Burma is situated in Southeast Asia and is bordered on the north and north-east by China, on the east and south-east by Laos and Thailand, on the south by the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal and on the west by Bangladesh and India. It is located between latitudes 09 32’N and 28 31’N and longitudes 92 10’E and 101 11’E.
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The civilization in Burma started in the 1st Century. The first Empire was established in 11th Century in the Pyu Kingdoms. The second Empire was established in the mid of 16th Century by King Bayintnaung. The third and the last Empire was established in 1752 by King Alaungpaya. In the 19th Century, Burma was invaded by British. During the Second World War, Burma was taken over by Japanese for almost three years.
Burma developed as a sovereign state on 4th January, 1948 named as the Union of Burma. Sao Shwe Thaik was the first president and U Nu was its first Prime Minister. Burma became an independent country, after the elections held in 2010, named as the union of Burma. At present, the president of Burma is Thein Sein.
India – Burma Relations
India – Burma relations initiated from the past history, ethical, cultural & religious bonding. The relations got stronger after the visit of Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1987. Many deals pleasing bilateral cooperation have been noticed between the two countries. India provided help during the cataclysmic cyclone “Nargis” in Burma in May 2008 and also during many earthquakes in March 2011.
Major Indian Projects in Burma
The Government of India has occupied itself in many infrastructural & non-infrastructural projects in Burma. ONGC Videsh Ltd. (OVL), GAIL & ESSAR have been contributors in the energy sector in Burma. The Government of India also helped TATA Motors financially while investing in a heavy turbo-truck assembly plant which was started on 31st December, 2010. India also helped in the reconstruction of many schools which were damaged during the earthquake in Burma in March 2011.
Bilateral Trade India-Burma
India normally imports agricultural items like pulses, beans & forest based products from Burma. India mainly exports raw & semi-finished steel & pharmaceuticals to Burma. Bilateral Trade was US$ 12.4 million in 1980-81 & US$ 1070.88 million in 2010-11 which is almost 86 times more. A table summarizing the bilateral relations is as follows:
Cooperation between India and Burma in the regional / Sub-regional Context
ASEAN: Burma became a member of ASEAN in July 1997. Burma acts as a bridge between India & ASEAN as ASEAN & India have a common land border.
BIMSTEC: Burma became a member of BIMSTEC in December 1997. Burma trades with India in the BIMSTEC region. The 13th BIMSTEC Ministerial Meeting was held in Burma in January 2011.
MGC: Burma is a member of the Mekong Ganga Cooperation (MGC) since its incorporation in November 2000. MGC was incorporated for cooperation in the fields of tourism, education, culture, transport & communication.
SAARC: Burma became the observer in SAARC in August 2008.
Key cities in Burma
The following are key cities of Burma as under:
Yangon is the largest city and also former capital of the Burma. It is also known as Rangoonis. Yangon is situated in lower Burma at the junction of the Yangon and Bago Rivers. As per the data of 2011 approx. population is 44, 77,638. Yangon is the major commercial hub in Burma.
Mandalay is the 2nd largest city and also former capital of Burma. Mandalay is situated in the central dry zone of Burma by the Irrawaddy River at North. As per the data of 2011 approx. population is 12, 08,099. Mandalay is the economic centre of Upper Burma.
Nay Pyi Taw
Nay Pyi Taw is the 3rd largest city and capital of Burma. The Nay Pyi Taw as a capital of Burma declared on 27 Mar, 2006, Burmese Armed Forces Day. As per the data of 2011 approx. population is 9, 25,000.
The population of Mawlamyaing is 4, 38,861 and largest city of Mon State, Burma, and is the main trading centre and seaport in south-eastern Burma. Mawlamyaing located south east of Yangon and south of Thaton, at the mouth of Thanlwin River.
The population of Taunggyi is 1, 60,115 and capital city of Shan State, Burma. The name Taunggyi means “Big Mountain” in the Burmese language.
RESOURCE ACCOUNTING & ENVIRONMENT STATISTIC
Burma’s people dependent on the natural resources for their livelihoods & traditionally maintained the natural resource management & there stability. Burma is also rich for their natural resources like petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten. Lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas, & hydropower.
Burma is also fames for their hardwoods’. According to the most recent UN World Development Report, Myanmar has an estimated natural Myanmar forest area of 43% down from 12% from 10 years ago, and is ranked 33rd among the world’s top 100 countries.
According to the report, Burma has unparalleled large amount of animal and plant life. Almost all of the country is located inside the indo Burma biodiversity hotspot and one of the world’s 34 “richest and most threatened reservoirs of plant and animal life” as identified by Conservation International.
