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The Two Nation Theory and Demand of Pakistan

Info: 3554 words (14 pages) Essay
Published: 23rd Jul 2021 in History

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Two Nation Theory’s phenomenon basically sprigged up with the advent of Islam in the Sub-Continent. The sense was very unique about Pakistan’s creation that it was generally based on ideological commitments in the light of Islam. The basic concept behind Two Nation Theory was Muslims and Hindus was two separate nations from every expects, So It was the right of Muslim to had their own homeland in the Muslims majority areas of Sub-Continent, where they can live their life according the majestic teachings of Islam. And this concept was merely adequate in giving rise to two different political thinking which were responsible in partition of Sub-Continent.

Quiad said:

“We should have a State in which we could live and breathe as free men and which we could develop according to our own lights and culture and where principles of Islamic social justice could find free play.”

The concept of Two Nation Theory was given by Islam because Islam has different characters and temperament. According to Islam, there are only two nations in the world; Believers and Non Believers.


The history of Two Nation was as old as the Muslims in India. Although the Muslims and Hindus had been living together for centuries in the sub-continent, but they never tried to progress a working relationship between each other and they always lived as a two separate nations, two discrete social systems, two separate cultures and two different civilizations. There was always a concept of two nations (Hindus and Muslim) after the advent of Islam in the Subcontinent. But, it was converted in to a theory after the war of Independence 1857. Sir Syed Ahmed khan is considered as a Father of Two Nation Theory. First time Syed Ahmed Khan realized that Muslim and Hindus cannot live together and considered Muslims as a separate nation and demanded a distinct homeland where the Muslims can practices their way of living according to Islam.

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Ideology of Pakistan took form through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the base, with Sir Syed Ahmad Khan began the period of Muslim self-awakening and started to aware the Muslims for modern education after Muslim downfall in South Asia under the Hindus majority, Allama Iqbal provided the philosophical explanation to Sir Syed’s idea and Quaid-e-Azam supported and converted the theory in to a practical work and transformed it into a political reality.


There was such a huge difference between Hindus and Muslim society. The major difference was of religion. Muslims were believed on the oneness of God and Hindus worshiped many gods. Their way of living, their religious festivals was totally changed. Muslims believed on the equality of men while on the other hand Hindus were divided in to different cast. In spite of living together for a long time, the Muslims and Hindus were incapable to coexist and cooperate with each other. This comparison played a great role for the Two Nation Theory to be existed in sub-continent.


Muslims were governing the India for many of the years. It is true that there was no such theory when Muslims were ruling over the India. There were no such concept of majority and minority when Mughal Emperors had a power. When British influence was increased there, so that was the time of Muslim downfall in India. As the Muslim downfall occurred, then there was a time of Two Nation Theory. This possibly could be for the independence from the British rule but, it is very clear that Two Nation Theory came just after the Muslim downfall in India.


It is very clear that after the Muslims downfall in South Asia, British were ruled over it. So, the war of Independence was considering an attempt by the people of Sub-Continent to remove the British rule from their homeland. But that try was failed. And this affected all the communities living there in Sub-Continent. Both the Nations; Hindus and Muslims took a part in war of Independence. Some provinces like Punjab and Deccan were not in favor to support this war but they did partially try to join this war of Independence. Some sepoys at Noshera and Mardan tried to revolt.

The failure in this war causes a lot like political causes, economical causes, and religious causes, social and military causes. The Political causes including doctrine of lapse, Annoyance of rules and states, Confiscation of states and many more. Political causes like New Agrarian policy, Destruction of local industry, Permanent settlement, Unemployment. There are Religious causes too like Propagation of Christianity, Jihad Movement and Anti Islamic laws.

British thought that Muslim was responsible for the War of Independence and therefore Muslims were accepted as insiders. On 11 May 1857, Bahadur Shah Zafar was declared publicly as the Emperor of India. Then the Delhiwas ruled by the rebels and the Europeans, who took refuge there, were massacred there. The killing of European soldiers continued and the number of people of east provinces joined the rebels. On July 1857, the tide turned and Nana Sahab was defeated at Fatahpur and

later at Bithur. The British captured Bahadur Shah in September of 1857 and two sons of Bahaur Shah were killed by the British by the reason that the British residency at Lucknow was recaptured two days later.

The Sikhs and the Marhattas was sided the British and this act of Sikhs and Marhattas was possibly the main reason of failure. The East India Company was exterminated and the British Crown was continued to govern Sub-Continent. Then by the effect of this War of Independence, an Imperial Legislative Council was formed in British India. After this War of Independence, Both Muslims and Hindus were fought together and the time of Two Nation Theory started.


