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The Africa University [a pan-African institution located in Zimbabwe] Strategic Development Plan 2001-2008, (2002) states that, ”The development and application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to African higher education is crucial and urgent if the continent is going to be able to reduce the knowledge, technological and economic gap between itself and the rest of the world” (p.4).
Explaining this threatening gap, (Naidoo and Schutte (1999) in Chitiyo & Harmon (2009) admit that there are fundamental differences in the way in which technology integration is approached and implemented between developed and developing countries. Accordingly, the main focus in developing countries is always on acquiring basic utilities such as telecommunication infrastructure, hardware, software and networks.
The concept of ICT integration is not clear among the teachers in African countries. Chitiyo (2009) in his study on how university lecturers in pre-service secondary school teacher education programs in Zimbabwe conceptualize instructional technology (IT) integration found that majority of lecturers conceptualize instructional technology (IT) and its integration as hardware in nature, with focus put on viewing technological tools as audio visual tools or aids.
Furthermore, in another study done in the same year exploring the integration of instructional technology (IT) by university lecturers in pre-service secondary school teacher education programs in Zimbabwe, Chitiyo & Harmon (2009) discovered that the issue of lecturer integration of IT in their instruction that the lecturers’ integration of IT was at the entry and adaptation stages only.
In Tanzania, the ICT initiatives started in 2002 when stakeholders’ workshop was called by ministry with support from the International Institute for Communications Development (IICD) a Dutch NGO. Eleven projects proposal were generated from that work shop, Hare (2007). Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT) has developed ICT policy for Basic Education that incorporates the integration of ICTs in pre-primary, primary, secondary, teachers’ education as well as non formal and adult education. (MoEVT, 2007). Again, MoEVT initiated a programme for introducing ICT in teachers’ training college since 2005 to improve the quality of teacher education by using ICTs both to pre-service and in-service teacher education.
In Zanzibar, the ICT integration has been emphasized in Zanzibar Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (ZSGRP), Zanzibar Education Master Plan (ZEMAP) and Zanzibar Education Development Plan (ZEDP). Among the issue planned in ZSGRP was to complete training for teachers (TC) trainers and coordinators on the use of computers, educational technology, audio visual equipments as well as laboratory management. In 2005, a baseline study was carried out to assess current state of ICT in the education sector and found that Nkrumah Teachers training had only three computers available for staff and students use. The computers were not mainly used for teaching and learning process but for basic computer applications such as word processing and spreadsheet. There was not internet access during that time.
Zanzibar Education Development Plan (ZEDP) 2008 addressed the implementation frame work for five years to build capacity to Training of Trainer (TOT) and teachers to facilitate the use of ICT in education and ICT education at every education level in Zanzibar. The expected implementers for this frame work are Ministry of Education and Vocational Training of Zanzibar, The State University of Zanzibar (SUZA), Technical colleges and TRCs. This study will be conducted in SUZA as one implementer as well as in University College of Education Zanzibar (UCEZ) to explore the present of conditions facilitate implementation of ICT integration exist or not.
Statement of the problem
It is well known fact that ICT is becoming part and parcel of human activities, as it is everywhere in education, health, economic and political endeavors. Thus, its impact to general development cannot be overemphasized, (Tinio, 2003). It is in this regards that Tanzania government has taken a giant stand to establish number of initiatives including making policy for ICT integration, introduction of different projects such as e-School, teachers education courses that will integrate ICT in Tanzania and Zanzibar in particular (Hare, 2007).
However, to date (2010) not much has been achieved in the education sector with regards to ICT integration. studies have shown that ICT integration in education sector is facing many constraints in such as policy framework and implementation, infrastructure and cost bandwidth, language of internet, electricity and tutor technicians to mention but few (Hare, 2007). In support with the above statement, the Tanzania National ICT policy 2003 reported that there is a shortage of qualified IT professionals in the country; the same problem has been reported in the recent reports and policy making such as an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy for Basic Education (July 2007) and ZEDP (2008).
The consequences of the above problems have made Universities in Zanzibar not to have adequate ICT facilities, including access to internet, lack of educational management information systems, curriculum and online content for Universities. This tends to limit integration of ICT in curriculum subjects; it has been the trend in most developing contexts.