Since it still houses a wide array of plant and animal species already geographically extinct in neighbouring states, Burma is a country of particular concern in regards to biodiversity conservation in the Southeast Asia region.
Burma is home to Asia’s most large area in whole tropical forest ecosystems. May different forest ecosystem exist in Burma like delta mangroves, lowland tropical reain forest in Tennasserim division, teak forests, semi deciduous forest further north and sub alpine in northern kachin state among others.
Burma prossesses the world’s only remaining golden teak forest. However all these forest system are in danger most of this closed forest is found in ethnic border region like Karen state karenni state and Tennasserim Division along the Thailand border, Kachin State along the Yunnan, China border, Arakan State along the Bangladesh border, and Sagging Division next to northeast India.
Burma has 2832 k.m. Long coastline larger from the country is exact west to southeast form the way of Bengal to Andaman Sea with this stretch alluvial huts and sheltered muddy area are home to mangrove trees and shrubs.
Keystone protect coastal regions from the impacts of storms and also serve like habitat to crawfish, shrimp, crops and numerous other aquatic animal on other side fish and other aquatic foods, communities collect non timber forest product like wild fruits and vegetables from mangroves.
Watersheds and freshwater sources:-
Burma is in main five rivers. Its name is Irrawaddy, the Chindwin, The Salween, the Sittaung and the Tenasserim, endangered species in a Irrawaddy dolphin and blyth’s river frog can be found in some of these waterways.
And other rivers are like the kaladan its runs from Mizoram, an India through chiniand and Arakan and the Mekong it’s from the border between shan stet and Lao PDR. Regional and international investors take notice for Burma. It’s a plentiful water sources and both for hydropower potential as well as irrigated agriculture.
Burma is rich mineral resource like tungsten, tin, zinc, silver, copper, lead, coal, goal, and industrial minerals. Antimony, limestone, and marble deposits also dot the landscape. Gemstones like diamonds, rubies, jade, and sapphires can also be found in Burma.
Burma is most famous for its high quality rubies and jadeite. It is hard to track small scale gem businesses and estimate the value of gem trade in Burma, however, according to industry estimates, Burma accounts for more than 90 percent of global trade of rubies by value.
Oil and Gas
The first foreign investment project after 1988 when the government began to partially
liberalize the economy was the development of the Yadana gas field in the Andaman Sea and the construction of a gas pipeline through ceasefire and conflict areas in Mon State and Tenasserim Division in eastern Burma.
In 2007, Soe Myint, the Director-General of Planning for Burma’s Energy Ministry, stated that the country had more than 500 million barrels of onshore oil reserves, with another 100 million offshore.
That same year nine foreign oil companies were exploring for new oil deposits, increasing output from older fields, and attempting to restart extraction on previously shut down fields on 16 onshore blocks.
In regards to natural gas, according to British Petroleum’s 2010 Statistical Review of World Energy, at the end of 2009, Burma’s proven gas reserves stood at 20.1 trillion cubic feet, or 0.57 trillion cubic meters, roughly 0.3 percent of the world’s total gas reserves.
The CIA World Fact book cites Burma’s gas reserves at only 283.2 billion cubic meters as of the beginning of 2010, but the actual proven reserves are likely higher than cited by both sources due to recent onshore gas discoveries.
The Union of Burma is geographically situated in Southeast Asia between latitudes 09 degrees 32 min N and 28 degrees 31 min N and longitudes 92 degrees 10 min E and 101 degrees 11 min E.
Burma geography area covered is 677000 square kilometres. There are also divided in two part like west & east, north & south they using the area 936 kilometres 7 2051 kilometres respectively.
In Burma touch the West and northwest borders on Bangladesh & India. In the North and Northeast is China and Laos and in the East Thailand, all direct neighbors of the country and sea.
In Burma 2000 kilometers & 1450 kilomerters geographical area consider respectively for north to south and west to east burma.
That is more useful for the transportation by the road. In Burma most of rice export from the region like fertile, agricultural. Burma has considered the different are for all different zones so that political situation also different from each other.
In Burma available the many mountain ranges. The same people can said to be for the many more mountains range inside the country itself Burma.
POPULATION & URBANIZATION
People in Burma population estimated around 54 million with density being 70 persons per sq. km. in Burma different religious people are there like Buddhist, Christian, & Muslim.
In Burma main language is Burmese but in there different ethnic group have own languages. In Burma , English language is widely spoken & understand. There are main eight group of people in Burma like Kachin, kayah, kayin, chin, mon, bamar, rakhine, shan.
The Human Development Index measures development combining indicators of education, life expectancy
and income http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/hdi/.
