On Earth humans spent most of their lives as hunter-gatherers. Each day, groups of people would ambush and slaughter untamed animals for survival. A major foundation in the Neolithic Age was the shift from a hunter-gathering civilization of the Paleolithic Age to a food cultivating civilization. Farming and the domestication of animals created a regular and continuous food supply which led a new culture. The harsh weather conditions, animal migration, and the lengthy seasons caused hunger to always be one step away. With this new way of living, larger populations could now live in established, more sheltered areas. Humans for the first time could have professions within their civilization that were feasible.
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The Paleolithic Age was a period of technology that was developed from stone. The advancements of the Neolithic Age lead to new technologies which introduced metal tools. Also the Neolithic houses were built of mud brick and were more secure compared to the Paleolithic shelters. Their dwellings were constructed sturdier because the people lived more stable lives and there was no need to be so mobile. The invention of pottery was another big advantage that the Neolithic people had over the Paleolithic people.
The Neolithic Revolution led to settlements and the advancement of group living. Also, after the Neolithic revolution began more intricate community situations led to improved and more complex forms of communication. The Neolithic revolution also led to the growth of governments and higher forms of organization because now that people were living in settlements they started separating the labor. I also think trade stemmed from this revolution because now people would now trade the extra food that they grew for other things they did not have. Lastly in my opinion the Neolithic Revolution also lead to the change from a matriarchal classification to a more patriarchal classification.
2. The Caste System had many advantages and disadvantages. The first disadvantage in my opinion is that the weak were oppressed by the social and politically advantaged people in the name of faith and customs. I also think the Caste System brought about division and resentment that in turn evolved into disunity among the Indian Society. This made India weak against foreign invasion. The biggest disadvantage was that the caste system was based on birth rather than individual talent or skills. Lastly, I think the Caste System created an individual class called the “untouchables” which were treated less than human. An advantage to the Caste System is that it played an important part in shaping profitable activities in Indian Society. This was made feasible because a distinct system of shared interdependence through a division of labor forms protection for those within a group. Another advantage was that each caste became an expert in their own area of trade.
I think the Caste System reflected Indian society in a very negative manner. The caste system at anytime is appalling, it is hypercritical, and without the feeling of affection. I think one major problem it caused was a power struggle between the Brahmins and Kshatriyas. I think the Caste System became an outcome of human greediness and arrogance and it developed into an awfully harsh system of prejudice and domination.
3. The first tenet of Zoroastrianism is the belief in a supreme and universal god. He is the designer, the maintainer, and he protects the good from the wicked. The second important tenet of Zoroastrianism is the belief in the duality of survival. Zoroastrians accept the fact that the earth is a combat zone between good and evil forces. The third tenet is the belief in the holiness of conception. The Zoroastrians believe his conception is holy and marvelous so they feel it is everyone’s job to keep it unpolluted and sustain order. The last tenet of Zoroastrianism is the belief in the divine character of the Earth and mankind. They believe the material world consisting of flames, water, atmosphere, dirt, vegetation, nature, and humans are much like the body of God.
Zoroastrianism is very influential because it is one of the oldest existing religions on the planet. Zarathustra teachings were notice by the ancient Greek and Roman theorists who wrote about his life and teachings. Zoroastrianism brought about the perceptions of Heaven and Hell; the idea that humans have free will faced the judgment by God after death. It basically paved the way for the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Before Zoroastrian’s influence the Hebrew Bible made no reference of a physical or emotional revitalization.
Christianity is believed to be taught through the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth and Zoroastrianism is taught through the prophesy of Zarathustra. These two religions have many similarities. The one similarity that stood out to me was that in both religions there is a belief in afterlife. Also in both religions there is a constant struggle between good and evil. The last thing that stood out was the fact that each religion believed that mankind should have free will.
6. When comparing and contrasting the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism you will first notice that both of these religions originated in the South Asia region. The one thing that stood out to me was that even though they had similar customs and values, they had very different ideas on matters of social organization. The two religions also differ on the ideas of the importance of individual freedom to progress both socially and spiritually. Another big difference is that there was not a specific founder of Hinduism.
Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama in 563 B.C. and Hinduism is more of a collection of different religions and cultures. In Hinduism a person must live their life through Dharma which is a sense of obligation. Through this a person can fulfill his roles in society and the world. In Buddhism a person must live their life through Dharma, which has no social obligations but sets up a definition of right behavior and responsibility. This is done so a person can escape the cycle of suffering and rebirth or “samaras” and achieve nirvana. In both religions they believe in the process of reincarnation and the effects of Karma.
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In conclusion, Hinduism and Buddhism both influenced India even though both influenced it in dissimilar ways. The major way that Hinduism influenced India is by the Caste System. The Caste System is the order of social classes of India, and is still acknowledged by some in India, although it is now prohibited. Buddhism influenced India mostly in ways of art with many sculptures which were made in the likeness of Buddha. Buddhists cultured ways of getting in touch with their internal character through the technique of meditation. Buddhists believed in both karma and dharma. Hindus construe this as if reincarnated into an improved social class coming nearer to evading suffering would be possible.
7. The Pax Romana was a time of harmony in the Mediterranean that lasted from the control of Augustus to the reign of Marcus Aurelius. The most outstanding characteristic of this period was the fact that there were two hundred continuous years of peace within Rome. Under this peace time, Augustus was able to extend his reign to Asia Minor. The economy also prospered within this time period by improving many harbors, building roads, clearing forests, and by turning unused land into farms. In my opinion this is also a time where there was an architectural revolution.
The Pax Romana was a period of time that proved to be an example of five good rulers. The beginning of the Pax Romana began with the reign of Augustus and lasted forty-five years until his death. As ruler he was able to create a Roman Empire that had a much more balanced foundation. After his death, Rome had a few years of bad rulers. In my opinion The Roman Empire wasn’t totally unified during this period. I also think the Pax Romana should not be spoken as the point in time of Roman tranquility which the name itself suggests. The Romans did remunerate wars during this period and there were common strife’s as leaders were assassinated and tyranny was fluent. However, it was a time of wealth and progress in every sense.
There were many similarities between the Pax Romana and Han China empires, length, area, economic transformation, and territorial expansion stood out to me the most. However, in my judgment the differences are more interesting. Political assimilation in China was obtained by the increase of Confucian values, characters of the emperors, and a bureaucratic government. The powerful Roman law was emphasized over their fragile system of government. Mysticism of emperors was not as dangerous politically, even though many made claim for the position. I think one of the greatest similarities is the development of technology and architecture and also the change in government policies. The major difference in my opinion was the fact that the Roman Empire turned their government into a republic and Han China maintained the structure of the Qin Empire.
8. The main achievements of the Roman Empire was the size of the empire, the advancement of its bureaucratic system, and they had one of the most well-organized, efficient, and vicious armies that the world has ever seen. In my opinion one major limitation that helped effect Rome’s fall was that usually Roman armies’ had more allegiance to their general than the state. I feel this contributed to constant civil war which plagued Rome during a large amount of its record. I also think that a very advanced culture would be an achievement of Rome. I also want to add that another limitation is that Rome suffered from a long period of terrible rulers and even with the development of technology wasn’t enough to hold this great empire together.
One key turning point in Roman History was the overthrow of the Tarquin monarchy by Junius Brutus in 509 BC. After this Rome never converts back to a monarchy. The republic of Rome was then ruled by the Senate and its assembly. I also think the Punic Wars were another major turning point in Roman history. After the Second Punic War, Rome paved the road for its power over Italy and established itself as the main power in the western Mediterranean. This bought about power and wealth to almost the entire region. The last turning point I want to mention is the year of the five emperors. This was the turning point that in my opinion started the decline of the Roman Empire.
I think Rome’s legacy would be that they paved the way for western civilization. I also think the architecture of the Roman Empire was very dominant for its era in history. The Romans also contributed too many changes in British landscape. I also believe that much of Rome’s literature and writing has influenced the world. Lastly, the Romans will always be remembered because they had the best, well-organized, efficient, and vicious armies that the world has ever seen.
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