In this assignment, I will discuss in detail past, present and future recruitment and selection practices. In order to get a better understanding, I will outline what recruitment and selection is. I will explain how recruitment and selection has changed through technology, social media and data bases. I will give details on what is predicted for the future of recruitment and selection in human resource management. The assignment will also outline what trends are currently in this stage and how employee recruitment is a critical function for any organisation to survive in today’s business world. The selection process is a vital aspect of any organisation recruitment process to make sure the most appropriate people are doing their role in order to provide the best possible service in turn boosting profits.
Recruitment can be defined as looking for and obtaining candidates with the potential to fill job vacancies in an organisation from candidates internally and also externally. These candidates must have the desired skills, knowledge and experience. The process of recruiting outlines the requirements and trying to attract the right candidates.
(Deadricka and Stoneb, 2014)
From the recruitment process when a pool of candidates has been identified they then move onto the selection phase. The appropriate candidate or candidates are then picked through interviews, reference checking and sometimes particular tests. This selection process is done so that the organisation picks the best person for the role. The selection phase of choosing a candidate is done fair, effectively and efficiently.
Recruitment and selection in the past
In the past recruitment was not as easy as it is nowadays. There was no such thing of having your cv delivered to the organisation in such a short period of time. Back then it had to be printed, put in an envelope, stamped and brought to the post office to send off hoping it would arrive at the organisation the next day.
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The relationship between employees and employers all started back in the 1800’s when an English factory changed the way employees and management communicated and also the welfare of employees. This was done through cleanliness and particularly working conditions. Following this the civil war began which caused many arguments about labour. Personnel managers were then hired to help prevent disputes. These personnel managers did the jobs of human resource manager’s today. (Deadricka and Stoneb, 2014)
Recruitment and selection started out in the 1940’s. It came about because of WWII, when soldiers were called to war it created major openings in the working world. Where demand for labour workers was critical. After the war there was an immense requirement for human resource management. (Deadricka and Stoneb, 2014)
Agencies were created, to help find returning soldiers work who came back with new skills and people who weren’t called to war work. In this past world of recruitment there was no such thing as mobile phones, internet or even computers. (Opus Recruitment Solutions, 2018)
In the 1950’s, it was said that people did not want to work because of the development of human resource. People then had to be made aware of how important human resource management was and how it contributed to the organisations. (Deadricka and Stoneb, 2014)
People began to make their personal profiles including their skills. While the economy developed, businesses started to outsource their hiring needs. Since there was no internet or support for the recruiters they used bulletin boards and paid adverts in newspapers. Recruitment was only done through word of mouth, face to face with people who brought their cvs. Cv’s were the kept in storage filing cabinets, making the process difficult when needing to retrieve a particular Cv. (Opus Recruitment Solutions, 2018)
Fast forward to the 1980’s, Ulrich studied human resource competencies which are still used in the recruitment and selection process today. Many organisations made out competency frameworks which have the specific quality, skills and experience that each organisation requires from potential candidates. These specific outlined frameworks allow organisations to pick the right employees. (Cohen, 2015)
There were major skill shortages and the prediction was that there would be a decline in young people which would mean that the recruitment was moving to be more important to organisations. (Assignment Point, 2017)
Near the end of the 1890’s, recruitment and selection within human recourse management was the main thing the organisation needed to focus on facing into the 90’s. The prediction was that there would be trouble trying to recruit and retain staff because now people had skills that they were trained up in and could choose their jobs around these specific skills. (Collins and →, 2018)
Applicant tracking system (ATS) was introduced as the same time as the computer. The ATS stored cvs making it easier to access and find cvs for recruiters.
(Opus Recruitment Solutions, 2018)
With the ATS it made the whole selection phase easier as it screened every applicant and choose the top scoring people and in the other hand it screens out the candidates who did not reach a high score in the competencies. (Collins and →, 2018)
At the beginning of the 1990s for a little while some organisations had major shortages of staff and particularly skilled staff. Many of these organisations that were stuck for staff began to widen their recruitment requirements because they were so stuck for employees. These adjustments were seen as very tactical because some organisations hired candidates and trained them and gave them the skills that they needed within their organisation.
(Assignment Point, 2017) (Acikgoz, 2018)
In the 1990’s as predicted in the 80’s, recruitment and selection were applied in organisations so that they could recruit and try retaining particular staff that they needed. During this time there was major focus put towards communication between the high management and employees – two way communications. (Collins and →, 2018) (Acikgoz, 2018)
In the 90’s when the World Wide Web was established jobs were then advertised giving it a global means of advertising rather than just in local newspapers. It also meant that everyone could access the jobs advertisements and apply online. (Opus Recruitment Solutions, 2018)
Recruitment and selection in the present
Employee recruitment is a critical function for any organisation to survive in today’s business world. Currently in Ireland it is vital for organisations to have a policy. This policy outlines all the necessary information around recruitment and selection in an organisation. (Failteireland.ie, 2018)
Even though newspaper advertising is still used, the fast growth of technology means that recruiters now have online databases where they can store applicants and find them when there is a job opening, making the whole process more efficient and less time wasted.
