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History And Evolution Of RFID Technology Information Technology Essay

4589 words (18 pages) Essay in Information Technology

5/12/16 Information Technology Reference this

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Chapter 1

Radio Frequency Identification or RFID is the fastest growing technology in the world today. RFID is an automatic identification method that can remotely retrieve data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. RFID in wireless communication has evolved to the great advancement of wireless technology. This introduction of RFID into the mobile communication field has made the world a smaller place to live in.

The technology which enables the electronic labeling and wireless identification of objects using radio frequency communications is RFID. RFID is also a subset of the broader area of automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) technologies. The advancement in different applications of RFID are emerging from current research ideas to concrete systems.

RFID and mobile telecommunications are the services that provide information on objects equipped with an RFID tag over a telecommunication network.

Tags are stationary and Readers are in mobile phone (mobile).

RFID readers can simultaneously scan and also identify hundreds of tagged items.

Diffusion of radio frequency identification (RFID) promises to enhance the added value of assistive technologies of mobile users. Visually impaired people may benefit from RFID- based applications that support users in maintaining “spatial orientation” through provision of information on where they are, and description of what lies in their surroundings. To investigate this issue, we have integrated our development for mobile device. With a complete support of RFID tag detection, and implemented an RFID enabled location-guide. The guide is an ecological guidance in mobile technology. This introduction of RFID into the mobile communication field has made the world a smaller place to live in.

RFID is the base technology for ubiquitous network or computing and to be associated with other technologies such as telemetric, and sensors.

The term RFID is used to describe various technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. RFID technology is similar to the bar code identification systems we see in retail stores every day. However one big difference between RFID and bar code technology is that RFID does not rely on the line-of-sight reading that bar code scanning requires to work.

2.0 PROJECT OVERVIEW:

The study of this project describes about the application of RFID in cinemas. The main study of the project is to check the authorized member or not enter the cinema using RFID application. We must check whether the person is authorized or not through RFID technology .In this project each person have one RFID card with the ticket when the person purchases the ticket so that person has right to enter the cinema .After entering the cinema the person can check the status whether it is screen1 or screen2 through RFID. Here RFID will read the data from card and compare data base and display the data. If the person is authorized means cinema(screen1 or 2) will open through door shepherd(stepper motor).Otherwise it will give message as this is not appropriate screen please check the other screen and it give a buzzer.

Aims and Objectives:

The main aim of the project is to explore the application of RFID in wireless communications.

The main objectives are to develop a new application using the existing applications of RFID.

DELIVERABLES:

CHAPTER 2

Definition:

The technology which enables the electronic labeling and wireless identification of objects using radio frequency communications is RFID. RFID is also a subset of the broader area of automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) technologies.

RFID is an application of object connected data carrier technology with attributes that are complementary to other machine-readable data carrier technologies.

RFID technologies provide strong potential for improving efficiency, productivity and/or competitiveness.

RFID market increasing significantly, yielding lower costs and higher performance.

RFID is about identifying and handling items

Physical Materials

Components and sub-assemblies

Products

Containers

Physical carriers

People

Locations

HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF RFID TECHNOLOGY:

Radio Frequency Identification or RFID is a technology that has existed for decades. At a simple level, it is a technology that involves tags that emit radio signals and devices called readers that pick up the signal. It was not until the 1980’s that RFID applications began to appear in commercial applications, such as railroad freight car tagging, the tagging of cattle and rare dog breeds, key less entry systems and automatic highway toll collection. As there is improvement in the technology there has been reduction in the cost and size, and it has gained wide acceptance in warehouse management and manufacturing.

First application to identify planes in world II using radar.

60’s -Electronic article surveillance (EAS) used to identify whether an item has been paid or not using a 1 bit tag.

80’s first automated toll payment systems.

RFID has been used in mobile technology through which there had been a great advancement in this field.

Korea is widely known that it has established one of the most robust mobile telecommunication networks.

Korea has recognized the potential of RFID technology and has tried to converge with mobile phone.

Convergence of three technologies:

Radio frequency electronics: The research in the field of radio frequency electronics as applied to RFID was begun during World War 2 and continued through the 1970’s. The RF electronics and antenna systems employed by RFID interrogators and tags have been made possible because of radio frequency electronic research and development.

