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This assignment is based on the network implementation of internet cafe which is based near the campus of University of East London. We have to design and implement a network and describe the Local Area Network and Wide Area Network management. We have to describe the cost effectiveness solutions with software and hardware we use in this network with justifications. Different layers will also be discussed at different stages in this assignment. Different IP schemes and other network suggestions will be discussed. This assignment also includes conclusion and references of the research used to build this assignment. Research method plays an important role in this assignment.
Introduction to ARPANET:
Advance Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) is the world’s first Network which gives Packet Switching and allows access over network widely. Packet switching helps in establishing a communication link. It was started in the mid 1968. It started through LAN.
Phenomenon of Internet cafe:
We have to work on internet cafe project which is close to University of East London. This cafe is exists on three floors, and we have to connect or share 75 computers in cost effective solutions. These all computers should be registered with the single IP address. OSI layers have to been defined at different stages on the network. TCP/IP systems relate to local area network and the internet. This network has to been defined using network layout diagram.
Network Cost and specifications:
This project of internet cafe would require 75 computers, 1 router, 4 switches, LAN cables and 3 printers.
A normal computer specification should be:
1 GB RAM
At least 2.1 GHZ processor (Intel or Atom)
150 GB hard disk
Standard USB keyboard
Standard USB mouse
This is normal system specifications which could be used in internet cafe and can be easily used by the customer. Normally when computers are purchased in bulk for a computer lab or internet cafe system, loyalty discount is normally given by that provider. This specification would estimate cost around £250 – £300 as according to Curry’s or PC world. Dell computers are normally recommended and purchasing from DELL can be more cost effective.
We also have to use a router. As this is internet cafe connection, so there should be powerful router connection which could enable more surfers to use internet more easily. There is a router which has recently been launched (EDIMAX BR-6574n Wireless Gigabit Router) this is really power and is available at Curry’s store for £80. Apart from that, there are other NETGEAR routers as well which range starts from £30.
We would also need at least 4 switches. Cisco switches are normally recommended by engineers. They are quite fast and comply with the requirement of network. It normally costs around £100. Some Belkin and Netgear switches are cheaper as well.
We would need LAN cables to make connections overall on the network to connect computers with switches and router. RJ-45 connector cable is used for this purpose. A 50 meter Ethernet LAN cable costs about £5. The more length would be needed, more prices would be increased.
We can also add Printers to the network. It is essential in network computers to have a printer but it is not recommended or compulsory. Normally Printer ranges from £40 that is all in one, which is better for home and office purposes as it includes Printer, Scanner and Copier.
Implementation of Network:
We have to work on internet cafe. Cafe has 3 floors and we have arranged 75 computers over three floors. We have to place 3 computers for server purpose. We can divide 25 computers on three floors and also 3 computers as server on third floor. To make a network local, we connect computers first using switch. On first floor, we will place 25 computers, and we have connected these 25 computers using Fibre cable for LAN (Local Area Network). Also we need 3 printers to share on three floors and we connect 1 printer on each floor. We connect all 25 computers and 1 printer with switch. This process has to be repeated on three floors, and then we have to connect them with router. Server computers will be connected with router directly but through switch. When server is directly connected with router, it enables firewall implementation and sharing among the network with secure authentication.
LAN is used to connect computers within local area and make a network between them. We use this network in this case to connect computers within the same building. After connecting them through LAN cable, we connect them to Switch.
HUB is also called concentrator or multi station access unit (MAU). A normal hub contains 8 to 24 ports for the computers and other devices. It works as a multiple port repeater. It receives a digital signal and re amplifies or regenerates that signal. It then forwards the digital signal to all ports on the hub without looking at any data.
Switch is also used for the same purpose as hub but it is more intelligent device. It operates at data link layer of OSI model. The biggest benefit of using switches instead of hubs is that each switch port has its own collision domain. Switch plays really an important role in network.
Once they are connected with hub or switch, they will be connected with ROUTER.
ROUTER is a device which connects multiple networks using similar or different protocols. It manages the route between any two communication networks.
IP address will remain the same because there is just one router and it will supply access to all four switches. Each Switch which is having 25 computers and 1 printer on three floors and third one is also having server computers on it will connect with switch which will lead to router. Each computer will have different IP but their ISP will be one only as this will be provided by service provider. After three sets of 75 computers and three printers connected with Switch which is connected to router, after this process we connect one more switch with router which has 3 server computers on it. One server would be file server or printer server, and one would be DHCP/Authentication/Certification server and DNS server. This server system would help in file or printer sharing along the network to protect the computers with firewall option and also to provide certification to computers for different task over the network.