(Opus Recruitment Solutions, 2018)
Since 2010, there has been an influx in people using and relying on social networking sites to recruit staff and to have links for the public to apply for jobs. (Options, 2018)
It is now easier for recruiters because they now have online forums to access professional profiles. LinkedIn has become popular because it allows recruiters and job seekers specify what they are looking for or need making the whole process easier. (Options, 2018)
This whole online world has made people more conscious and aware of their online personality. The likes of twitter and facebook now let recruiters advertise through payment. Through internet and social networking it has been positive as it has improved the process search for job seekers. (Options, 2018)
The main ways in which technology has impacted recruitment and selection:
It helps to organise for an organisation- The Application tracking system (ATS) which was introduced in the past has now been developed better. It still sorts candidates in an order set by the organisation and it manages the applications sent by candidates. This system is very important in many organisations today as it is so efficient especially with time and money. (Onrec.com, 2018)
Online test-Since technology was introduced its made testing candidates easier. With application forms some organisations have aptitude tests and personality tests which can now be done when candidates are filling out the application form online. This saves the organisation time and money as its screens out people who do not pass the online tests. (Onrec.com, 2018)
Technology planning- The plans and process that an organisation has is usually dependent on technology. If there is a built in process in the organisations technology it means everything takes less time, everything through this technology is fair towards the candidates and of course saves time and money. (Onrec.com, 2018)
Video interviewing –Video interviewing sometimes is an effective way for an organisation to interview candidates. It leaves out the arranging of meeting the candidates at particular times and place for the organisation. Video interviewing is far more effective than telephone interviews. Candidates are given the same process of face to face interviewers just lacking the physical aspect. (Onrec.com, 2018)
The history of recruiting technology:
Stages in which organisations follow when recruiting and selecting currently:
Job vacancy- when a job becomes vacant an organisation should see if they could find internal employees to fill the position or will they have to seek a new employee. This shows internal staff that there are opportunities of being promoted. This process also saves a company financially because they do not have to run the recruiting campaign externally and also the current employee does not need to be trained and they are familiar with the running of the organisation. (Failteireland.ie, 2018)
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Job analysis– In this stage you have to think through what you actually need the person to do. You also need to consider do you need somebody with specific Education Qualifications or Training, would Work experience be necessary, do they need to have a particular Personality for the position, can the individual work well as part of a team and does the job need certain amount of communication skills. (Failteireland.ie, 2018)
Attracting candidates– In this process you need to attract people with quality such as people with different backgrounds of education, training and experience. More importantly people who tick competencies you have outlined.
When advertising for candidates it is vital that the advertisement content is positive towards your organisation and its environment, that the language and information used will attract the right people and that the advertisement is set out to reach the correct audience. The advertisement must have the correct information that candidates would be looking for. (Failteireland.ie, 2018)
Screening applicants- screening takes place to narrow down candidates who have applied. This is done so that each of the candidates who are likely to compete is given more time like a formal interview. (Failteireland.ie, 2018)
Interviewing candidate– For interviews it is essential that the candidate being interviews and the interviewer(s) are prepared for the interview.
The interviewer(s) should have a particular structure for the in interview which is then used in each of the choose candidates interviews. This structure helps keeping the process consistent especially when evaluating each candidate at the end. (Failteireland.ie, 2018)
Selecting and appointing candidates- With whatever selection method used that suits your organisation, at the end there must be a decision made. This decision is who the interviewer(s) feel is the most fitting candidate, usually made after all of the interviews have finished.
Every organisation uses different methods of appointing the chosen candidate. The normal method usually involves; candidate selection, verbal offer of job, a letter offering the job and contract signing. This process is critical as it is the first interaction with the new employee when welcoming them to your organisation. (Failteireland.ie, 2018)
Induction and training- When an employee first joins your organisation welcoming them into the organisation and helping them with information they may need assisting in settling them in. The first thing an organisation should do is give the new employee thorough presentation of the company and their job role. The new employee should receive suitable training if needed. During the induction the employee should be aware of the basis of training in the organisation such as on site and off site training. (Failteireland.ie, 2018)
Employee evaluation – observing employee performance is usually always done. Organisations have different policies outlining how they monitor existing and new employees. Usually new employees are observed on end of first day o week, end of first month and end of probation period. At the end of probation period the organisation usually gives the employee their first appraisal where the employee’s strengths and what they brought to the organisation is outlined. From here a new contract is offered confirming permanency.
The whole evaluation process outlines whether the companies recruitment and selection process is efficient. (Failteireland.ie, 2018)
2018 Recruitment trends:
Artificial Intelligence (AI) on the Rise
Artificial intelligence is on the rise, particularly in human resource. Artificial intelligence is the development of computer systems and data bases which are able to perform tasks that usually need humans. In 2018 this is very important as it removes bias and helps the organisations out by shortening the time for recruiting and selecting.
