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Computers are now a fact of life. Computers have created a very effective information system to help streamline the management of an organization. This makes it a much needed tool for every business, banking, government, entertainment, daily life, industry, education, and administration. It can be said of all large organizations, whether the department government or private, use a computer for a variety of their daily business and it is the fastest growing industries in the world today. Each organization usually has one or more large computer systems and a number of microcomputer. The system is a great computer for data processing tasks, while many small microcomputer to use as word processing. Computers have become part of our lives is essential. In general, the use of computers can be divided into several groups.
The first extensive data processing in order to avoid abuse of the workload while increasing the effectiveness of trade and industry. Both as a prediction for decision-makers on the planning, development, and growth based on past data. In addition, it also as a means of control and non-power electric system based on our needs, such as closing the air conditioner if the temperature is lower and save energy, connecting the parts and so on. It is also a link to link data around the world in a short time. For the fields of use mentioned above, the programs needed to be developed, tested, and implemented on a computer. The various programs should be written and linked to form a system for specific tasks. In general, the system means that the software and hardware. As the system -the system used to process the data or information, call our information systems.
ROLE OF COMPUTER IN MANY AREAS
It is known that the rapid growth of computer usage time. In all areas have been using computers to launch a business.
Role of computer in business
The use of computers among maximum practiced in the field of business. In fact, small businesses also use the computer as there are now very cheap microcomputers. Business organizations now have a number of facts and a lot of numbers to be processed. So many businesses have started using the computer, for example to calculate the salary, to identify the goods sold and are still in stock, to issue and send or receive business statements, letters, invoices and more.
The use of computers and office equipment to assist other managers, clerks, and the management of office automation mentioned. One of them is a word processing type of electronic method that enables us to produce and edit letters, reports, documents, and other than work in a few seconds to type manually. Many of the office to produce standard letters, such as payment of the balance, invitations and more. In addition, local business organizations to use computers to create, save, and send envoys to a particular place. The advantages of using computers in this area, clearly it is very important in a business organization.
Role of Computers in Banking and Financial
Processing data involving savings accounts, fixed deposits, loans, investments, profitability analysis, and so on are among the organizations operating budget. The measures used are standard and recurrent. And with that, the financial institution is the first user is aware of the importance of computers to save time. Use of financial institutions including electronic fund transfer activities for example a bank has a terminal in each branch in the country and also in supermarkets, petrol stations, schools, factories, homes, hotels, and so on.
The company will move employees’ salary into the account by entering employee identification numbers then pay the money transferred into the account supermarkets, hotels, or gas station when making a purchase. Money transfer facility is referred to the electronic transfer of money is very effective use is safe and quick method for financial transactions. With the facility, known as ETC is also individual can issue, transfer, and include cash or checks to the current balance at any time. Clearly the main purpose of the use of computers in financial institutions can assist in arranging the affairs of clients and provide services better and more efficient, reduce fraud in financial transactions also eliminate cash transactions involving the community with the goal to create a cashless society.
Role of Computers in Industrial Areas
Industry is a lot of benefit from the use of computers and the development of a human machine that ‘robot’. Industrial production, for example requires a lot of computers to process data collected from employees, customers, sales, product information, production schedules, and so on. Yes said the computer used to control the production process.
Especially the production of information processing inventory control to keep the latest information about the remaining inventory of raw materials and finished goods used to determine the value of inventory and stock status. This computer can alert the staff involved if he should order the raw materials and when to deliver the goods completed to the customer. Similarly, to store information about the structure of an item, but the material requirement planning processes also use computers to facilitate the work. Appear in the computer industry is very broad and also affect the development of industry in a country.
Role of Computers in Education
Now in this era of science and technology become more advanced, the computer may take over the role of books in the store and disseminate knowledge to the public. In other words, the computer will change the way we learn and the way we store knowledge. Hal-related matters such as student registration, class scheduling, processing of examination results, students ‘and teachers’ personal storage can be implemented by a computer with a fast and effective in helping the administration. Now exams results were processed by computer. The IPT also the duties of office automation, processing, scientific research results and also use the computer. In fact, cataloging books in libraries also apply to computer use. Last but not least is used for teaching and learning process is not only at institutions of higher learning in the schools, both for teaching and studying computer-assisted education on computer is very emphasized that in the field of education for helping in the administrative process, research is what is important is the ease and help students and teachers in the teaching and learning.
Role of Computers in the Medical
Hospitals and clinics use computers to store patient records, scheduling doctors, nurses and other personnel, inventory and purchase of medicines, medical research and medical diagnosis. Applications of computer-based equipment or use of information technology has help doctors to diagnose diseases. It is clear that the use of computers in the medical field to provide solutions to complex problems. Among the new computer technology that provides assistance to those who are disabled. Microprocessor-based voice systems assist people with disabilities speaking with a terminal that directs the computer to perform a verbal task. Similarly, the development of computers has helped the blind to see, the deaf to communicate, whether with the help of speech synthesizer or using the keyboard. This can be help them become more active and can do what they could not do before. Besides works of traditional data processing, such as issuing bills of patients, medical statistics and scheduling of staff and others have also streamlined and processed by computer.
