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Assignment In Client Server Architecture Information Technology Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Information Technology
Wordcount: 2822 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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This report focuses on understanding the problems being faced by the Information System (IS) department of Hures as well as other Organisations dealing with human resource and management. Such organizations, private or public, continuously collect and process data (information) using technologies available at an increased rate and store the information in computerized systems.

To maintain such information systems becomes difficult and extremely complex, especially as scalability-issues arise. Such problems identified are required to be sorted and find out the solutions.

Therefore from the scenario given, the measures were taken into considerations to minimize problems in communication mechanism. The client server architecture was established in the beginning to improve productivity, efficiency and information handling. Nevertheless, the Hures Information System department experienced difficulties as the stored information grew leading to the need of establishing peer to peer architecture, intranets and extranets for security purposes.


Do you think the problems faced by Hures are unique? Why or why not?

The difficulty faced by Hures IS department is not peculiar to them rather the underlying technology. In a ‘distributed environment they were working on, the client server technology had problems when it comes to the extension or scaling servers to accommodate additional loads that were initially not envisaged. Client-server architecture consists of series of clients connected to a common server mounted at some remote or nearby location. Hence when there are load increments in the

distributed environment, it usually tends to cause problems that make the architecture difficult to scale accordingly. Moreover, for all users on the network the rate of data transfer might go down, and sometimes a powerful and expensive computer needs to be installed and integrated into the system in an attempt to improve scalability and availability of the server.

Nevertheless, for every application under heavy loading, numerous computers may be needed. It is customary to utilise one computer to each server application under medium loading, so as to prevent the extent of damage, for example in the occasion of system failure or violation of privacy and security. Client and servers when connected together to form a network that would facilitate better communication is referred to as a client server architecture. A client is an application or system that accesses a (remote) service on another computer system known as a server by way of a network. Hence servers by their operation receive a message from client and work on them and then return the responses to the client. For instance, file server, web server, mail server and web browser are servers and client respectively (Harkey et aL, 1999).


Suggest alternative architectures that could be used to overcome the problems faced by Hures’ current Client/Server technology.

Increasingly need of users accessing to network resources (i.e. information) virtually for anything held on a database through a common interface. The network supports between the user and that information. Therefore, distributed system is one of the most ideal for location of resources or database transparency.

In general, a server and client systems consist of two major parts which are software and related hardware. On a controlled and shared ground to the clients, servers host resources and make them available. This allows access to server content to be controlled in a much better and secured manner. Basically, client/server architecture is a two tier technology which means that it has two nodes namely a client and a server. In order to improve communication between the client and the server, a third node or interface called a middleware is introduced between the client and the server. This is technically a better design as the middleware which is a form of software between the client and the server processes data for clients such as web browsers e.g. internet explorer, mozilla firefox and safari which are all web client. Middleware store data for user applications enabling a comparatively better design that facilitate server scalability as the processing of requests has been separated by balancing the load on different servers (Harkey, et al, 1999).

The role of Middleware in a Client-Server Architecture is illustrated in the figure below:

Introducing the middleware results in the design of a three-tier architecture which later can be extended to an n-tier. The n-tier architecture has the disadvantages of impacting or increasing traffic congestion and reducing the design robustness. N-tier architecture becomes more difficult to run and test software than the two-tier architecture due to device congestion resulting in communication difficulties. The increased load in n-tier architecture could lead to overloading of the network. Apart from the mentioned disadvantages n-tier architecture has number of advantages which include: better security control, increased flexibility, user friendly, easy upgradeability and scalability compared to the two tier architecture (Harkey, et al, 1999)

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The implementation of an n-tier distributed computing architecture will be a solution to overcome problems faced by Hures. N-tier architecture has the potential to provide better, more timely information across the enterprise at a lower cost than the current combination of PC LAN, two-tier client/server, or mainframe applications that have been developed in most organizations. For n-tier architecture to be effective, three key components need to be present:

  1. Empowerment of the developer to integrate a distributed computing architecture within existing databases, tools, and components.
  2. Certainty of efficient network traffic.
  3. Mechanisms to handle load balancing to distribute the work across many servers.

