The Manipulation Of Public Opinion History Essay
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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016
Propaganda is the propagation or the manipulation of public opinion. It is commonly through the media that capable to reach a large amount of people, and convince them to support or oppose a cause. However, and there is no specific definition is completely correct. Some people think that publicity is to change political opinions, while others think the persuasive communication is propaganda. However, there is no doubt that propaganda is a promotional material. Anyhow, the purpose of propaganda is to spread rumor, idea, or information for the purpose of harming or ease an organization, causation, or to a person.
When happened in war, there are always a lot of propaganda techniques that used by propagandists. For example, euphoria, stereotyping, rationalization, assertion, fear appeal, and etc. However, the seven common propaganda techniques that used by successful propagandists, called the “seven common propaganda devices” are band wagon, plain folks, transfer, name calling, card stacking, testimonial and glittering generalities. (The Institute for Propaganda Analysis (IPA), 1937) These techniques are intended to deceive us because of the appeal to our emotions moderately than to the reason.
With no doubt, the Nazis Germany leader, Adolf Hitler (figure 1.0.1) was powerful and got his popularity in Germany when he began The Holocaust in 1933, ended in 1945. Along the World War, the Führer (Leader) propaganda technique was the main propaganda technique he used. He was in everywhere along with the propaganda ‘tools’.
Figure 1.0.1: Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945)
2.1 Nazis Germany
From Adolf Hitler (figure 2.1.1) brooding teenage days in Linz through years in Vienna, he led a lazy lifestyle and never held a regular job besides of his time in the World War I. In 1919, after Hitler joined the German Workers’ Party at the age of his 30, he immediately began an uncontrolled exertion to make it a success. The German Workers’ Party involved primarily of an administrative committee having seven members, counting Hitler. To invite more new members Hitler set up invitations which every committee member offered to friends requesting them to appear in the party’s monthly communal gathering, but only a few appear. Afterward they tried having invites on paper at a stationary supply. Again a few people came.
Therefore they decided to apply advertisement published at Hitler’s persistence and in an anti-Semitic newspaper in Munich, organized the public gathering in beer cellar that would fit around a hundred. Lots of other committee members were so worried they might have misfortune to fill the space, but just a hundred presented up at the conference having on October 16, 1919.
Hitler was planned to be the second speaker at this conference even it was to be his first time. However when Hitler begin to speak, he surprised everyone with a very emotional aptitude, at times near hyper manner of speaking constructing. For Hitler, it was a vital period in his beginning political vocation. He defined this period as Mein Kampf:
Money is used to buy more ads and printed brochures. Hitler now marked as the core of the Germany workers ‘ Party. In Hitler speeches, he railed against the Treaty of Versailles and to make the anti-Jewish tirades, accusing Jews for Germany’s difficulty. Participation slowly increased, numbering hundreds of people.
In the early of 1920, Hitler took charge in the party of propaganda. In February, 1920, Hitler’s German Workers’ Party held its first mass rally. He met with the leadership of the party members who think it is premature, and worried that it might be disrupted to the strong opposition of the Marxist. Hitler had no fear of interruption; he welcomed it. In fact, he knows that it will bring the notoriety of his party’s anti-Marxist. He even decorated his hall with red heavier Marxism.
On February 24 of the 1920, Hitler was stimulated when he entered the huge meeting hall in Munich. Two thousand of people awaits, including a huge amounts of Communists. He was drowned out by shouting and arguing between confusion Communists and German Workers’ Party associates after few minutes into his speech. In the course of time, Hitler resumed his speech and state in Mein Kampf, the arguing was drowned out by cheering.
Hitler went forward in planning the Twenty Five Points of the German Workers’ Party, the political content, which involved: the combination of all Germans in a superior German Reich; exclusion of the Treaty of Versailles; the request for extra areas for the Germany (Lebensraum); nationality classified by race, no Jew are to be taking into account as a German; all revenue not received by work to be seized; a full renovation of the national educational structure; religious liberty excluding for religions which compromise the German nationality; and a solid fundamental government for the performance of operative legislation.