Information technology: The research in the field of information technology started in the mid 1970’s and roughly continued through 1990’s. interrogator and the host computer employ this technology. Networking of RFID systems and RFID interrogators has been made possible by research in this field.

Material science: some of the breakthroughs in material science technology made the RFID tags cheaper to manufacture. By overcoming this cost barrier goes a long wayin making RFID technology commercially viable.

Mile stones in RFID and speed of adoption:

The development of RFID technology can be defined by the following time based summaries shown below:

Pre- 1940s:

Different scientists like faraday, Maxwell, hertz had yielded a complete set of laws of electromagnetic energy describing its nature. In the beginning of 1896 Watson, Baird and many others sought to apply these laws in radio communications and radars. So including RFID work done in this era form the building blocks upon which many technologies have been built.

1940s – World war 2:

Many advancements and improvements have been taken place during World War 2. Scientists and engineers continued their research increasingly in these areas. In 1948 Harry stockman published a paper on reflected power which is the closest thing to the birth of RFID technology.

1950s- Early exploration of RFID technology:

Different technologies related to RFID were explored by researchers during 1950s. The US military began to implement early form of aircraft RFID technology called identification, Friend of Foe, or IFF.

1960s- Development of RFID theory and early field trials:

RF Harrington did a lot of research in the field of electromagnetic theory and it is applied to the RFID. Passive data transmission techniques utilizing radar beams and interrogator- responder identification system introduced by Vogel man and J.P vinding’s. In the late 1960s sensormatic and checkpoints were founded to develop electronic article surveillance (EAS) equipment for anti-theft and security applications. These are 1-bit systems that mean these only detect in the presence of RFID tags rather than identifying them. Later EAS is the first widespread use of RFID.

1970s: Early adopter applications and an RFID explosion:

There is a great deal of growth in RFID technology in 1970s based on the witnesses. All the academic institutions, companies and government laboratories are involved in RFID. In 1975 short range radio- telemetry for electronic identification using modulated backscatter was released. Big companies such as Raytheon, RCA started to develop electronic identification technology and by 1978 a passive microwave transponder is accomplished. Later the US federal administration convened a conference to explore the use of electronic identification technology in vehicles and transportation application too. By the end of the decade research in computers and information technology which is crucial to the development of RFID hosts, interrogators and networks has started as evidenced by the birth of PC and the ARPANET.

1980’s- commercialization:

This year brought about the first widespread commercial RFID systems. Personnel access systems, key less entry are some of the examples. In Norway the world’s first toll application was implemented and later in Dallas. In 1980s the implemented RFID systems were proprietary systems. So there is little competition in the RFID industry and that results in high cost and impeded industry growth.

1990s- RFID enters the main stream:

In 1990 RFID finally started to enter the main stream of business and technology. In the middle of the year RFID toll systems operate at highway speeds. This means the drivers could pass through toll points un impeded by plazas or barriers. This results in the deployment of RFID toll systems in United States. TIRIS system was started by the Texas instruments which developed new RFID applications for dispensing fuel such as ski pass system and vehicle access systems. In the early 1990s the research in the information was well developed and evidenced by proliferation of PC’s and internet. The materials technology advances and many of them related to semiconductor chip makers such as IBM, INTEL, MOTOROLA and AMD put cost effective tags on the horizon. At the end of the year large scale smart label tests had started.

2007 and Beyond:

Item level tagging is implemented when there are no checkout scenario at large super markets. High value and high risk goods are the first to benefit from item level tagging. For example goods like pharmaceuticals and firearms. Smart shelves for select categories started to appear and smart appliances with embedded RFID technology come into the market place.

OVERVIEW OF RFID TECHNOLOGY:

Wireless radio communication technology is used by the RFID system to uniquely identify the people or tagged objects.

