case Study For LEBP – Author – J.Cowell
q The second advantage of using ICT is that they can use
credit card to buy your items so they don’t need to bring
your money you can use your credit card.
q The third advantage of using ICT is a navigation system
this is where the driver can find the customer’s house if
they get lost or don’t know where it is.
q The fourth advantage of using ICT is location label this
is a very good advantage of using ICT because it tells you
where the products are and will be less people wondering
about the store looking for what there product they
want to buy.
The disadvantages of using ICT in Tesco is:
q The first disadvantage of using ICT is that if the
system goes wrong the company cannot run and must
close the store and they will lose a lot of money and
the customer will think the supermarket is not very
reliable so they might not come again.
q The second disadvantage of using ICT is if they don’t
have stock and the truck driver navigation system
goes down and Tesco don’t get their stock they will
lose a lot of money.
q The third disadvantage of using ICT is that if the
website crashes the people will not be able to buy
online and will have to come to the store and will be
crowded full of people and will just lose all their stock
and will have none left for the afternoon or maybe
An Applied ICT Case Study For LEBP – Author – J.Cowell
q The fourth disadvantage of using ICT is
that it is very expensive and costs a lot of
money. Tesco pay at least £3,000,000 a
The impact ICT has on Tesco
The impact ICT has on Tesco is to make them very efficient
and if they didn’t have ICT it will be very difficult to operate
as efficiently and this will waste a lot of time sorting
everything out. If the company was not as reliant on ICT they
would need to train staff on tills – whereas the current tills
require no skill level at all. Tesco ICT commitment keeps the
staff morale high lack of ICT will lose a lot of staff and will be
even more difficult to run the store and will eventually have to
close the store. Tesco do use ICT and has made their company
more efficient and more reliable to use and ICT will was save a
lot of time by saving a lot of time it will save a lot of money.
Other Major impacts include advancements in store security
due to digital video and better cameras. They
are also testing electronic shelf edge labelling
to adjust prices globally as they need to be
Many stores in the Tesco group now
incorporate self-service checkouts. Which
allow you to scan your own shopping and pay.
The increase use of ICT at Tesco have created website so
people don’t need to leave they own house to buy their
groceries and will make the company less crowded out Tesco
also have been able to widen their product range due to more
specialised websites being created and linked to the
supermarket business. ICT have also created a navigation
An Applied ICT Case Study For LEBP – Author – J.Cowell
system for truck drivers so they don’t get lost and will make
the company more faster to run and will make the company
more efficient and will be more reliable to their customers. It
is a very good impact for people who are on wheel chair and
they don’t need to leave the house, which will be very difficult
for the people who are wheel chair. It has also created PDA to
find the product people want and will be less fuss and people
wondering about to look for a particular item, which is on stock.
It will be more customers getting what their want and will be
more customer coming to the store because they can find out
want they going to get and not wasting time wondering about
Data processing in the Tesco business is 100% reliant on ICT
thus the ICT team needs to ensure the data processing and
communication system doesn’t crash and ensure regular
upgrades and system checks Having all their data processing
requirements tied up in ICT is not very efficient and safe for
Tesco because if the computer system goes down all the data
could be lost. Thus Tesco need to keep a backup system.
Robustness and security
Tesco’s systems have a good backup facility that is
very safe, as it has multi redundant back-up copies
this is very good for Tesco if the computer goes
down, Tesco has password protected servers and
terminals for all staff, even the tills have secure
password and encrypted data transfer protocols.
Tesco.net has spent a lot of money and time getting a secure
site for their customers and staff. Staff and customers are
required to have a valid username and access password to get
in the company business system or the website to buy. The
website is SSL (secure socket layer) protected this allows
them to accept credit and debit cards on their site. The
An Applied ICT Case Study For LEBP – Author – J.Cowell
specialised and enhanced robustness and security allows Tesco
to stop hackers getting into their business, which is very
efficient for Tesco.
Globalised World – What does it mean?
Does it mean the fast movement of people which results in greater interaction?
Does it mean that because of IT revolution people can be in touch with each other in any part of the world?
Does it mean trade and economy of each country is open in Non-Intrusive way so that all varieties are available to consumer of his choice?
Does it mean that mankind has achieved emancipation to a level of where we can say it means a social, economic and political globalisation?
Though the precise definition of globalisation is still unavailable a few definitions worth viewing, Stephen Gill: defines globalisation as the reduction of transaction cost of transborder movements of capital and goods thus of factors of production and goods. Guy Brainbant: says that the process of globalisation not only includes opening up of world trade, development of advanced means of communication, internationalisation of financial markets, growing importance of MNC’s, population migrations and more generally increased mobility of persons, goods, capital, data and ideas but also infections, diseases and pollution
Impact on India:
India opened up the economy in the early nineties following a major crisis that led by a foreign exchange crunch that dragged the economy close to defaulting on loans. The response was a slew of Domestic and external sector policy measures partly prompted by the immediate needs and partly by the demand of the multilateral organisations. The new policy regime radically pushed forward in favour of amore open and market oriented economy.