Hospital Information System that is used can be stored in a centralized patient database. In fact, the use of information technology the computer is programmed to culture and analyze bacteria, viruses, and other infections agents to automatically detect and identify a disease thus enabling the hospitals and laboratories to begin treatment. For example, Computer Help Demography machine (Computer Aided Demography, CAT) used for the purpose. Similarly, computers are used for a patient oversee psychological variables such as blood pressure, body temperature, ECG (Electro-Cardiograph) and sounded a warning if something unusual happens. For this purpose the computer to read different variables and make comparison with standard values. If there is something extraordinary happens the computer will draw the attention of doctors and nurses to issue a warning. Clearly, it was found that the computer has a wide range of accommodation in the medical field.
Role of Computers in Legal
Computers have been used in the legislative process in recent years. The use of the most important is the preparation of documents using a word processor. The use of computer accounting legislation also includes processing to produce weekly and monthly reports, keep records of payments consulting, diary for the latest attorney information consumers about the various court procedures and also to keep records of users. As this area is very complicated, it is the need to retrieve the required information either on journal of law, an important case, scale, and statistics or important decisions for the purpose of making the decision to retain legal data bank. Thus the use of one computer will help lawyers and trainee lawyers and law students find relevant data without wasting time and get better service.
Role of Computers in Government
Government sector is one of the largest users of computer usage practices in implementing administrative matters. All the necessary data can be obtained in a short time such as information about people, services, economic planning, and land development projects and for planning and decision making. Through long-term weather forecasting computer can now be done. With tie loss of life can be because of better information and faster. “The success of Neil Am strong on July 23, 1969 landing on the moon is also made possible with the help of computers used to design spacecraft, space for clothes astronauts, and flight schedules”. This shows the very important use of computers in the field of space transportation. Service tax and income tax collection was simplified by using the computer. Keeping records of taxpayers who do it manually, and bring many problems have been addressed with the use of computer and services can make the task more efficiently and quickly.
Similarly, in the military, use of computer store inventory held until the war simulation on the screen. Computers are also used to follow the movement of the enemy in the border areas. Traffic flow can be managed effectively by detecting the direction of traffic using the many tools of detection. In this way, if there are more vehicles from one direction, the computer will let the green light goes on for a suitable period of time. “In the field of transport, Cosmos- 11 introduced by Mass by providing facilities for passengers to know the status including those booking hotel reservations, from anywhere in the world”. Similarly, business owners and vehicle registration can be performed with the use of computers. Many of the all administrative affairs are managed by using the computer. This not only saves time but can do all things more practical.
Role of Computers in entertainment
Now the computer can be programmed to play music. Places of entertainment with music controlled by computer are cheaper and can be used at any time. Computers are also used to arrange the order of dance and music. Each game requires movement. Movement can best be obtained by detailed analysis of a physical system. Computers also can be programmed to depict images of high quality. Drawing using the computer speeds up the process of creating. The work of art can be done and made a review in a short time compared with traditional Kedah. Cartoon films produced by computers have grown so widely.
Role of Computers at daily life
Microcomputer use also home to control the safety and control of air conditioning and lighting. The use of computers in the home allows housewife get the latest information about fashion and can make orders to use supermarket with and video. In addition to budget planning and inventory at home. This is all to do with a microcomputer that is connected to the national data bank. Children can use computers to learn school subjects or educational games. But it is clear that computers have become machines of information in our society.
The rapid development of science and technology has changed the pattern of life now. Everything, processing, gathering information, or any aspects of the various areas that were previously done manually, which gives a lot of risk has to be made more effective, faster, and more practical with the application or use of information technology or computer. Covering the use in various fields including business, financial institutions, industry, education, administration and other fields have the desire to realize develop each country. The fact is, computers have become the heart and backbone of society today. Whatever the field, computing has a lot of people taken over the task. It will not only help in the calculations, store information, detect a decision also to increase efficiency and productivity. But they said it is now clear that the use of computers has been widely practiced and used. In line with globalization and the borderless world, the computer is a machine in the information society is also the main artery of all machinery administration in any field.
What is networking? Describe the types of topologies that are used in networking?
Computer networks are a tool, known also as nodes, relating to media liaison. Node may consist of a computer, printer or other device to send and receive data generated by other nodes, nodes in the network. Media Liaison, also known as communication media.
On this day, there are various types of networks, including local area network (LAN) and wide area network (WAN). The largest network in the world is the Internet.
Edit Development. Network started with a small building, the connection about ten computers and a printer. The technology that exists at the time the computer is connected to limit the number and length of communications cable that can be allowed on the network. In the early nineties the communication cable can be pulled so far about 600 feet to the extension of approximately 30 computers only. This network is suitable for a small organization known as local area network (LAN). LANs typically connect devices in a building or a building. A LAN can be built only with two computers and a printer or can be extended only in one building to include audio and video software. LAN size is limited to a distance of several kilometers only. LAN with data rates from 4 Mbps to 100 Mbps. Network connections from different countries has established the development of LAN to the wide area network (WAN). WAN can be sending data, audio and video at distances up to cover a country or continent or around the world.