India was the birth place of India. But there were not only Muslims that used Urdu language but all the communities in India joined hands for the proliferation and progress of that new language. Then some of the prominent Hindu leaders started the movement against the Urdu and their demand was to replace the Urdu from Hindi. This situation made the Muslims to come out in order to protect the importance of Urdu language. This language controversy had a great impact on the life of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan because this, he was great supporter to Hindu-Muslim Unity. Hindi Urdu Controversy was the starting of the space of separation between Hindus and Muslims which will gradually increase and that was a day when both the Nations felt that they were separate from each other.


Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, a great Muslim leader and a great philosopher. Every time, Muslims was forced by Sir Syed to get modern education. Sir Syed was a first man in Sub-Continent history to introduce a word “TWO NATION” for Muslims and Hindus and introduced an idea to become a pioneer of Two Nation Theory. Syed Ahmed Khan tried his level best for the Muslims comprehend their differences with the Hindus with many expects including religion, social, language, and international

identity and for this reason he diverted attention of the Muslims towards Two Nation Theory.

The possibly main reason for which Sir Syed introduced this theory is the downfall of Muslims, Muslims Hindus controversy, language problem, and the hatred by Hindus and British upon Muslims of South Asia. Due to Hindu Muslims non acceptance behavior, Syed Ahmed Khan realize that the both Nations cannot live together any more. During the Hindu Urdu Controversy, he came forward with Two Nation Concept and declared that Muslims were a separate Nation. He said:

“I am convinced now that Hindus and Muslims could never become one nation as their religion and way of life was quite distinct from each other.”


Actually, the concept of Two Nation Theory was originated by the Hindus. It is a historical fact that Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations. But the Hindus had given the foundation to the Two Nation Theory, years ago. There is some narrow mindedness of Hindus. They considered themselves more superior from the other races living there in Sub-Continent. There was also a cast system by Hindus itself. Some of the Hindu leaders hated Muslim a lot, and there dream was of rebuilding a great Hindu empire. One of them said:

“There was no place for them (Muslims) in the Hindu society he envisioned”.

So the hate campaign was well in place against Muslims. This factor and many others forced Muslim leader to demand a separate homeland for the Muslims of South Asia, where they could practices their way of living and implement their own cultural and religious values.


Allama Iqbal was born in Sialkot on 9 November 1877. He was well educated, philosopher and called as a Poet of East. Following many of the peoples, Iqbal did his work by the way of his poetry and philosophy. Iqbal was one of the people, who for the first time gave the concept of Two Nation Theory. Iqbal made it clear that the Muslim of Sub-Continent had their own recognition from Hindus on the bases of their culture and religion. He said:

“India is not a country. It is a Sub-Continent of human beings belonging to different languages and practicing different religions. Muslim nation has its own religious and cultural identity”.

Allama Iqbal presidential address to the 1930 Allahabad session of the All India Muslim League spoke of the Punjab, North West Frontier Province, Sindh and Baluchistan united in a single state. He though that the final fortune of the India was a separate state without the British rule. He presented some long terms and short terms solution for the independence and his struggle from words was first promoted from the platform of Muslim League.

According to Iqbal:

“I remained the supporter of this idea but now I am of the view that preservation of separate Nationhood is useful for Hindus and Muslims birth. To have the concept of single nation In India is no doubt poetic and beautiful but impractical regarding present circumstances”.


All India Muslim League was founded on 30 December 1906 by Mohsin ul Mulk at Dhaka. The British was very unhappy at the formation of this new party. But that is also a fact that the All India Muslim League was a pro-British, and was later very

criticized by the people. The Minto-Morley reforms or the Indian Council Act 1909 was passed as a development following the formation of All India Muslim League. The Muslim League was a party claiming to be the sole representative of Muslim interests in India. Muslim League’s aims and objectives was to create of loyalty between the Muslims and British Government and this was became the main reason in the creation of Pakistan, And to remove any misconceptions from either side, to protect the religious and political right of the Muslims of the Sub-Continent. There was a main role of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the doubtless leader of Muslim League and emerged as the Quaid-e-Azam of the Indian Muslims.

The leading goal of All India Muslim League was to put forward the demand for the separate homeland for the Muslims of India. And for this demand, they started to support two nation theory. They worked on it and educated the people of South Asia about Two Nation Theory that Muslims and Hindus was to different Nations and they could not live together. So, after a long struggle and politics, in 1940 the All-India Muslim League orchestrated the demand for separate Muslim state for the Muslims of India. Mohammed Ali Jinnah, The Sole Spokesman of AIML, played the role of religious communalism and provincialism in forming the movement for PakistanÛ”


Quaid e Azam did a long lasting struggle for the independence of a separate Muslim state and Jinnah also took dependence on Two Nation Theory.

Quaid said:

“We should have a State in which we could live and breathe as free men and which we could develop according to our own lights and culture and where principles of Islamic social justice could find free play.”