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Major measures initiated as a part of the liberalisation and globalisation strategy in the early nineties included scrapping of the industrial licensing regime, reduction in the number of areas reserved for the public sector, amendment of the monopolies and the restrictive trade practices act, start of the privatisation programme, reduction in tariff rates and change over to market determined exchange rates.
Over the years there has been a steady liberalisation of the current account transactions, more and more sectors opened up for foreign direct investments and portfolio investments facilitating entry of foreign investors in telecom, roads, ports, airports, insurance and other major sectors.
The Indian tariff rates reduced sharply over the decade from a weighted average of 72.5% in 1991-92 to 24.6 in 1996-97.Though tariff rates went up slowly in the late nineties it touched 35.1% in 2001-02. India is committed to reduced tariff rates. Peak tariff rates are to be reduced to be reduced to the minimum with a peak rate of 20%, in another 2 years most non-tariff barriers have been dismantled by march 2002, including almost all quantitative restrictions.
India is Global:
The liberalisation of the domestic economy and the increasing integration of India with the global economy have helped step up GDP growth rates, which picked up from 5.6% in 1990-91 to a peak level of 77.8% in 1996-97. Growth rates have slowed down since the country has still bee able to achieve 5-6% growth rate in three of the last six years. Though growth rates has slumped to the lowest level 4.3% in 2002-03 mainly because of the worst droughts in two decades the growth rates are expected to go up close to 70% in 2003-04. A Global comparison shows that India is now the fastest growing just after China.
This is major improvement given that India is growth rate in the 1970’s was very low at 3% and GDP growth in countries like Brazil, Indonesia, Korea, and Mexico was more than twice that of India. Though India’s average annual growth rate almost doubled in the eighties to 5.9% it was still lower than the growth rate in China, Korea and Indonesia. The pick up in GDP growth has helped improve India’s global position. Consequently India’s position in the global economy has improved from the 8th position in 1991 to 4th place in 2001. When GDP is calculated on a purchasing power parity basis
15.1 Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat
It will be rather simplistic to select features/developments and describe these
as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT). The reality is
too nuanced to allow such laboured descriptions. Hence, we are presenting a
pertinent rather than a cut-and-dried picture in this regard.
The localization of weaver-force; dyers; designers, card-cutters, loom
fabricators and traders- the pool of competencies and resources- is a major
strength but this is no longer handloom-dedicated and in that sense, is getting
When market conditions deteriorate, the stakeholders-particularly weaversexit;
correct the supply side and thus prevent terms of trade from worsening
below a minimum mark. The legal framework also can provide a bulwark
against the terms for weavers deteriorating below a minimum mark. At Agra,
absence of occupational alternatives and legal framework contribute to
freefall. This weakness is responsible not merely for worsening of weaver
wage levels but also for lack of initiative to shore up the competitive strength
of the sector.
There are market and product development opportunities for the cluster.
There is scope for growth in overseas market. On the other hand, there are
multiple threats- Carpet weaving becoming a completely unrewarding
On the whole, the cluster is facing an uphill task of recovering lost ground.
For understanding it better we here give the SWOT Analysis of the cluster in
â€¢ Traditional Value
â€¢ Availability of skilled weavers
â€¢ All the back word linkages are available
â€¢ Being a famous tourist place good Connectivity with major cities
â€¢ Existence of strong Traders
â€¢ Dependency on one product
â€¢ Highly unorganized cluster
â€¢ Over work force
â€¢ Products are relatively costly because of use of costly yarn
â€¢ Need of Dry Cleaning
â€¢ Inferior quality of dying
â€¢ Low credit from financial institutions
â€¢ Infrastructure is bad
â€¢ Brand Equity of product is declining
â€¢ Decline in wages of weavers
â€¢ No regular work for weavers
â€¢ Common Facility Center
â€¢ No Training institute
â€¢ 80 % import (OGL)
â€¢ Product diversification
â€¢ Exploration of new market
â€¢ Reduction in custom duties on Yarn
â€¢ Product/Design patenting
â€¢ Tax free
â€¢ Competition from other clusters
â€¢ Decline in demand of Carpet
â€¢ Increase in demand of value added products
â€¢ Increase in demand of low cost power loom products
â€¢ Diversified customer base.
â€¢ Large Domestic Market
â€¢ Strong presence in Domestic Market with diversified customer base.
â€¢ Adequate Marketing Network.
â€¢ Steady increase in market demand provided impetus to the demand.
â€¢ Diversified customer base.
15.1.2 Input Availability
â€¢ Ample availability of raw material and consumables
â€¢ Easy availability of Packaging Materials Technology
â€¢ Availability of Customised Manufacturing Facilities.
â€¢ Availability of low cost manufacturing facilities
â€¢ Demonstration effect (cluster rapidly adopt the technological changes)
â€¢ Combine conventional and automatic manufacturing method to provide a
cost effective product to the cluster.
15.1.3H R D
â€¢ Industrial harmonious relation in the entire cluster.
â€¢ Most of the jobs are learnt by workers while doing it.
â€¢ Manpower is easily available but revaises to be trained by units.
â€¢ Young and Educated next generati
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