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This research concentrates on collecting and thereby analyzing the collected data systems to re solve problems that are selected by the researcher. In a way, this research has got wider meanings. For some people reading books or surfing the internet for information is research. As a matter of fact these activities are just some part of the entire job. Basic research structures are related to the sense of collecting authentic and original data and in the same way analyzing these data thoroughly as well methodically to derive the result that lay underneath. Here, data does not necessary mean any numerical. Words too are data. (Miles & Huberman, 2004)
The function of marketing research is to connect the target consumer to the seller or the marketers. The modes of this connectivity are through information that is specifically used for the purpose of to identifying and relevantly defining the aspects of marketing. Elements of generating refined modes of marketing action; dealings with opportunities and problems, monitoring the recent and past marketing performance; and above all improving marketing as a process are integral to it. Marketing research uses the sources of information to address selective issues; like those of designs that helps in collection information and thereby implements and manages entire data collection process. It further analyses the results along with the communication for deriving the findings and their ways of implication. (Yin, 2003)
The process of study adopted by this research illustrated here. Factors like, research objective, research plan, methodology of research, compilation of data, assessment of data and quality standards are focused in the entire process. The figure under the sketch is the approach of the chapter and thereby has been depicted predominantly. (Allen, 2008)
2. Stages of Research
The four main stages followed in a research are:
Problem-it is the first stage that decides the topic. There are five steps in it. This are- Topic selection, Problem Definition, Literature Review, Hypothesis Formation and Methodology.
Data Collection-it is the second stage and decides the research methods followed by the techniques for collecting information. It has got three steps: Definition of Sample, Sampling and Data Collection.
Data Analysis- this is the third stage where the collected data are analysed, in order to find a solution to the problem. It has got two steps: Organisation of Information and Analysis of results.
Action- it is the final stage and is the stage where the derived result, information and findings are utilized. It is inclusive of Report writing, Distributing Information and accomplishing result into action.
3. Research Design
The research design adopted for this particular study has got systematic formulation. The entire process comprises of research objective, methodology of research, research plan, data compilation, data assessment and assessing quality standards.
“Research design is the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answer to research question and to control variance.” – BY KERLINGER
According to Yin (2003), research has got three distinct classes. These are –
The motive of the research is to make a selection among these three classes. The selection will be done on the basis of the element of suitability for the study.
Exploratory research is used for comprehending the determined phenomenon initiated by Wiedershim-Paul and Eriksson (2006). This type of research is appropriate for a situation where significant traits or the apt associations are hard to derive.
The researcher keeps records and collected to describe means. It is the responsibility of the researcher to keep records and maintain charts for the collected information (Wiedersheim-Paul & Eriksson, 2006). Under this process, the researcher considers descriptive research as apt for a state where problem is organized and emphasis is led over the connections among the relevant source and associations, which is comparatively low. It is here that the researcher selects levels, viewpoints, requisites, factors, basics, and above all monitors records; categorizes, organizes and infers. Researcher assesses the relevant sources and the links to keep the intake explanations. For huge concentration over the connection of some selective aspects followed by the result oriented phenomena are structured under exploratory research methodology (Wiedersheim-Paul & Eriksson, 2006).
The basic objective of the research is to comprehend consumer buying behaviour as per the new age marketing and to follow its impact over business performance.
4. Research Philosophy
According to Saunders et al (2003) Positivism, realism and interpretivism are the three specific elements that serve as the elemental courses for research methodology. For the development of knowledge, the considered research philosophy is actually the result of individual’s thought process. For Saunders et al (2003) positivistic view point is identified by the act of citing theoretical stand by the natural scientist. The output of positivistic research gets validated by means of rules and laws. It is actually an organized approach, where the researchers share their independent thoughts in terms of the theme of the research.
Activities related to realism and positivism is subject to share similar kinds of theoretical trait; especially those like the outlook of the outer objective of nature in terms of social structure. Realistic views follow the context of existence of reality and are independent of human thoughts and relevant faith. This is maintained in an attempt to gain immunity from the related social forces (Saunders et al., 2003).