The n-tier client/server architecture provides an environment which supports all the benefits of both the one-tier approach and the two-tier approach, and also supports the goals of a flexible architecture.

The three tiers refer to the three logical component parts of an application, not to the number of machines used by the application. An n-tier application model splits an application into its three logical component types-presentation logic, business logic, and data access logic, where there may be any number of each of the component types within an application. The application components communicate with each other using an abstract interface, which hides the underlying function performed by the component. This infrastructure provides location, security, and communication services for the application components.

The n-tier client/server architecture provides an environment which supports all the benefits of both the one-tier approach and the two-tier approach, and also supports the goals of a flexible architecture.

The technology should be able to handle future growth. Hures should carry out n-tier client/server technology to solve their partitioning problems. N-tier client/server architecture is an evolution of the traditional 2-tier and 3-tier models, and is suitable for large business applications where many users share common data and operations on them.

Peer to Peer

The structure of peer to peer network architectures, they do not have a fixed server responsible for blocking and routing request to and from nodes unlike client server architecture. Peer-to-peer networks are simple and easy to implement. However they fail to render the same performance under heavy loads. Distributed computing, instant messaging and affinity communities are all examples of peer to peer network architecture (Deal, 2005).


One of the suggestions proposed by Hures’ IS department is the use of intra net web technology. Examine the pros and cons of such an idea.

Intranet can be described as a private version of the internet or network connectivity. It is based on TCPIIP protocols configured for a particular organization system, usually a corporation, accessible only by the organization’s members, employees, or others with permission to do so. An intranet website looks and acts just like any other Web sites, but the firewall surrounding an intranet fends off unauthorized access. Like the Internet, intranets are used to share information over a network (Douglas, 2005). Intranet is privately owned computer network that utilizes Internet protocols and network connectivity. It is safe and secure in sharing part of organizational operations such as marketing, administrative information or other matters concerned with the organization and its employees. The techniques, concepts and technologies associated with the internet such as clients and servers running on the Internet protocol suite are employed in building an intranet. HTTP, FTP, e-mail and other Internet protocols are also applied.

Usually intranets are restricted to employees of the particular firm, while extranets tend to have wider scope so that they can be accessed by customers, suppliers or other authorized agents. On the other hand, intranets like other technologies have their own merits and demerits. Below are some of the advantages and disadvantages of this technology (Stallings and Slyke, 1998).

The pros and cons (advantages and disadvantages respectively) for Hure’s using intranet web Technology were accounted for as follows:


  1. Intranet serves as an effective communication tool within the organization, both vertically and horizontally thereby promoting a common corporate culture where every user is accessing the same information available on a common platform.
  2. Intranet enables proper time management, since organizations are capable to make adequate information available to employees on the intranet. This way, employees are able to connect to relevant information within the effective time.
  3. Increases the productivity levels of workforce by allowing them to locate and view information faster. It also enables them to use applications relevant to the task at hand. Also, web browsers such as Internet Explorer or Firefox help users to readily access data from any database the
  4. organization makes available, subject to security provisions within the company’s workstations thereby improving services to users.

  5. Intranets have cross-platform capability which enables it to adequately support different types of web browsers irrespective of their backbone be it Java, Mac or UNIX. This ability enhances collaboration since every authorized user is capable of viewing information on the site thereby
  6. promoting teamwork.

  7. Provide a comparatively cost-effective means for network users to access information or data through a web-browser instead of preparing physical documents like manuals, internal phone list or even ledges and requisition forms.
  8. Publishing on the web permits critical corporate knowledge such as company policies, business standards, training manuals etc to be secured and easily accessed throughout the company using hypermedia and other web technologies.
  9. It facilitates the business operations and management. Increasingly they are being used as a platform for developing and deploying applications that support business operations and decision making across the whole enterprise. (Goldberg, 1996)


Do you think the popularity of intranets and the Internet pose threats to traditional Client/Server systems?