Quaid e Azam was a solid defender of Two Nation Theory and he considered the Muslims a separate nation from every aspects. He said:

“Pakistan came in to being the very day when first Non Muslim became a Muslim.”

Mohammad Ali Jinnah had a great 14 points and these points issued by the All India Muslim League, which was reunited, under the leadership of Quaid e Azam as the basis for any Indian future Indian constitution. These demand were taken to the round table conference, but were overshadowed by Allama Iqbal’s demands.


On December 1916, an agreement known as Lucknow Pact made by the Indian National Congress leaded by Maratha leader Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the Muhammad Ali Jinnah from the All India Muslim League on the other side. The pact was all about the structure of the government of India and about the relation between the Hindu and Muslim communities. By signing this pact, the Quaid e Azam was playing the role of Ambassador of Hindu Muslim Unity. But, after the return of Mohan Das Gandhi to India, this pact mislaid its importance and the cooperation did not last long.

There was a general over separate electorates. In the minority provinces, like UP where Muslims constituted 14 percent of population and are given 30 percent representation. In Madras, Muslims made up less than 7 percent of the population but were given 15 percent representation. But, this did not favor Muslims as they were remained a minority. In return

Bengali Muslims surrendered 25 percent, and in Punjab 10 percent of their entitlement. This reduced the Muslim majority to minority and proved prejudicial to the Muslims.

It was the first time when Congress admitted the Muslim League as the political party of the Sur-Continent representing the Muslims there, As Congress agreed to separate electorates, in fact considered the Muslims as a separate nation. Thus, they accepted the concept of the Two Nation Theory.


The Khilafat Movement did become the reason to vastly strengthen the Two Nation Theory which was became the most important basis of establishment and demanding of Pakistan. Muslims of India had an emotional attachment to the khilafat. They thought that Ottoman Caliphate as the only surviving symbol for the Muslims of South Asia. Gandhi joined this Muslims attitude over the khilafat. Quaid e Azam was not in favor to support this movement and wrote to Gandhi and warn him about this movement but Gandhi ignored him. The Quiad supported some form of non-cooperation and he was against the schools, colleges, law courts and of foreign goods. He thought the people of South Asia would be harmed by these boycotts.

As the result of this movement, All India Muslim League was weakened. Many Muslims were ruined while migrating to Afghanistan, as Afghanistan closed its borders.

Its failure, realized by the Muslims, that, if they wanted to survive in the Sub-Continent, they must rely on their own strength and political destiny. The movement later gave momentum to the struggle for the independence and for a separate homeland for the Indian Muslims.


The Two Nation Theory had played a vital and sole role in demanding of Pakistan. Every Muslim leader took advantage of this theory. Many events had been occurred with the role of Two Nation Theory and every Muslim leader, who was the supporter of an independent Muslim state, did dependent on Two Nation Theory. The whole period of Independence from 1857-1947 was just relied on Two Nation Theory. After

the Hindi-Urdu Controversy, Muslim felt that they were a separate nation from Hindus and they started to demand for a separate homeland.


The All India Muslim League held its annual session from March 22 to March 24, 1940, at Minto Park, Lahore. The Lahore Resolution is totally noted for the formal adoption and implementation of Two Nation Theory. According to M.A Jinnah:

“The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs, and literatures. They neither intermarry nor interline, and indeed they belong to two different civilizations which are based on conflicting ideas and conceptions”.

The All India Muslim League was stronger after the Luck now Pact, between 1937 and 1942, the All India Muslim League won 46 out of 56 seats in by-elections. This success was because of the Lahore session or resolution because it gave the Muslims of India, a new aim and direction. Lahore resolution was basically based on Two Nation Theory because it was final steps towards implementing the Two Nation Theory and Demand of Pakistan.


The Two Nation Theory in India was put forward to protect the rights of minority and to protect the minority from majority. Muslims, when they was minority in India, struggled hard to achieve separate electorates, But after Pakistan came in to being there is one example, General Ziaul Haq did set separate electorates against the desire of minorities.

Now, there is no importance of Two Nation Theory because, if we consider it, Pakistan would be separated in to many parts. We cannot implement any theory in every place; theory is not for all the times, it could vary from time to time. So, if we talk about Two Nation Theory, so there is no concept of this theory now in Pakistan.


The entire freedom movement revolves around the Two Nation Theory which became the basis for the demand of Pakistan. It means that the Muslims of the Sub-Continent were a separate nation with their distinct culture, civilization, literature, history, religion and social values. Islam the religion of Muslims was based on the concept of Tauheed and therefore could not be merged in any other system of religion. It means Islam gives us a concept of Two Nation Theory. Muslims of India would ultimately have a separate homeland, as they could not live with the Hindus in Sub-Continent. The demanding and achieving of Pakistan was only based on the Two Nation Theory and completely revolving around this theory.









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