Burma is one of the resource rich country. Burma is considered an agricultural country before the 2nd world war. In Burma garnet economic drivers are like natural gas, mining, timber & power generation plant. however suffers from pervasive government controls, inefficient economic policies, corruption and widespread poverty.
Burma is gerent the major energy by the oil. The have also use to gerent the energy comes from gas & coal. The greatest consumer of energy with the residential consumption in the country.
Air pollution is main problem in Burma many cities just because of growing industries. The other side also effect the pollution with the waste burning & vehicles are there. However, the country also suffers from trans-boundary pollution from neighbouring countries such as Thailand and India.
AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT
In Burma maintain the air quality with help of the National commission for environmental agency. Air is also effect to the health so the in Burma develops the National Health Plan. Burma together with the city development committee department of medical research came up with environmental health problem & implement pollution controls.
There is no industry pollution in Burma. Its problems in entire Burma country and also not in yargon. Burma has remained under permissible levels of environmental pollution. Burma is not industrialized so the volumes of carbon and solid waste produced in yargon everyday have not reached considerable level. So there is no pollution in Burma and no need to worry about that.
School Myanmar Children
In yangon air pollution is 87.50%.
The main source of air pollution in Yangon is vehicles. But concrete roads also increase the levels of dust and coarse particles in the air.
In Burma particularly vehicle pollution is an increasing problem so if you have any related to breathing problems than speak with your doctor before travelling to any havelly polluted urban centers in Burma.
Because of this pollution, we get some minor breathing problems like sinusits, dry throat and irritated eyes.
The department began measuring air pollution at three locations in 2009 and new readings were undertaken in January at Hlaing Tharyar Industrial Zone, the department’s office in Ahlone township and a residential area in Bahan township.
“Yangon city roads are quite narrow and this results in traffic jams and in turn more pollution,”
Eating in Burma restaurants is the biggest risk factor for contracting traveler’s diarrhea. Ways it includes eating only freshly cooked food and avoiding shellfish and food that has been sitting around in dining table.
Peel all fruit, cook, and vegetables and soak salads in iodine water for the least 20 minutes. Eat in busy Burma restaurants with a high turnover of customers in Burma.
In yangon water pollution is 50.00%.
The number one rule is be careful of the water and especially ice in Burma . If you don’t know for certain that the water is safe, assume the worst.
Reputable brands of bottled water or soft drinks are generally fine, although in some places bottles may be refilled with tap water in Myanmar.
Only use water from containers with serrated seal hot tops or corks take care with fruit juice, particularly if water may have been added.
Milk should be treated with suspicion as it is often unpasteurised, though boiled milk is fine if it is kept hygienically. Tea or coffee should also be OK, since the water should have been boiled.
Burma is a developing country, they contribute to the more in preservation of its environment and ecosystems.
In Burma, forest are cover over 49% area including acacia, bamboo, ironwood and michelia champaca.
Since 1995 people are cuts more trees that effect seriously reduced forest area and wildlife area.
Tigers, leopard, rhinoceros, wild buffalo, wild boars, deer, antelope and elephants are more in upper Burma’s forest.
Smaller mammals,gibbons and monkeys and over 800nspecies birds in the forest. Birds including, parrots,peafowl, pheasant, crows, herons and paddybirds.
Burma’s currency is “Kyat”. Burma’s bank issue notes of 1 Kyat, 5 Kyat, 10 Kyats, 15 Kyats, 45 Kyats, 90 Kyats, & 200 Kyats.
The currency exchange rate in between 1994 is 6 Kyats for one U S $. Than after some time Kyats market is back that time currency exchange rate up to the 1200 Kyats per US $.
Burma divided their climate in to the different three category like cold season, Rainy season, & Summer. In all three climate also face with different time like summer is march to mid may, rainy fall start in mid may to the end of October and cold season start with November to end of the February.
In burma generally enjoy the tropical monsoon. In Burma whether climate change or different from the place to place due to the differing topographical situation. In burma average highest temperature generally during summer month is 43.3 degree.
Burma is very hot in summer season. In burma also different climate with different palce like north zone, south zone, waste zone, east zone and central zone also with different seasons.
In Burma many cities are their. In Burma have divided the cities on the bases of there population. Major around 10 to 11 cities in the ranking on the bases of the population there is given below
www.geonames.org â€º Countries â€º Myanmar [Burma]
Burma is a rich nation & one of the developed nation in the world. The latest data given by the UNDP’s human development report give rank 132 out of 169. In Burma pre capita GDP is approximately $435 USD almost lowest in the world.
In 1995 the capital of Burma is “Yangon” after that since 2005 the capital of Burma is change. So, now on word Naypyidaw is the capital of the Burma.