RFID system consists of three basic core components

RFID tag

RFID Reader

Controller

TAG: Tag can also be called as transponder which consists of a semi conductor chip and sometimes a battery. The life time of a battery in a active tag is limited by the number of read operations and the amount of energy stored.

http://www.tutorialsweb.com/rfid/rfid-1.gif

READER: Reader can also be called as interrogator or a read/write device, which consists of antenna, an RF electronics module and a control electronics module. http://hackedgadgets.com/wp-content/RFID_Reader_preliminaryCons.jpg

CONTROLLER: Controller can also be called as host which acts as a work station running data base and control which is often called as middle ware software.

FUNCTION OF RFID TAG: Tag stores the data and transmits data to the interrogator. The electronic chip and antenna present in tag are combined in a package to form a usable tag as a packaging label fixed to a box. The chip contains memory where the data stored is read or written too in addition to other important circuitry.

Tags are of two types

Active tags

Passive tags

[RFID-tags.bmp]

Active tags:

Tags are said to be Active if they are having an on-board power source called battery. When the tag requires transmitting the data to the interrogator, tag uses the source to derive the power for the transmission. This is same as the mobile phone which uses a battery so that the information is transmitted over longer ranges and communicates with less powerful interrogators. These tags have large memories up to 128 Kbytes. The life time of battery in the active tag can last from two to seven years.

Passive tags:

Tags which contain no on-board power source are called passive tags. To transmit the data they will get the power from the signal sent by the interrogator. Passive tags are of low cost and typically smaller to produce than active tags.

Differences between Active tags and Passive tags:

Active tags are self powered where as Passive tags is not having their own power source.

The maximum distance that the Passive tags generally operate is 3 meters or less where as Active tags can communicate with 100 meters are more away.

Passive tags require more signal from the reader than the Active tag.

Active tags are better suited than passive tags when the collection of tags needs to be simultaneously read.

The reader talks first in the passive tag, the RFID tag is a server where as in the case of Active tags communications can be initiated by either the tag or the reader.

FUNCTION OF RFID READER:

RFID readers convert the returned radio waves from the RFID tag into a form that can be passed on to controllers, which can make use of it. The RFID tags and readers should be tuned to the same frequency in order to communicate. 125KHZ frequency is most commonly used or supported by Reader.

FUNCTION OF A CONTROLLER:

The brains of any RFID system are RFID controllers. Controllers are used to network multiple RFID interrogators combined and to process the information centrally. In any network the controller should be a application software or workstation running data base. Controller uses the information gathered by the interrogators when new inventory is needed in retail application and alert the suppliers.

FREQUENCY:

Frequency of operation is the key consideration as the television broadcast in a VHF or a UHF band. RFID Frequency Table

In RFID there are two types of bands low frequency and high radio frequency bands in use

Low frequency RFID bands:

Low frequency (LF): 125-134 kHz

High frequency (HF): 13.56 MHz

High frequency RFID bands:

Ultra- high frequency (UHF): 860-960 MHz

Microwave: 2.5GHz and above

Frequency plays a prominent role because several characteristics of an RFID system are affected by the choice of frequency.

CHARACTERISTICS OF AN RFID SYSTEM:

The following are the characteristics of an RFID system:

Read range

Interference from other radio systems

Data rate

Antenna size and type

Read range: For the lower frequency bands the read ranges of passive tags are not more than couple feet because of poor antenna gain. The electromagnetic wavelength is very high at lower frequencies. At high frequency there is increase in the read range especially where active tags are used. Here because of high frequency bands that leads to health concerns in human, most regulating bodies. So the range of these high frequency systems reduced from 10 to 30 feet on average in the case of passive tags.

Interference from other radio systems: The fact is that LF frequencies do not experience path loss and the operating systems in the LF band are particularly vulnerable. The radio signals operating at same LF frequency will have high strength at the antenna of a RFID interrogator, which can translate into interference.

Data rate: RFID systems have low data rate operating in the LF band. With frequency of operation there is increase in the data rate reaching the Mbit/s range at microwave frequencies.

Antenna size and type: The size has to be made larger than UHF for the antennas of LF and HF systems to achieve comparable signal gain. Te type of antenna is decided by the frequency of operation. Loop type antennas are used at LF and HF and they are also called as inductive coupling and inductive antennas. Capacitive coupling is used at UHF and microwave frequencies and dipole type antennas are used.