Tedre et al (2009) stated number of problems facing ICT infrastructure such as lack of internet backbone, power-distribution network is sparse and unreliable, land line communication network is very insufficient, and mobile phone network is far from being extensive. Moreover, Kajuna (2009) carried out the study to examine implementation of technology integration in higher education, a case study of University of Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania. Accordingly, it was found that Ely’s conditions of diffusion of innovations were not effectively met and the university’s technology integration process was levelled at entry and adoption stages of ACOT’s Stages of Development. Based on this background the proposed study seeks to find out whether ICT integration process in Zanzibar has followed the conditions provided by Ely (1999). To date, there is no research done to investigate implementation of integrating ICT in education in Zanzibar. Therefore, there is a need to conduct research to explore whether conditions that facilitate implementation of ICT integration in Zanzibar Universities exist or not.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The proposed study has the following specific objectives:
To investigate status of ICT integration in Zanzibar universities.
To explore conditions facilitating ICT integration in Zanzibar universities.
To find out obstacles that faces Zanzibar Universities on ICT integration
This study will be guided by the following questions:-
What is the status of ICT integration in Zanzibar Universities?
What is the frequency of ICT integration in teaching process among universities lecturers?
What are the factors facilitating ICT integration in Zanzibar Universities?
Is there relationship between frequency of ICT integration and presence of conditions facilitating ICT integration?
What are the obstacles encountered by lecturers towards the integration of ICT tools in teaching?
Significance of the problem
This study is significant due to the following reasons:-
Firstly, it may fill knowledge gap on issues related to the integration of ICT in Zanzibar Universities.
Secondly, it may help policy maker to improve ICT policy in the context of Zanzibar universities.
Furthermore, it may help lecturers to improve ICT integration during instruction process.
Finally, it may expose stakeholders in ICT to understand its integration employ data as reference.
Limitations and Scope of the Study
The study will be conducted in Zanzibar focusing public and private universities. The selection of these universities is due to the following reasons: these universities are expected to integrate ICT through student teachers who are expected to integrate ICT after finishing studies. The second reason is concerned with time constraint to researcher. The data that will be obtained in this study may vary since it will be conducted in the two different universities one public and the other is private which differ in terms of infrastructure. Meanwhile the variation may occur comparing with other countries due to the differences in life standard and working environments.
Definitions of the terms
For the purpose of this study, the key terms are defined as follows operationally:-
Adoption: Decision to make full use of an innovation as the best course of action available ( Rogers, 2003)
Conditions: Eight conditions proposed by Ely (1978, 1990) that facilitate the implementation of educational technology in a variety of education-related contexts.
Diffusion of innovation: The process by which innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. ( Rogers, 2003)
Implementation: Process of putting into practice an idea, programme, or set of activities new to the people attempting or expected to change. ( Fullan 1982).
ICT: ICTs stand for information and communication technologies and are defined, for the purposes of this primer, as a “diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information.”4 These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony.
ICT Integration: The process of combining ICT tools in the process of teaching and learning.
Innovation: An idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit if adoption (Rogers, 2003)
Zanzibar Universities: Those universities that are in Zanzibar whether public or private.
CHAPTER II – Literature Review
The main objectives of this study are to find out factors facilitating the implementation of ICT integration in Zanzibar universities and obstacles encountered in integration process. Therefore, there are some theories, concepts as well as findings from previous research as a foundation to explore research questions. Meanwhile, this study based on combination of several models and theories of educational change so as to give broader understanding on the ICT integration. These models are applied as a guide to answer the research objectives and research questions.
LECTURERS’ FREQUENCY USE OF ICT IN THE UNIVERSITIES
2.2 ROGER’S DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION THEORY
Rogers’ model studies diffusion from a change communication framework to examine the effects of all the components involved in the communication process on the rate of adoption. Rogers (1995) identified the differences both in people and in the innovation. The model provides the guidelines for the change agents about what attributes that they can build into the innovation to facilitate its acceptance by the intended adopter. Rogers also identified the sequence of change agent roles:
To develop a need for change.
To establish an information-exchange relationship.
To diagnose problems.
To create an intent in the client to change.
To translate an intent to action.
To stabilize adoption and prevent discontinuance.
To achieve a terminal relationship
2.2.1 DIFFUSION AS DEFINED IN ROGER’S MODEL
Diffusion is a process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system.
The definition indicates that:
The adopters can be an individual, groups, or organization at different levels of social system.
The target is innovation
The process is communication
The means is communication channels
The context of innovation is a social system
It is a change over time.
ATTRIBUTES OF INNOVATION
According to Rogers (1995), there are five major factors affecting the rate of adoption:
Perceived Attributes of Innovation
An innovation is a idea, practice or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption. How the adopter perceived characteristics of the innovation has impacts on the process of adoption.