OSI stands for Open System Interconnection. It is a set of protocols that allows any two different systems to communicate regardless of their underlying architectures.
This physical connection of router with switch and computers comes in Physical Layer of OSI model.
Physical layer relates the electrical, optical, mechanical and functional interface to the cable as it defines how the cable is attached to the network adaptor card.
Connection of computers with Switch includes Data Link Layer of OSI model. It sends data frames from network later to physical layer.
Router is supplying single IP address, and each computer has different IP address. This concept involves Network Layer of OSI model which is responsible for putting data segments into packets.
Transport layer works after Network Layer which is responsible segmenting data. It ensures that packets are delivered free of errors with no loss.
For implementation of Network especially of Internet cafe, some software’s have also been recommended. Cyber cafe management and installation of networking protocols like IPX, SPX and TCP/IP.
This thing comes in Session Layer. The main purpose of session layer is to establish a connection through application running on two different computers.
Presentation layer and Application layer are after session layer. Presentation layer is used to determine the format of exchanging the data among network. Application layer handles network access, control the flow and recover errors.
Addressing scheme plays an important role in network. TCP/IP, IPv4, IPv6 are essentials of Network scheme. They are normally set to default but they can be changed according to the requirements.
Each network system must be identified as unique. This is done through MAC address of device. Each machine always has different IP address on the network.
TCP/IP is known as transmission control protocol/Internet protocol. It is a technology that is used to manage the transmission of data by breaking it into packets. These packets travel through router. TCP/IP addressing scheme is used in implementation of this network. This network scheme is normally used for sharing of computers over the network and gives them internet access.
IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) addressing scheme is really important in a network. The most important aspect of IPv4 is its size. It is most widely organized internet layer protocol. It is a connectionless protocol used for packet switching link layer. IPv4 can establish more than 256 connections. Its range starts from 0 – 255. This connection is really helpful in internet cafe setup. Normally IPv4 is set to default which detects IP automatically, but we can define IPv4 manually as well which can be allocated. Manual configuration can change IP of the system for some purposes as well.
Sub-netting plays an important role in networking. It is a subdivision of an IP network or when the network is divided into several small networks. It results in logical division of an IP address. Subnetting an IP can be done for the various reasons which generally include different physical media, address space, security, control network traffic etc.
Subnetting makes it easier to manage the smaller network as well. Subnet masks are also used with IP. Computer performs a bitwise logical AND operation between the address and subnet mask in order to find the Network Address or number. The general syntax for Subnetting is 255.255.255.0
There are generally three classes used for Subnet masks
Class A: 255.0.0.0
Class B: 255.255.0.0
Class C: 255.255.255.0
Calculations of Network Subnetting:
We have to implement a network with single registered IP which is given by our service provider. 18.104.22.168
This is known an IP address. The default subnet mask for this one would be 255.255.255.0
We have to implement 4 networks and they should be provided with different IP addresses. We use the following steps to find out the network and host computers over the network and range as well
We use 8 bits for binary written form.
255.255.255.0 = 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
This is default Subnet of network
We have to implement four networks in a network, so we will do with 4 in binary
2 2 – 0
1 – 0
4 Decimal = 100 binary
We will take 3 bits as a result of binary conversion from bit scale.
The bit scale helps in implementing a network more easily
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
We will take 3 bits for new subnet mask and new Subnet mask will be
This will be equal to 255.255.255.224
Our new IP range will be
22.214.171.124 – 126.96.36.199
188.8.131.52 – 184.108.40.206
220.127.116.11 – 18.104.22.168
22.214.171.124 – 126.96.36.199
This is our range of new 4 Networks made by Single registered IP.
Network Layout Diagram:
Analysis and Synthesis:
This research is a conceptual base in which most of the prediction has also been used apart from research on different structures and equipments used in this setup. A concept has been taken from http://www.ccautosoft.com/2011/03/connecting-all-hardwares-in-internet-cafe/ which shows the setup for the internet cafe. This is was quite helpful in equipment structure. This project has been designed to improve the performance of internet café setup with compare to new technology as of library or lab network.
This has been concluded from this project that it is reliable and secure network. It can easily give access to all the computers equally. There is less risk of virus spreading over the network as secure switches have been used which gives the high profile for Firewall and other activities. This project uses the latest technology routers and switches which enables the network to communicate more effectively. Also this project is cost effective, and it allows less cost to be spent over the network. Computers have been used with moderate specifications which are compatible to run over network properly.
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