RFID SMART LABELS:

The next generation of bar code is the RFID smart labels. Smart label is nothing but a RW transponder that has been incorporated in a printing packaging label. These smart labels are quick to read, easily applied, unconstructive, disposable and cheap. There are some measures by which RFID smart labels not stack up to bar codes such as technological maturity, price and ease of implementation. The benefits of smart labels over bar code systems started to outweigh the short comings and the cost of implementing smart label solutions a cost effective technology.

SMART LABELS vs. BAR CODES:

Bar coding system uses laser light as a data carrier where as RFID and smart labels uses radio waves to carry information. Bar code is referred as optimal technology and RFID is called radio frequency or RF technology.

COMPARISION OF RFID TO BARCODES:

Memory size/ Data storage: Bar codes hold only limited amount of data. It holds just a few bytes as data storage that is only 8 numerical characters. They are UPCE symbols. The data matrix of the bar code system permits the storage of 2000 ASCII characters on a two dimensional tag and these are these are used rarely.

RFID tags can hold far more information. Here RFID tags made with smaller memories to hold a few bytes but the present technology puts the upper limit at 128K bytes.

Read/write: once they are printed barcodes cannot be modified again therefore bar coding is called RO technology. RFID tags such as smart tags have a specified addressable, writable memory which can be modified thousand times over the life of the tag and this is why RFID technology is more powerful.

CHAPTER 3

LITERATURE REVIEW

1. INTRODUCTION:-

Radio Frequency Identification or RFID is the fastest growing technology in the world today. RFID is an automatic identification method that can remotely retrieve data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. This introduction of RFID into the mobile communication field has made the world a smaller place to live in. RFID readers can simultaneously scan and also identify hundreds of tagged items.

Diffusion of radio frequency identification (RFID) promises to enhance the added value of assistive technologies of mobile users. Visually impaired people may benefit from RFID- based applications that support users in maintaining “spatial orientation” through provision of information on where they are, and description of what lies in their surroundings. To investigate this issue, we have integrated our development for mobile device. With a complete support of RFID tag detection, and implemented an RFID enabled location-guide. The guide is an ecological guidance in mobile technology. RFID is the base technology for ubiquitous network or computing and to be associated with other technologies such as telemetric, and sensors.

The term RFID is used to describe various technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. RFID technology is similar to the bar code identification systems we see in retail stores every day. However one big difference between RFID and bar code technology is that RFID does not rely on the line-of-sight reading that bar code scanning requires to work.

2. BACKGROUND OF PROJECT:

Radio Frequency Identification or RFID is a technology that has existed for decades. At a simple level, it is a technology that involves tags that emit radio signals and devices called readers that pick up the signal.

80’s first automated toll payment systems.

RFID has been used in mobile technology through which there had been a great advancement in this field.

Korea is widely known that it has established one of the most robust mobile telecommunication networks.

Korea has recognized the potential of RFID technology and has tried to converge with mobile phone.

3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

The main aim of this project is to explore the application of RFID in wireless communications using RFID tags, readers , the computer and the internet. The specific objectives include;

Study of existing applications of RFID.

Expanding the application of RFID in wireless communications.

Using the internet to further enhance the employee management system.

4. RFID APPLICATION FIELDS:

Transportation, materials management, and security and access control. Currently, there are a variety of other applications for RFID in agriculture, construction, and athletics.

Major RFID application domains include monitoring physical parameter, such as temperature or acceleration during fragile or sensitive products delivery, monitoring product integrity from factory to retail locations, utilizes for home and office automation. Now a day we have passive or active inexpensive RFID that makes these kind of sensors practical for tourist applications. For example, a museum explosion can place tags attached to each point of interest so that tourists can receive information about explosion in the right moment at right place.

5. FUTURE OF RFID TECHNOLOGY:

RFID is said by many in the industry to be the frontrunner technology for automatic identification and data collection. The biggest, as of yet unproven, benefit would ultimately be in the consumer goods supply chain where an RFID tag attached to a consumer product could be tracked from manufacturing to the retail store right to the consumer’s home. 

