In an increasing networked economy, safeguarding cyberspace as well as Information and Communication Technology systems and infrastructure have taken on real urgency. It is essential to instill confidence in online trade, commerce, banking, telemedicine, e-governance and host of other applications. It is also critical for the future social and economic development of the world.
Achieving cyber-security depends upon the security practices of each and every networked country, business and citizen.
Cyber law is the connection of technology..,, and law,,… Controversy exists in that one school of thought thinks that the technology should not (or cannot) be regulated.
Cyber law encompasses a wide variety of political and legal issues related to the Internet and other communications technology, including intellectual property, privacy, freedom of expression, and jurisdiction. Cyber law has been a vibrant field in which numerous developments took place in the year 2001 on the global level. Cyber law tends to addresses a more definitive, regulated and orderly cyberspace and towards evolving the regulated code of conduct for online activities in the context of electronic mediums around it.
In order to understand the nature of Cybercrime issues we must first see how the internet or cyberspace gets developed.
For many years ago, computer networks have become a critical element of modern society. These networks not only have global reach but they also have impact on virtually every aspect of human life. Networkd sysems are playing the primary role in government, defense, business, industry. Major economic sectors, including energy, manufacturing,transportation, telecommunications, financial services, defense ,health care, and education, are depended upon a vast sysems of networks which operates on local as well as on global scales. Internet has changed the very perceptions of mankind. Internet today represents and embodies the single most important development in the history of civilization. Online culture is now the integral part of modern era.
In 1820 A.D, the first known cyber-crime has every taken place. The History of computation machines is as old as 3500 B.C.However,with the analytical engine of Chales Babage, the era of modern computers began.
Josef-Mare-Jacuard, a textile manufacturer in France, produced the loom in 1820,. That device enable the repetition of a series of steps in the weaving of special fabrics. As a result of which , a fear amongst his employees that their traditional employment and livelihood were being threatened.In order to discourage Jackuard from the further use of the new technology, they had committed sabotage. That was the first cyber-crime recorded!
DIFFERENTIATING CYBERCRIME AND CONVENTIONAL CRIME
Crimee is a sociial and economics procedure and is old as the human civilization. Crimes are a legal conceptual & has the permission in the law. Crime or an offence is “a legal wrong that can be followed by criminal measures which results into a standardized: is the act which is prohibited with penalities consequences”.
Cyber crime is a bit complicated in nature. In simple terms we can define it as a new specie of already present genus of conventional Crimes
The general sort of cybercrime difination can be “Acts where the computer and technology is used as a tool which results in unlawfulness”. Hence, in cyber-crimes computers and relating technologies are used as a means.
TYPES OF CYBERCRIME
· Financial crimes
Cheating, credit card frauds, money laundering etc.
· Cyber pornography
Porngraphic websites e.t.c
· Sale of illegal
Sale of narcotics, weapons and wildlife etc., through website
· Cyber gambling Online gambling, money laundering etc.
· Identity Theft
· Intellectual and Property crimes
Software piracy, copyright infringement, trademarks violation
computer source code etc.
· Email spoofing
Sending e-mails that come into view to originate from one source but has been sent from another source.
· Forgery Counterfeit currency notes, postage and revenue stamps, mark sheet etc.
· Cyber Defamation Publishing/distributing defamatory matter about someone.
· Cyber stalking Victimizing someone online.
· Unauthorized Access to Computers Systems Hacking, Cracking, Sniffing etc
· Theft of information contained in electronic form
· Email bombing
· Data diddling : Altering data.
· Salami attacks: Sending a large number of emails crashing email accounts or servers.
· Denial of Service attack (DoS): Flooding systems by sending excessive demands etc
· Virus / worm attacks
· Logic bombs: Triggering programs at events.
· Trojan attacks
· Internet time theft
· Web jacking
· Theft /damaging of computer system
TARGETS OF CYBERCRIME IN PAKISTAN
There are generally three kinds of targets in Pakistan
· Against Individual Property
i. Computer vandal
ii. Crimes relaing Intellectual Property iii. Un-authorized-control,,, & access,,
iv. Transmitting virus
· Kinds Of CYBER-CRIME relating Organization,,,
i. controling/accessing a computer system widout authorization
ii. Having unauthorized info:-
iii. Terrorism against the government’s organization in terms of Cyber Technology:-
iv. Distributiing software which is pirated OR etc…
· Social Cyber crimes,,:-
i. sexually explicit material
ii. Culminating new generation by immoral material.
iii. Crimes of finance
iv. propagating articles which are not legally allowed to distribute
v. betting money over net
vi. copying something illegally
Other Issues of Pakistan in the Cyber World
The Pakistan market has now grown manifolds with the largest majority of internet
users in Karachi and then Lahore and Islamabad. These three cities jointly provide
over 90% of the customer base and expansion in activity is also likely to remain primarily confined to these cities because of the concentration of economic activity in these cities. It is no surprise that Pakistan is not free from the cyber space dilemma. The availability of computers and Internet connections provides unprecedented opportunities to communicate and learn in Pakistan. However, certain individuals do exploit the power of the Internet for criminal purposes as well.
The essential pre-requisite for e-commerce growth the Electronic-Transaction-Ordinance and is termed as “a landmerk desision for the I.T development of the county”.
This Ordnance aimed to achieve:
– Great economic impact.
– Ecommerce and projecting Pakistan’s products such as taxtile, leathar goods,
sports and surgical goods items to the world.
– Increased e-transactions.
– Due to great reduction of the cost of transactions by electronic media, the major benefits for the small and medium business enterprises.
– In the process of electronic sales, Legal and safe trading to take place as the essential laws for the protectection of the interests of the sellers as well as the buyers.
purcheses and sales are protected through the dissemination of the Electronic
Transaction Ordinance 2002.
The Federal Government makes rules to carry out the Purposes of the Ordinance. The ordinance has laid down clauses for the following offenses related to electronic transactions:
â€¢ Provision of false information
â€¢ Issue of false certificate
â€¢ Damage to information system
Furthermore, the Electronic Crime Act 2004 was prepared by the Ministry of Information Technology, Pakistan with the Electronic Transaction Ordinance 2002 as the basis.
The Act addresses and lays down legislative terms for the following cyber crimes:
â€¢ Criminal access
â€¢ Criminal data access
â€¢ Data damage
â€¢ System damage
â€¢ Electronic fraud
â€¢ Electronic forgery
â€¢ Misuse of devices
â€¢ Misuse of encryption
â€¢ Malicious code
â€¢ Cyber stalking
â€¢ Unauthorized interception
â€¢ Cyber Terrorism
â€¢ Waging cyber war
â€¢ Enhanced punishment for offences involving sensitive electronic systems
â€¢ Attempt and aiding or abetting
Other initiatives taken by GoP include the formation of a National Response Center
to stop internet misuse and trace those involved in cyber crimes. The Accreditation
Council, in line with the National IT Policy and the Electronic Transactions Ordinance
2002, was also formed for Certificate Authorities by the Ministry of Information
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