Relative advantage: the degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it supersedes. The underlying principle is that the greater the perceived relative advantage of an innovation, the more raid its rate of adoption
Compatibility: the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters
Complexity: the degree to which an innovation is perceived as difficult to understand and use
Trialability: the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis. If an innovation is trialable, it results in less uncertainty for adoption
Observability: the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others. The easier it is for individuals to see the results of an innovation, the more likely they are to adopt.
2.2.3 THE INNOVATION-DECISION PROCESS
Many studies and educational researchers have applied Roger’s Model such as Surry (2002) developed a model for instructional technology into higher education using Roger’s model as frame work. The model is known as RIPPLES which stands for (Resources, Infrastructure, People, Policies, Learning, Evaluation and Support)
ELY’S CONDITIONS OF CHANGE FRAMEWORK
Ely (1990) referred conditions of changes to the factors in the environment that affects the implementation in the change process. When the implementation plan to launch out innovation is carefully crafted to satisfy all the perceived attributes that facilitate the rate of adoption, what else can make the adoption easier or impede the adoption? This is exactly the question that Ely’s Conditions of Changes intend to answer.
Ely (1999) listed eight conditions that should exist or be created in the environment where in the innovation is implemented to facilitate its adoption:
Dissatisfaction with the status quo: the precondition for people to accept a change is that they perceive needs to change the environment. Perception of such needs usually is revealed in people’s dissatisfaction of the existing methods, products, or programs. Understanding of the cause of the dissatisfaction and identifying who has dissatisfaction can help the change agent to communicate the innovation to the adopters in a more effective way. Ellisworth (2001) said that understanding sources and the levels of dissatisfaction can help the change agent to position the innovation to be more compatible with their ‘felt needs’ (in Rogers’ term).
Sufficient knowledge and skills: In order to make the implementation succeed, “the people who will ultimately implement any innovation must possess sufficient knowledge and skills to do the job.” (Ely, 1995). It is especially evident when the innovation involves in use of a certain tool or a technique. Without enough training to use the tool or technique, the innovation will die out soon.
Availability of resources: A good recipe itself does not guarantee the tasty results of cooking. There must be right ingredients and right cooking utensils available for the cook to use. In the same logic, an innovation without resources, such as money, tools and materials, to support its implementation, will not be successful.
Availability of time: The adoption of the innovation takes time. As it is put by Ely, “the implementers must have time to learn, adapt, integrate, and reflect on what they are doing.” Their ‘confirmation’ of the acceptance of the innovation does not necessarily bring forth the change. It needs time for the people to understand the innovation and develop the abilities to adapt the innovation.
Reward or incentives: People need to be encouraged in their performance of innovation or use of the innovation. Extrinsic or intrinsic rewards can add some value of the innovation, and thus, promote its implementation.
Participation: Participants in the implementation should be encouraged to involve in decision-making. With the opportunities to communicate their ideas and opinions, the participants can have sense of the ownership of the innovation. Moreover, the communication among all parties can help monitor the progress of the innovation.
Commitment: Since the implementation take a great deal of endeavors and time, the people who are involved in the implementation need to make commitment to their efforts and time. There must be “firm and visible evidence that there is endorsement and continuing support for implementation” (Ely, 1995)
Leadership: Unless to say, the leaders’ expectations and commitment have a great impact on the process of implementation. Leadership also include the availability of affective support thorough the process.
2.3.1 STUDIES ON THE CONDITIONS FACILITATING IMPLEMENTATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS
A number of studies have been conducted and the results seem to be consistent with Ely’s framework such as Surry & Ensminger (2002) conducted a study to determine with the eight conditions were perceived to be most influential in facilitating implementation by those working in business and in education. The results show that the conditions do facilitate implementation for both education and business group.
FULLAN’S EDUCATIONAL CHANGE
Michael Fullan has focused his work on educational change. His model focused on “the human participants taking part in the change process” (Ellsworth, 2001). Ellsworth (2001) commented that Fullan and Stiegelbauer’s (1991) The New Meaning of Educational Change presents guidelines for resisting, coping, or leading change efforts from perspective ranging from the student to the national government. Different from Rogers, whose work focused more on the characteristics of the innovation and the adopters; Fullan (1982, 1991) focuses on the roles and strategies of various types of change agents.
Ellsworth (2001) pointed out that the issues that Fullan’s model helps the change agent to deal with include:
What are the implications of change for people or organizations promoting or opposing it at particular levels?
What can different stakeholders to do promote change that addresses their needs and priorities?