Many see RFID as a technology in its infancy with an untapped potential. While we may talk of its existence and the amazing ways in which this technology can be put to use, until there are more standards set within the industry and the cost of RFID technology comes down we won’t see RFID systems reaching near their full potential anytime soon and RFID is expected to be the base technology for ubiquitous network or computing and to be associated with other technology such as telemetric, and sensors.

6. CHALLENGES OF MY RESEARCH:

To develop an application of RFID where there is less human attention and to prevent more fraud.

Developing an RFID solution that can interoperate with emerging standards for communication protocols, hardware platforms, and software interfaces.

Implementing an RFID solution that is cost effective, leverages their existing supply chain investments, and gives them clear a return on investment (ROI).

Preparing for the vast amounts of data generated by RFID.

7. PROBLEMS WITH RFID:

Problems are divided into two parts

1. Technical problems

2. Privacy and ethics problems

7.1 Technical problems:

Problems with RFID Standards

RFID systems can be easily disrupted

RFID Reader Collision

RFID Tag Collision

7.2 Security, privacy ethics problems:

RFID tags are difficult to remove

8. RESEARCH METHODS

Conducting of a detailed survey of the various existing applications of RFID and monitoring systems used in the locality:

At this stage the study of applications of RFID is to develop a real time application. The study about this will also determine the workers and employer attitude towards the monitoring system being used. To conduct this research a questionnaire will be formulated and distributed to various organizations in the locality.

9. RFID READER AND TAG COMMUNICATION FLOW DIAGRAM:

10. DESIGN OF RFID MONITORING SYSTEM:

The design solution for the employee monitoring system based on a selected land size of 500 meters by 500 meters with ten buildings, 3 of which are administrative, 3 are production centers, 2 are general purpose building, 1 is a mess and 1 is the car park area. The designer will determine the best places to install the RFID receivers. It is assumed that the workers will be carrying RFID tags in form of a card. When a worker enters the gate, the receiver at the gate takes his number, records it and stores this value in a database. The time of entering is also noted and entered in the database. When he/she goes to his area of work, say, the production area the receiver there takes his number and stores it plus the time he has entered. Based on all the data collected, the developed software produces a summary of the time and place the worker has visited in the firm. Visitors are also given special tags.

11. PREVIOUS WORK:

RFID is a rapidly developing automatic wireless data collection technology. Firstly we have multi-bit functional passive RFID systems with the range of several meters. Recently it has experienced a tremendous growth due to developments in integrated circuits and radios and due to increased interest from the retail industrial and government. Key volume applications of RFID technology in markets such as access control sensors and metering applications, payment methods, document tracking. Previously they were using radars to warn off approaching planes while they were still miles away however it is impossible to distinguish enemy planes from allied ones and after that crude method is implemented by germans for identifying the planes. So with the increasing technology further research of RFID is done using RFID tags and readers which is similar to barcode.

VARIOUS EXISTING APPLICATIONS OF RFID:

The following are some of the applications of RFID:

Vehicle anti theft system uses radio frequency identification system.

Application of RFID technology on tires tracking.

Application of RFID in automotives.

Supply chain management uses RFID in retail industries.

Mobile health care service system using RFID.

Application of RFID in animal tracking.

Application of RFID in asset tracking.

BRIEF STUDY OF THE APPLICATIONS OF RFID:

Vehicle anti theft system uses radio frequency identification system:

As there are many car and light van thefts which are increasing alarmingly all around the world the new guide lines were implemented by the insurance companies, are being set for vehicle manufacturers to make their products secure. A new passive anti theft security system (PATS) is developed by ford registration and identification system (TIRIS) which is a radio frequency technology which meets the new requirements.

Working:

There is a tamper-proof link between the driver’s key and the ignition system. This system is based upon the tamper-proof electronic link. Each key has a tiny transponder which electronically links it to a specific vehicle. The tag which can be called as a transponder contains a unique identification code that is accessed by the radio signal from a transceiver unit in the car whenever someone tries to start the vehicle. Unless there is a proper ignition key with a transponder present the engine will not start, even if the ignition key is broken or bypassed. This is based up on RFID technology which adds a new level of theft protection to vehicle security systems which does not require any effort from the driver’s.

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