The Power of Big Data and Data Analytics
Organisations in 2018 should now have data analytic systems which can have data transformed. The Data is transformed into certain categories and competencies for the human resource department. This system usually identifies connections in data and helps the HR department to pick the correct candidate that they should hire. These systems also help to retain employees. By sorting through the data the systems have the answers to why employees are leaving. These systems make this information more readily available which is a key factor in 2018.
Redesigned Interview Strategies
Organisations are now realising how important the interview stage is in recruitment. Organisations are now investing heavily in the interview stage to make it right.
Nowadays organisations are getting candidates at the interview stage to demonstrate tasks rather than having rehearsed answers for certain scenarios, this is a virtual world the organisation has created. Some organisations are also having stimulators for candidates at interview stage.
Positive Candidate Experience
Organisations to date are trying to portray their business as a positive place. If future employees find that your recruitment and selection process and information provided is efficient they will then have an extremely positive attitude towards accepting the job offer. With this through word of mouth these candidates will tell others about their outstanding experience with the organisations recruitment and selection process.
Through software, organisations are now being able to make decisions on time and also send out automated emails to candidates. This in hand will have a positive effect on the candidates as they will know if they get the role in a sufficient time frame and that they aren’t forgotten about with the automated email they receive.
Organisations are setting up chat schemes where candidates can message them instantly with any queries about the job advertisement or about the organisation.
Employee Wellness Programs
In 2018, health and wellbeing schemes and programs are taking off. Many organisations have set out health policies. Since there are more generation Y candidates in the working world, organisations have to help them in their plea for their own time in the organisation.Other organisations are introducing wellness and health free apps for their employees.
In 2017 and 2018 organisations created major focus on developing in house talent. This focus means organisations are looking at retaining staff rather than always recruiting. It is said that organisations are now looking for more talented candidates creating more competition between organisations. With more than half CEOs claiming talent management to be a main concern, more than one third of organisations say that they have increased their talent budget for 2017-2018. The CIPD survey states that private sector companies will focus more on developing in house talent rather than the public sector.
Since the United Kingdom announced that it is going to leave the EU, organisations say that they are putting more money and effort into in house staff. They are developing existing staff with training and skills’ listening to employees and communicating effectively.
Recruitment and selection in the future
For the future it is predicted that predictive and prescriptive analytics will be used for recruitment and selection in organisations. This means that the decisions on candidates are more data driven, reliable and efficient.
The main forecast is that the future will be more machine driven, even more than it is now. This is so that organisations know that they are offering the best fitting candidates the job.
Predictive and prescription analytics is to help organisations make better and stronger decisions. It also can recognise candidates who are well suited to the role. The predictive side can go through past applicants to see or find candidates with sufficient talent experience etc… to fit the role. It also puts the candidates who are qualified, skilled and has experience to the top. This means they are put through the selection phase first and fast giving the advantage over slower competition. (Hipps, 2018)
It is said that organisations will have a lot less time to spend hiring the correct people and less paperwork for the human resource department. (Hipps, 2018)
Social media marketing is forecasted as being the most used source of recruiting in the future. From a survey done by ‘Recruit Loop’ it is said that over 50% of organisations plan to increase investment in social media and social recruiting.
(Do Better Hiring – The RecruitLoop Blog, 2018)
It is predicted that computerization and robotics will take over the work done by recruiters. This also stops bias. This in turn is a negative affect as many jobs will disappear. Humans will then take over for the interview stage where they will interview the pool of candidate’s chosen by the systems. If the systems are efficient the interviewer(s) will have a hard time choosing between candidates and will rely heavily on the competency framework. Some of these new technologies and data bases for organisations cost large amounts initially but in turn it is saving money on employees through the recruiter. (Do Better Hiring – The RecruitLoop Blog, 2018)
It is also forecasted that in around 10 years that candidates will not have to have fill out application forms or cvs but that people will have devices with all their information on it. This saves job seekers from having to fill in application forms and also having their cv.
This in turn could mean that organisations themselves could be searching through devices with candidate’s information instead of candidates applying for a role. (Do Better Hiring – The RecruitLoop Blog, 2018)
Of course the future of recruitment and selection will involve the internet, just like it does today. It is predicted that internet will see an extreme development because it is said that internet recruitment speeds up the process of recruiting and selecting specific candidates. (Do Better Hiring – The RecruitLoop Blog, 2018)
From this assignment it states that it is critical that the recruitment and selection process is working efficiently and effectively in today’s world because if it is not the employees hired through it can have a negative impact on the organisation.
Hiring a suitable or unsuitable employee can make or break an organisation especially in this environment which is ever changing. The ways in which recruitment and selection is done is always changing but is always as important throughout the years. From the early 1800’s through to present day and the future the same purpose about recruiting and selection has been set out. Since recruitment is the backbone to an organisation, having a proper process and framework in place will help the organisation to attain required outcomes and in turn have an optimistic impact on the clients and service users.
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- Deadricka, D. and Stoneb, D. (2014). Human resource management: Past, present and future. Human Resource Management Review, [online] 24(3), pp.193-195. Available at: https://www-sciencedirect-com.cit.idm.oclc.org/science/article/pii/S1053482214000102 [Accessed 23 Oct. 2018]
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