According to Rogers (1996), a change agent is an individual who influences clients’ innovation-decisions in a direction desirable by a change agency. Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation seems to have a clear cut between the change agent and its client system. On the contrary, Fullan views every stakeholder in the educational change as a change agent. Fullan and Stiegerlbauer (1991) have given a promise for the change agent that “there is enormous potential for true, meaningful change simply in building coalition with other change agents, both within one’s own group and across all group.” (Ellsworth, 2000)
Fullan (1982, 1991) proposed that there are four broad phases in the change process: initiation, implementation, continuation, and outcome.
The model discussed above gives better understanding of implementation of ICT integration that experienced by the lecturer.
In this study the actors are lecturers in private college. These models describe the conditions that facilitate the integration of technology a lecturer can adopt to encourage technology integration. 2.5 OBSTACLES TO ICT INTEGRATION IN UNIVERSITIES
2.6 ICT INTEGRATION IN EDUCATION
In order to establish a common understanding of the main focus of this study, it is important to look at what is technology integration. According to the Panel on Educational Technology (1997), “The greatest promise of educational technology lies in the possibility of utilizing computers and networks as an integral part of virtually all aspects of the curriculum” (p. 116). Swan et al. (2002) note that national standards for educational technology (International Society for Technology in Education, 1998) information literacy (American Association of School Librarians, 1998) and electronic literacy (Swan, 2000) agree on the need to integrate technology into the school curriculum. Arguably, technology integration has moved from being equated with merely placing computing equipment in schools, to being able to use an array of techniques to gather information and communicate with others, and to being integrated across the curriculum. Grabe and Grabe (2004) define technology integration as the use of technology as a powerful tool in helping students acquire the knowledge and skills of the content area or areas they are learning. They emphasize what they refer to as meaningful student learning in which technology-facilitated classroom activities are in an active learning environment that engages the thinking, decision-making, problem-solving, and reasoning behaviors of students. They say technology should be used to explore course content and whatever the students learn about how to operate the technology is secondary to that main focus. Furthermore, Grabe and Grabe point out, many of the skills associated with the manipulation of hardware and software could be easily applied or transferred to new content areas. Supporting this definition Harris (2005), agrees that meaningful integration of technology is attained when learners are able to select tools to help them access information in a timely manner, analyze and synthesize the information, as well as present it professionally.
Morrison and Lowther (2002) say technology integration involves having students use the computer as a tool rather than a delivery system for drill-and practice of basic skills. They point out that when the computer is integrated as a tool, students apply the same skills used to analyze and manipulate information in the workplace. The argument is that by using the computers in this manner, students learn lesson objectives as well as develop real-life knowledge and skills. Morrison and Lowther (2002) maintain that this type of integration supports teaching practices that emphasize a student-centered, open-ended learning environment in which realistic contexts for learning are used. Earle (2002) agrees that integration is defined not by the amount or type of technology used, but by how and why it is used. Viewing technology integration as a process of recreating and reorganizing the learning environment, Mills and Tincher (2003), argue that computers and technology must be viewed in terms of function rather than application, process rather than approach. They view technology integration in the classroom as being more about teaching and learning than it is about technology. Put in other words, integrating technology is not so much about helping students to operate computers as it is about helping students learn more effectively through the use of technology. Highlighting the link between learning theories and technology use, Roblyer and Edwards (2000) emphasize the need to go beyond the “nuts” and “bolts” of how technology resources work. They argue that technology integration requires a connection between how people learn and how teachers employ technology to facilitate and enhance learning. Assuming a vision of technology integration that she calls both curriculum-based and future-oriented (one that emphasizes preparation of students for the future), Ertmer (1999) says technology adds value to the curriculum not by effecting quantitative changes (doing more of the same in less time), but by facilitating qualitative ones (accomplishing more authentic and complex goals).
In a publication preceding the definitions above, Means and Olson (1997) describe some authentic and complex instructional goals as “promoting student learning through collaborative involvement in authentic, challenging, multidisciplinary tasks by providing realistic complex environments for student inquiry, furnishing information and tools to support investigation (collecting, analyzing, displaying, and communicating information), and linking classrooms for joint investigations” (p. 9).
As Ertmer (1999) confirms, educators” definitions of technology integration have evolved over the past 30 years in the US, from teaching programming, to using drill and- practice applications, to developing computer literacy and taking part in electronic learning communities. As can be seen, these definitions, as is the case in the conceptualizations of technology itself, are influenced by the technology of the day. Thus, the conceptualization of instructional technology integration is influenced by the definitions of instructional technology and is bound to differ in different times and contexts. Hew and Brush (2007) point out, “Despite the lack of a clear standard definition, certain prevailing elements appear to cut across the many different current discussions about technology integration.