Intranet and Internet become popular to some extent because they pose some threats to the traditional Client/server systems.

It is true that Internet and intranet are both web technologies. A few years ago, the typical office environment consisted of PCs were connected to a network, with servers providing file and print services. Remote access was awkward, and profitability was achieved by use of laptop computers. Terminals attached to mainframes were prevalent at many companies as well with even fewer remote access and portability options. (Silberschtuz, 2004)

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Currently the secure intranets are the fastest-growing segment of the Internet comparatively much less expensive to build and manage compared to the private networks. Usually private networks are based on proprietary protocols with mostly client server architecture. An extranet creates a secure tunnel between two companies over the public Internet. It is also used to connect remote employees to corporate network by the use of Virtual Private Networks (VPNs).

Also intranets are increasingly being used for tools and applications delivery, which facilitate group work and teleconferencing to an enhanced collaboration within the organizations. In order to increase productivity of organizations, sophisticated corporate directories, sales and CRM tools and project management, are all taking advantage of intranet technology (Robert, et al, 1999).


The problems faced by Hures like other organization including private and public,which are continuosly collecting and storing data in accelerated rate. The above answers on respective four questions discussed on as follows: If the problems experienced by Hures since 1985 up to now are unique or not, comparing to other organizations, such problems experienced were due to growth of business demands in information systems (IS). For example, Hures was forced to downsize the IS from mainframe to Client/Server network resulted in higher efficiency and profit. Nevertheless the problems arise on the server scaling due to loading capacity, forced the company to incur much cost on implementation of distributed environment with more powerful desktop machines. These problems are not unique because all organizations demand changes in IS while they grow up in business.

Secondly, the alternative architectures have been discussed about solving the problems of Heures as well as other organizations in information systems. Therefore, distributed system has been suggested which is the most ideal for location of resources or database transparency in networking environment.

Thirdly, the intranet web technology as the special network for special organization suggested by Hures’ IS department, was discussed on it’s pros and cons which can be relied on for proper construction of networks in any organization.

Finally, we have seen that the popularity of intranets and the Internet pose threats to traditional Client/Server systems since the most fastest growing firms with sophisticated systems have taken advantages of Intranet and Internet technologies to facilitate the efficiency in networking and higher production.


Douglas, E. Corner: (2000). ‘THE INTERNET’. 3rd ed. Prentice Hall Publishing.

Emmerich, W. (2003). ‘Engineering Distributed objects’. Wiley publishing

Gralla, P. (2005). ‘How the Internet Works’ .3rd ed. Addison Wesley

Norton. P. (2003). ‘Introduction to computers’. 5th ed.

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Wikipedia (2007), Client server architecture, accessed 18th September, 2008 http://en.wikipedia.orglwiki/Client-server _architecture


Douglas, E. C. (2005). ‘Internetworking with TCPIIP Principles, Protocols and Architecture. 5th ed. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, pp.349-359

Goldberg, C. J. (1996). ‘Entrepreneur – Business Service Industry’ October.

(http://findarticles.coIIU’p articles/mi mODTVis /ai 18726414), accessed on 09/10/2008.

Harkey, D., Edwards, J. and Orfali, R. (1999). ‘Client/server Survival Guide’. 3rd ed., Canada, Pp 7-10, 12, 199-201 and 349

Silberschatz, A. (2004). ‘Operating System Concepts with Java’. 6th ed. USA: John WHey & Sons, Inc. p.23.

Stallings, W. and Slyke, R. V. (1998). ‘Business Data Communications’. 3rd ed. Prentice-Hall International. Pp.422, 429-433.

Beal, V. (2005). All about Peer to Peer. Date accessed-12th September, 2008 http://www.webopedia.comIDidY ouKnowlInternet/2005/peer to peer.asp


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