Expansion of business world under the form of embedded complexities, followed by subjective comprehensions of determined patterns turn up to be imperative. This also explains the state of Interpretivism and thus is antonym to positivism. Interpretivism is very significant in terms of having generalisability added by the modes of objective reality. It is also subject to stress upon the act of comprehending intention, related characteristics and identified objectives of the selected participants.
Saunders et al. (2003) declare that positivistic approach is more effective in deductive method against Interpretivism. This particular research has considered a combination of both positivism and realism. In the process, the collected information get analysed under statistical investigation. The act of realistic approach gets identified by the participation of social forces that influence unaware characteristics of people.
5. Research Approach
Deductive and Inductive Approach
For the research approach the researcher need to make a choice between deductive or inductive methods. This selection can be done in the way to select research methodology. Decision over deductive method can be comprehended after considering the theory and the related hypothesis. As the hypothesis is constructed and later tested, the formulation is called testing theory. On the other hand, as the theory gets created as per systematic assessment over some assembled information, then the formulation is called inductive method. This is also termed as building theory (Saunders et al., 2003).
As in this research, the researcher speculates over other literatures and then decides over the theories, the formulation is identified as the inductive method of study. In the process most apt and appropriate theories are selected to meet research purposes. Research model is thereby developed from theory further gets utilized in the process of determining solutions to the research problem.
Qualitative and Quantitative Data
Qualitative research methodology or quantitative research methodology are two classified form of primary data. Data collection ion qualitative study is forwarded on the basis of interpretations that are relevantly expressed to derive inner details followed by the comprehensive analysis and outcome data, which need to get categorized into groups or classes. Quantitative research methodology speculates data from figures and statistical derivations. It leads the collected data to numerical and standardized forms. Assessments are forward on the basis of diagrams and statistical graphs (Saunders et al., 2003).
In this researcher, the researcher uses questionnaire to understand the feelings of selected section. He further examines the mathematically. Thus it is a quantitative approach. To get the dissimilarities and similarities among customers and culture groups, statistical tests and graphs are followed.
6. Data Collection
Data collection gets broadly followed under two types
Primary data is collected for a research on the basis of practical means of questionnaires, interviews and under the focus of certain group debates. The primary data is inferred through the process of statistical calculation and analysis. This is a kind of accurate methodology that gets followed to precise end-results. However this provision of data collection is very cumbersome and needs longer duration. The modes of collecting information get used even during the phase where precise research systems were not much availed, and it dates back to 19th century. (Berelson, 2002)
The process to collect secondary data is much easier than the primary data collection. It is here that the information is collected through the way of using sources that are already present. These sources are represented by various white papers, articles, internet and various kinds of print media; esp. newspaper & research editorials along with academic journals. This research methodology needs adequate amount of time for the selection of precise as well as apt and relevant data, as per the demand of the research. (Berelson, 2002)
Primary data is made applicable to carry out the considered study after the process of observing necessity of the research for the establishment of solutions to the research goals and queries. Use of selective questionnaire format is managed to amass the data. (Giles, 2004)
The research approach or the considered study with assembled information from the answers of various individuals from the questionnaire is used. The questionnaire is made up of a series of questions, added by some occasional supplementary questions or prompts. It is important to note that questionnaire is not used all the time for statistical analysis.
Against other methods of survey, advantage of questionnaire is very relevant –
It is less expensive
Against any kind of telephonic or verbal survey, questionnaire survey has got more clarity.
Assembling of data from the questionnaire is easy for collecting similar configuration.
However, there are some disadvantages of the questionnaire in a particular survey. These can be noted on the basis of the common format of collected answers which may annoy the respondents of the selected survey; which needs adequate position to read and thereby to answer questions. This act restricts the applicability of the data collected from the research questionnaire. Thus for specific faction of individuals, the process might seems to be impractical for the questionnaire survey.