Exploring a systems-based approach to technology integration, Kopcha (2008) suggests a number of strategies, such as establishing a culture of technology integration, modeling technology use, and creating teacher-led communities of practice that use resources currently available at a school. Plomp and Voogt, (2009), found out that students involved in the use of technology in “innovative pedagogical practices often were engaged in constructing knowledge products, including tasks of searching, organizing and evaluating knowledge”, (p.3) processes which they said refer to what have been presented as “lifelong learning skills” or ’21st century skills’.
Looking into the future, and explaining some emerging technologies for learning, (Siemen and Titterberger 2009) suggest that successfully teaching with emerging technologies requires a spirit of experimentation, willingness to involve learners in the creation of learning content, willingness to “let-go” of control of content presentation, and tolerance of failure. That need for a spirit of experimentation and willingness to involve learners in the creation and presentation of content is necessitated by the effect of continuous innovations in technology, and the resulting impact on technology integration, and is illustrated by Garrison and Akyol (2009) when they explain: Today a new group of emerging communication technologies (namely Web 2.0) is beginning to attract the attention of both practitioners and researchers because of their unique capabilities. Examples of these technologies are wikis, blogs, instant messaging, mashups, internet telephony, social bookmarking, social media sharing and social networking sites. Web 2.0 brings the opportunity to increase interactivity and participation by enabling collaborative communication, creation and content sharing such as Wikipedia.
2.7 Conceptual framework
The conceptual framework of this study is presented in chart 2 below. The researcher will start looking in the theories and models in Technology Integration and how these theories and models are applied in Zanzibar Universities.
Chapter III – Methodology
This chapter presents the research methods that will be used in conducting the study, area of study, population employed for data collection, sampling that will used, data gathering techniques and instruments and data analysis plan that will be applied in the study.
3.1 Research design
This study aims to discover conditions facilitating implementation of ICT integration in Zanzibar universities. The survey method will be used to investigate this study. According to Ary et al (2010) in survey, the researcher asks questions about peoples’ beliefs, opinions, characteristics, and behavior. Also, survey allows the researcher to gather information from a large sample of people relatively fast and economically, Ary et al (2010). This study will use survey method so as to seek for the conditions facilitating integration of ICT in Zanzibar Universities. The research will use mailed questionnaires for lecturers in order to get more information from them.
Location of the study
The location of the study will be in Zanzibar. Zanzibar consists of two main islands, Unguja and Pemba and several other smaller islands some of which are uninhabited. Zanzibar forms part of the United Republic of Tanzania. The Union Government is responsible for defense, external affairs, financial policy and higher education, while the Zanzibar Government has autonomy over Zanzibar’s development policy, recurrent and capital activities and non higher education (see appendix 1 for the maps of Tanzania and Zanzibar). The reason for selecting this area is Zanzibar is among the developing countries that has taken initiatives on the implementation of Instructional Technology integration. Two Universities will participate in this one as Public University and another is Private University.
Population and Sampling
The population of this study is all lectures of universities in Zanzibar. (115) lecturers from two universities will be included in this study. The study will use random sampling on selecting its respondents. The Krejic and Morgan table was used to determine the needed size of the sample. See table (1).
Number of Lecturers
Number of Sample
Measurement and Instruments
This study will use one major instrument which is questionnaire. In the part of the questionnaire items will be coded as well the likert scale will be used to measure attitude. The survey will use a mailed questionnaire for lecturers. The advantage of using this type of questionnaire is to give guarantee for confidentiality; it can elicit more open responses than would obtain from a personal interview. Also, the mailed questionnaire reduces the problem of interviewer bias, Ary et al (2010).
The questionnaire that will be used for this survey is adapted from the instrument developed from other studies on conditions facilitating ICT integration in Higher education such as Nawawi (2005), Mohd (2005) Khalid (2007) and Kajuna (2009). Permission will be sought from the owner of the instruments. The questionnaire for lecturers will focus on four (4) parts which also serve as the variables of the study, these parts are as follow:
1) Demography; which consists of 6 items.
2) Frequency on ICT use; which consists of 13 items.
3) Conditions facilitating ICT integration; which consists of 40 items.
4). Obstacles encountered by lecturers towards ICT integration; which consists of 24 items.
3.4.1 Validity of the Instrument
The instruments will be undergone the validity in the aspect of content of the instrument. The instruments will be sent to the team of three ICT experts in the field of educational technology to check for its content validity. The list of panel of experts is appended in this paper. Based on the feedback from the expert panel, the researcher will update the survey instrument and make the necessary corrections. The corrections will be associated with langua
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