Network can be of any of the following three types:
Local Area Network:
Local Area Network (LAN) is a limited range of geographical barriers such as a laboratory, a school or building. In a typical LAN configuration, one of the computers used as file server file server that functions to keep all the software that controls the network. All computers are connected to the server file known as a workstation. Computer workstation comprising a desktop computer specifications less than the server and also may have software on the disk severity. Cable used to connect the LAN via network card installed on each computer.
Metropolitan Area Network:
Town Area Network (MAN) covers a wider geographical area as a region or city. Widespread area network connecting a number of Local Area Network in a place to enable sharing of information carried. Universities and government agencies Wide spread Area Network to communicate with the other communities and “private industries.”
One example is the MAN MIND Network, located in Pasco County, Florida which enables communication between the Central Pasco Media Center Main Frame using a telephone line, coaxial cable, and wireless communication providers.
Wide Area Network:
Widespread Area Network (WAN) covers a wider area as a state, nation and world. To create a WAN requires systems across the sea or the use of microwave or satellite.
Use WAN enables communication between the states can be implemented quickly.
Configuring the WAN is complex and requires a hardware multiplexing multiplexer for LAN and MAN links for access to a comprehensive communications network such as the Internet.
A computer network system using communication line that connects computers to each other. There are various methods that can be used for the communication and is known as topology. Topology can be considered as a virtual shape or structure of a network. This shape actually does not correspond to the actual physical design of the devices on the computer network. The computers on the home network can be arranged in a circle shape but it does not necessarily mean that it presents a ring topology.
There are three main types of topologies for computer networks, namely: –
Star topology is a network where all computers or other devices connected to the central distribution system, known as the Hub or Switch. Hub or Switch is responsible for managing the computer network. All messages or data that is sent to a central control hub for avoid collisions from occurring. There are two operations that used by the hub or switch that is operating broadcast and the operations of the transition switching. Distribution operations, hub or switch will make the delivery of data received from one station to all the routes connecting them. In transition operations, the hub or switch will save the data received and sends the data through a receiving station. Each node can be connected to the network and can be removed at any time without affecting the whole system of directly by. Furthermore, if one node does not work, it will not affect other computer networks. Any damage to the connection between the hub nodes will not affect the system as a whole, but if the damage occurred on the hub, the entire system will also be affected. The main weakness of this topology is that it requires a fairly high cost in view of all systems connected to it computers, scanners, printers, etc. requires its own cable.
Advantages of star topology
- the installation and connection tools
- The process of installing or removing any additional devices involved will not interfere with the network.
- Any damage to the network can be detected more easily and quickly.
Disadvantage of star topology
- Requires a cable longer than a linear bus topology.
- If the hub is damaged, all the nodes can not function in the network.
- The cost is higher than linear bus topologies (hub additional cost).
In local area networks where the ring topology is used, each computer is connected to the network in a closed loop or ring. The Messages or data to be transferred in order according to the same path in the same ring. Network technology was first used by IBM systems with Type I in the category of cable shielded Twisted Pair STP. Each data node will be checked by delivery location. If not the same node strike, it will be submitted to the next node and this will continue until the delivery address the same node strike.
As the data is transferred by the same route as the sequence of the potential for violations of data that appears to be similar to the network and can be removed at any time without affecting the whole system of directly by. However, one problem that arises is if a node fails, the entire network will probably also be affected.
Arrangement of nodes in this topology is almost the same physically as star topology; only a logical was a ring. The attachment is required in this topology is called Multi Station Access Unit (MSAU). MSAU is installed in a ring-shaped network where it is more than one unit. If only one unit only used the physical topology is similar to the star connection.
Bus topology, are also known as the Ethernet using a line length where each node in relation to him. Data will be sent by each node in the hope that it does not collide with data transmitted from other nodes. If it happens, the node will try again until successful.
Weakness of the bus topology is in terms of maintenance. It is quite difficult to maintain in view of the connection is in the form of a series. In the event of damage to any line at any node, it will cause the entire system will not work. In addition to accurately locate points or nodes those are damaged. Each node can be connected to the network and can be removed at any time without affecting the whole system directly. Furthermore, if one node does not work nor does it affect other computer networks. The other advantage is there in this topology is that it uses a single cable and requires no additional hardware to build the network. But it does not require a very high cost for maintenance purposes.
Advantages of bus topology:
- Computers or other devices to connect easily to the main cable.
- Requires a smaller quantity of cable compared to the star topology.
Disadvantage of bus topology:
- The entire network can not function if there are problems with the cable.
- Finish line or devices terminators are required in both the two cable ends of the spine.
- It is hard to detect if the entire network does not work.
Topologies are essence of computer networks design. Efficient networks can only be built based on the complete knowledge and understanding of above mentioned topologies. Knowledge of every communication device is of equal importance to help you find the best option for your network requirements. Optimum networks can be built with complete knowledge and understanding of computer network devices and how they are designed, any mistake in choosing inappropriate techniques, device etc can only be the waste of time, resources and efforts.
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