7. Data Collection Method
Researcher instruments are actually the tool that the researcher uses to derive solutions for the research on oriented problems or the selective objectives. Collection of data through “Questionnaire” is the most popular mode of research investigation. The proceeding can be accomplished through a moiled set of questions that are presented to the respondents and the answers were sought. With its flexibility, this is a very usual and common instrument that is considered for the collection of primary data. The phase of pre- testing questionnaire, offers the reaction of the selected respondents and thereby the determined suggestions can be made for the change in the process of research instrument. (Bhattacharya, 2002)
In order to cover the large public, questionnaires as well as interviews are considered as common interface under the research of social science. Most of the structured questionnaires are managed by themselves for gaining control over large quantitative kind of surveys. These surveys are subject to collect factual data, like those of census, which are administered efficiently in specific groups; as for instance in terms of entire groups, classes or teams instead of individuals.
Questionnaire is a traditional and authentic way for the process of collecting data under survey method (Goode et al., 2002). Questionnaires are inclusive of two types of questions. These are open-ended and close-ended questions.
Open-ended question: These questions are clear formats to understand the exact status of the respondent’s mind. Through these questions the respondent receives complete freedom. These questions are used, in a state when the researchers do not want to have any kind of limited answers. By skillful open-ended questions with higher validity, the researcher can collect comprehensive answers among the respondents. However, by means of lower non reliable questions, the researchers can have different interviewers with different answers.
Closed-ended question: The closed-ended questions can be pre-determined for the collection of answers. This proceeding is however, considered as less valid than open-ended questions. In this process the choices can get restricted, yet are sometimes more reliable as the questions and the determined answers are all set. This makes the research more replicable.
Characteristics of Good Questionnaire are—
The way to understand structured questionnaire by means of open-ended and close-ended question design is followed by the relevant selected survey. These surveys are managed among the consumers’ buying behaviour in buying two-wheelers. Questions of the questionnaires were for understanding the decision making patterns of the consumer as per demographic and attitude in format.(Hyman, 2005)
Questionnaire was distributed personally to the selected people and detailed by the interviewers. The questionnaire was given to respondent for independent answers.
The answers of the questionnaire along with some supplementary pop ups/prompts were assembled to initiate the research. The questionnaire is however not used all the time for statistical analysis. Advantages of questionnaires are – (Saunders et al., 2003)
Against verbal/telephonic surveys, questionnaires are with fewer hassles.
Assembling of data is simple as they usually follow similar configuration.
However, the disadvantages of the questionnaires lie in survey made at common format. These usually annoy the customer involved in the survey. As they are not supposed to read the answers of other, there comes in the restriction over its applicability. To lots of people the questionnaire mode is impractical and the surveys are unauthentic.
In this research, the questionnaire is designed with 20 close-ended questions for a survey over the consumers dealing with digital marketing in the modern era. Questions were structured to comprehend consumer’s behavior patterns, and thus decision making styles, followed by demographic information and customers’ attitude for different kinds of digital marketing platforms are investigated.
Questionnaire was personally explained to the respondents for right kinds of data, by the interviewers/researcher, who also instructed the respondents with the mode of completing it. The researcher in fact waits till the respondent answers the questions independently and returns the questionnaire.
8. Research Strategy
There are various kinds of research strategies, among which some get superiority as per the existing problems. Usually in a research, the vital strategic structure and procedural choices are decided much prior to the beginning phase of real research (Denscombe, 2000). There are five typical research approaches declared by Yin. These are
archival assessment and
To follow Yin’s formulations, there can be three key options to track and these are (Yin, 2003) –
Nature of presented research question
Degree of control managed by the researcher over the real behaviour occurrences
Spotlight extension on current day events, against historical instances.
9. Sample Selection
Sample selection is the process through which the participants for the interview are sorted. In this selection process the research concentrates on the particular organization that has been selected for the research segment. For following qualitative research, the entire sampling process is inclusive of the establishment of limits for the purpose of determining factors, which are actually connected to the study (Miles and Huberman, 2004).
This research followed sample selection in New Delhi, India. For the purpose college students different institutions were selected. Since these students were very much into online activities and are aggressively getting into the mobile era, they are considered as most appropriate for this research. Moreover, these college students have free accessibility to internet and are well acquainted with net surfing activities, thus are the selected sample for this research. These students also surf net to collect data for their projects and course materials.
