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Annotated Bibliography: The Refugee Crisis

1475 words (6 pages) Essay in Human Rights

18/05/20 Human Rights Reference this

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Source Check #2

Alipui, Nicholas, and Nicole Gerke. “The Refugee Crisis and the Rights of Children:

Perspectives on Community‐Based Resettlement Programs.” New Directions for Child

& Adolescent Development, vol. 2018, no. 159, Spring 2018, pp. 1-4. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1002/cad.20228.

Child refugees are facing difficulties finding refuge, receiving proper nurture, and adapting to the new country’s culture and language. However, international agencies and local sectors have developed programs to attack these problems. In the journal The Refugee Crisis and the Rights of Children: Perspectives on Community‐Based Resettlement Programs, written by the Director of Programmes for the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), Nicholas Alipui, and the Project Coordinator of the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP), Nicole Gerke, the authors provide readers with a description of the negative circumstances refugee children live in. The journal states that due to conflicts, danger, and oppression within their country, refugee children escape their country in search of protection from another country (Alipui and Gerke 1). However, governments are blocking access into the country to refugees and migrants, hesitating to officially grant the title of refugee to refugees in transit countries, and setting back the official refugee status verification (1). These actions present negative effects on attempts to receive assistance and education (1). The number of refugee children significantly rose between 2005 and 2015 by more than 4 million and is most likely to continue to increase (1). As a result, the number of unaccompanied refugee adolescents increases as well. The U.S. child protection services are unable to fully assist unaccompanied refugee children due to a lack of funding (1-2). In fact, according to Alipui and Gerke, the “majority of countries currently leading refugee resettlement programs are not developed countries” (2). In other words, developing countries such as Turkey and Lebanon are responsible for hosting the most number of refugees. As a result, the resources necessary to educate child refugees and their own children are stretched thin (2). Furthermore, these countries have more children who are refugees than those who are not. This fact reveals the true scope of the refugee crisis and the rising numbers of children seeking protection. Most refugees settle in urban areas, therefore, these cities are unprepared for the increase of population due to a large number of refugees in such a short time (2). Furthermore, urban refugees, despite living near educational and medical institutions, face the language barrier and cultural disparities which cause them to struggle to find jobs or proper education (2). Children are more susceptible to toxic stress than adults, therefore an appropriate, stable nurturing environment is necessary for their mental and physical growth (3). To ensure that child refugees are receiving the care necessary for proper development, programs have been built to provide children with security, education, health services, and stimulation. ECD Interventions, a program built by UN Agencies, evaluates what child refugees vitally need and provide them with appropriate care to maintain and improve the children’s well-being (3). ECD Interventions supplies children with water safe to drink and a stable environment to ensure their good health, safety, and nutrition. Child Friendly Spaces, a program created by UNICEF, provides emotional and mental support as well as education for child refugees (3). UNICEF distributes ECD Kits, which includes educational material, entertainment, and psychosocial items, to refugee children from newborns to kids of age 6 in order to lessen emotional and mental strain and build problem-solving skills among them (4). These kits have been shown to improve the children’s muscular movement and their ability to read and understand numbers. We Love Reading (WLR) is a program built by a local nonprofit organization to promote reading to refugee kids (4). This inexpensive, educational yet entertaining program inspired kids to read and write while reducing stress, peer pressure, and improving their behavior. Adult refugees participate in the WLR program to help children while reducing their own stress and uneasiness as well (4). As parents emotionally or mentally suffer, it is likely that their children will not receive proper nurture. Therefore, educational and health programs have been built to ensure child refugees get the care they need, especially if they are seeking refuge alone (4). These efforts aim to help refugee children adapt to their new country and be better integrated into its system. This journal is written by two authors who work for UNICEF and WFP and are experts on children and refugees. The journal is written in a neutral tone without bias and was recently published in Spring 2018. This journal provides crucial details about how refugee adolescents are disproportionately affected by the refugee crisis, such as its negative impact on children’s emotional and mental development. It also gives information about how local organizations and international agencies are working to help provide care, education, and proper services for child refugees, including ECD Interventions, a program created to help refugee children stay healthy, Child Friendly Spaces, a program designed to provide mental health services for the children, distribution of ECD kits, or educational kits for children, and the WLR, a program designed to promote reading in child refugees.

Patrick, Stewart M. “The World Has Lost the Will to Deal With the Worst Refugee Crisis Since

World War II.” World Politics Review (Selective Content), July 2019, pp. 1-4. EBSCOhost,

In the article “The World Has Lost the Will to Deal With the Worst Refugee Crisis Since World War II,” the authors provide readers with an overview of the severe refugee situation and different countries’ approach to it  Refugees are fleeing to neighboring countries in efforts to escape harsh living conditions and ill-treatment (1). However, host countries are reluctant to admit refugees due to a lack of funding (2-3). Even as emergency aid increases, the refugee crisis is not being solved. In fact, the number of refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs), asylum-seekers, stateless people, etc. have increased by 31.8 million in only five years (1). This statistic supports the fact that the refugee crisis is only getting worse. The main cause of displacement and fleeing refugees is violence, such as gang violence or a ruthless government (1). Due to government violence, around 3 million Venezuelans fled to Columbia, which is already preoccupied with its own 7.8 million internally displaced persons. Due to similar reasons, the severe refugee crisis in the Middle East continues to rise (1). Violence, an unstable government, and the scarcity of water led Afghans to flee their country in search of protection in Pakistan and Iran (1). Furthermore, Patrick, the director of the International Institutions and Global Governance Program reports, “Conflicts in Syria, Yemen and Iraq have generated more than 10 million IDPs and 7.2 million refugees” (2). The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) does not have adequate financial assistance to effectively help Syrian refugees. Furthermore, some countries in Europe have become hostile towards incoming refugees by going as far as taking legal action against those who try to help them (2). Most of the U.N. originally planned to relieve the refugee crisis by dividing responsibility in helping refugees and improving conditions in their origin countries. However, this plan does not execute successfully as more countries become reluctant about being welcoming hosts (2). These countries focus on short-term relief rather than long-term solutions. Even with organized plans and goals, funding is still insufficient to provide effective aid (2). Approximately $25.2 billion was needed for human welfare in 2018, but 40% of the required funding was still needed (3). As a result, the financial shortage led to ineffective aid and care. The 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees states that countries must allow refugees who seek protection to travel across their borders and cannot deport the refugees back if their country is unsafe to return to (3). However, a few countries neglect to provide asylum for refugees. According to the author, a big reason for a country’s hostility towards refugees is the fear that they may be terrorists (3). Nevertheless, Canada, despite its small size, resettled the most refugees globally (3). The World Bank financially contributed to the crisis with $2 billion to developing countries to help resettle refugees (3-4). This article is written by an author who works for the Council on Foreign Relations and is an expert on multilateral cooperation regarding worldwide problems. The article is written in a neutral tone without bias and was recently published in July 2019. This article provides critical details about the reasons that lead refugees to leave their countries, such as government violence and ill-treatment, and host countries affected by the massive influx of refugees, such as developing countries in the Middle East. It also gives information about how countries and agencies respond to the refugee crisis, such as the World Bank’s large financial contribution and several countries’ violation of the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees.

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