S.W.O.T ANALYSIS OF BURMA
The Burma is blessed with natural scenic beauty & contains more than 2000 kms coastline with beautiful beaches.
In Burma more no. of people working in agriculture sector, so that labour force high in agriculture activity.
There are 40 national parks, wildlife sanctuary & protected area under the forestry ministry & also fifteen national parks have been registered in ecotourism sites.
Burma’s people are giving more respect to women.
In Burma literacy rate is very high so that educated people are there.
Burma has a large trade deficit that has also crippled its economic growth.
Burma export following commodities Jade and Gems, Clothing, Rice, Fish, Pulses and Beans, Wood Product, Natural gas.
Telecommunication is high in Burma because people are using internet & they have wide range of network.
New business procedure is much similar as India.
8% commercial tax and 2% income tax shall be payable in foreign currency for all export from private sector.
Burma has big industry of mining, timber, biodiversity and oil and gas and make easily transition with other country
In Burma National Tourism Organization has submitted national heritage sites to ASEAN. (E.g. Bagan & Mragkoo)
Burma is attracted and holds the interested country with a rich history in arts and crafts. Burma represents the largest repository of there arts and crafts.
Burma offers variety of sport activities for tourism such as ski in the North, diving, bird watching, and water rafting. In Burma tourist shopping specially like handicrafts. Gems & clothes.
Burma has pleasant climate and long tourist seasons. May to September can be called “value season” instead of low season because tourists do not have to pay expensive cost if visiting during this time.
There is the travel safety warning that there is the constraint imposed on local travel and the dangers of criticizing the regime. The infighting between the ethnic groups in some parts of the country.
The Burma workforce lake expertise & exposure to a competitive market environment. In Burma’s people also lack of technical knowledge especially for construction project. There is a need for improve English & other languages for workers in the tourism industry.
The country has manpower to support tourism industry for example there are 6,000 people who have got guide license, but only 300-400 are working because of the limitation of available work and tourists.
For the moment Burma is the place unlike most other tourist destinations. Travel is sometime unpredictable because the essential infrastructures such as efficient good management, transport, communication and hotels are still far from near complete.
Myanmar is a difficult country to sum up in terms of weather since it has a varied terrain with tropical beaches, lowland plateaus and the shoulders of the Himalayas. However, it is considered as a 12 year destination.
Lack capital to undertake the necessary programs to develop tourism. Travellers to Burma can visit only officially designated tourist areas. Permission is needed for treks to remote parts of the country. The process of permission takes about seven days.
National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma: After winning the elections in 1990, the military rulers stopped the democratic parties from taking over the government. The MPs, with support from the Democratic Alliance of Burma, the National Democratic Front, and others, formed the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB). The NCGUB has led the call for a tripartite dialogue between the ethnic nationalities, the NLD, and the military to resolve national problems. If there is peace in the country, it is the opportunity for tourism to be promoted.
In April 2010, a Tourism Industry Development Management Committee (TDMC) was established to address issues affecting development. Comprising 26 high ranking personnel, the committee aims to develop international tourism in order to increase foreign exchange earnings and raise awareness of the country.
The benefits derived are measured not only in terms of the amount of foreign capital brought in, but also includes the long-term transfer of technology and the encouragement of entrepreneurship. There are several areas in which foreign participation can contribute to the development of the economy, and specifically to the tourism sector such as hotel development, infrastructure development, tour operations, souvenir industry, and preservation and restoration of monuments.
In Burma, visitor visas have been extended to 28 days and package tour groups can now obtain visas on arrival. Tourists are allowed to enter through several checkpoints along the Thai borders.
Uncertainties about socio-economic stability and a lack of definite signs of reform deter some foreign investors.
The economic malaise of the past three decades has fuelled an extensive black market in the country.
Risk from economic reform and liberalization.
Risk from climate change.
Pollution from economic activities is one threat because less education awareness.
Tension from internal ethnic conflicts
Negative images that are exaggerated or presented in their own point of view by international media such as the issues of human rights and travel advisory.
In 2009 Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, speaking in the context of the junta’s promotion of 1996%2010 as ‘Visit Myanmar Year’, argued that it was too soon for visitors to come “pouring in” to Myanmar.
Many NGOs urge the international community to boycott the country. They argue that revenue from tourism supports the Government financially, and holidaying in the country could be interpreted as approval of the military regime. Furthermore, forced labor was used to build some of the tourist infrastructure and tourists are kept away from large parts of the country, where repression of minorities is occurring.
However, many comments argue that it is increasingly possible to use privately-owned lodging and transport facilities, benefiting the local people. Likewise, economic development could lead to a democratization of the country.
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