The sample selection made over the college students is also supported by the use of MSN and functions of Skype services by these students for interaction with their friends or any other social section of society. Accessibilities through mobile phones are much popular among these students and they are well aware of various mobile services. For mobile telecommunication sector, the category of college student is a very significant target in the market. These respondents from New Delhi are also identified for amassing data through telecommunication and internet. The sample selection was made particularly from the north campus of New Delhi to represent the entire inhabitants of New Delhi.
In the month of April, 2010; there was the concentration over organized sampling mechanism that lay focus on students at the entrance of the colleges, through dispersing four sub-categorised questionnaires about the subject of interactive digital advertising. Every particular category was connected to a sub-sort analysis over interactive digital advertising. There were four researchers for amassing data by taking in charge of different kind of advertising questionnaire. The students were requested to answer every sub-sort questionnaire. To avoid repetition of answers there was the use of preliminary vocal filtering question over the selected samples. The sub-categories for interactive digital advertising, the researcher collected 220 questionnaires and the answers were further weighted in terms of number of students per college.
10. Analysis of Data
There is the need for analysis of the collected data from the sources of sample selection. The analysis proceedings are selected by the researcher much before the assessment of data collected from the questionnaire (Yin, 2003). In this research theoretical plans are emphasized, where the amassing of information is based on the selected research questions selected from former researches. The act of data analysis follows three consecutive steps (Yin, 2003). These are –
Data reduction: This step depends of concentrating, deciding, abstracting, simplifying and converting of the collected data. This step manages data for the final conclusion.
Data display: This is the step that proceeds with the reduced information and relatively depicts the assessment in a structured/compacted manner to meet the process of concluding the results.
Conclusion drawing or verification: This is the step that makes regularities, followed by patterns, specific clarifications, most effective and feasible arrangements, to receive casual flows and apt propositions.
According to Miles & Huberman (2004) the researchers should structure their viewpoint by means of finding relationships on the basis of patterns, related explanations, propositions and regularities. This research encompasses the structure led by Miles and Huberman (2004) for analyzing collected data and to conclude as per the derived result. To receive comprehensiveness and visual compatibility, the researcher collects the data and organizes and represents it by diagrams, tables, pie-charts and graphs.
11. Tools Used
The tools used for this research are initiated by data collection and interpreted through various diagrams, tables, pie-charts and graphs. Illustrative modes of narration are used for comprehensive declarations.
12. Quality Standards
This section is about certain issues that are integral to the context of validity as well as dependability of the research. These issues need adequate elaborations and need to get addressed to meet the standards of the selected research. According to Miles and Huberman (2004), validation of an instrument is identified when its capability of measuring and declaring the measurement correctly get focused. If the results are apt then the instrument is considered as good and reliable. As declared by Yin there can be four possible tests related to the issues of validity and relevance of reliability for the quality of a report. These tests are-
Reliability or dependability
Yin (2003) makes a clear declaration that measurements are subject to development for the collecting information and these must get adjust for the selected issues for the research for the construction of the validity of the selected methods or tools. In this report, interview has been organized for collecting data. The interview proceedings are managed in such a way that the collected information get assessed by good technique.
For Yin, application of internal validity gets used in terms of explanatory as well as informal researches, to which the researcher considers the modes as unimportant. The reason behind this state is such because the relevant study was comparatively descriptive and literally formal. As per the research design, there is room only for external validity, which is related to the conclusion. Yin further adds that opponents of interview say that this approach has poor foundation for considering a generalized conclusion; otherwise common personal views can get generalized for a static conclusion.
In this research, interviews of 220 respondents were conducted, which enhanced generalization under external applicability. Here Yin declares that essence of dependability gets related to probability for other researcher to derive same results through comprehensive system. Selection of sample in this respect is vital as the view point of significant participants leads to dependability of the research.
This research follows qualitative, descriptive approach. The company and respondents were selected as per convenient non-random sample selection method. General analytical strategy for this purpose is on theoretical propositions. There were four tests of validity conducted by this research. These are construct validity, internal validity, external validity and study’s reliability, meeting quality standards of the study.
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