Hitler underwent the Twenty Five Points one by one, question the noisy and mischievous crowd for its authorization on every point that he got. For him, the conference was now a huge achievement. He realized one thing that lacked of was a flag or recognizable symbol. In the summer of 1920, Hitler chose the swastika, perhaps the most infamous symbol in history. Hitler’s party gain popularity immediately with the help of the swastika after it’s set inside the white round circle above the red background that provided a strong, instantly recognizable symbol (figure 2.1.2).
Hitler explained the symbolism included: “In the red, the societal thought of the movement while in the white, the nationwide idea; in the swastika, the mission to tussle for the triumph of Aryan man. Meanwhile, the victory of the thought of artistic work, which is everlastingly anti-Semitic and there will always, be anti-Semitic.” The full name of The German Workers’ Party was changed by Hitler to the name – National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP or Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) or Nazi. Nazi had about three thousand members by the end of the 1920.
Figure 2.1.2: German Nazi Flag
2.2 Nazis ‘Führer’ techniques introduction
Among all of the propaganda weapons that the Nazi held, perhaps Führer (Leader) – Adolf Hitler himself is the most efficient and lasting to gather public support in the war. Hitler had a skill to settle down arguments to their most easy terms and could move crowds on a rank of sentiment rather than mental power. He also refined his public image to a fixated level; make sure that it place at the heart of everything in the Nazi position.
Führer, meaning guide or leader in German, mainly linked with Adolf Hitler. Führer was a name that Hitler granted for himself. He got pleasure from a notable amount of popularity among the grand majority of the German people for almost 10 years after the year 1933. In political guidance, the sect of the leader is exceeded any normal level of trust which is the fundamental to a comprehending of the appeal of the National Socialism. It was definitely the most central theme that going through Nazi propaganda.
Führerprinzip (the leadership principle), is the conception to represent Hitler’ ideas. To the more practical terms, the leadership principle is that all the decisions came down from above instead of choices and discussion from below.
The projection of the ‘Führer-myth’ portrayed Hitler as an appealing superman and the man of all the people. The ‘Führer-myth’, is how the German people imaged their leader. The ”Führer-myth’ is a thought likely to brainwashed people thinking. In the matter of fact, the German people were not fond of Hitler’s character but his well-liked image.
3.1 Führer [euphoria] technique – Poster
The poster (figure 3.1.1), which translated “One People, One Reich, One Führer,” was one of the most central parts of the German propaganda by using Führer technique. In this poster, Hitler was shown as a spiritual figure and leading the nation’s destiny. Adolf Hitler is in his familiar ‘renaissance pose’: His left hand is deliberately placed right on a chair support while his right hand is placed right on his hip, structurally isolated at the elbow. The main purpose of the poster is to show that everything were good and better in the Nazis Party and all the people will be treated as ‘friend’ using the visual effects of the poster. Also, this motivated the public to work harder, for the Reich. The Reich was the three major German empires that ever existed, chiefly Nazi Germany. Oton I was the creator of The First Reich as known as Holy Roman Germanic Empire. Unfortunately it was disbanded in 1806 by Napoleon. The Second Reich was the Hohenzollern Empire, 1871 to 1918 after the Germany lose in WWI while The Third Reich was Nazis Germany. The Führer worship also assisted encourage arrogance in Reich and the Germany among the German residents. There’s other images depicted him to imply decency or nobility; for example, picture of him taken outside with his dog (figure 3.1.2) as Hitler is an animal lover. At that time, having a ‘wolf’ grew extremely fashionable during the Third Reich. Besides, Hitler also had many painted portraits of himself (figure 3.1.3 and figure 3.1.4), serve to praise him. Not only to glorify the Reich, but also persuaded people to follow its orders.
Figure 3.1.1: ‘One People, One Nation, One Leader’
Figure 3.1.2: Hitler with his dog, Blondi. Around 1941 – 30 April 1945
Figure 3.1.3, Figure 3.1.4: Adolf Hitler Color Portrait Oil Painting Photographs, WWII-era
3.2 Führer [persuasion] technique – Medias
The leader, Adolf Hitler, also opened cinemas for his films which contained propaganda. The main purpose is to show the people how Germany would be like if Hitler himself the leader to rule the country. In order to make people feeling that Nazi party is their first choice and they are welcoming, Hitler also construed techniques like comedy into the films to show that everything is good in Nazis’. The two most recognized films at that time, Triumph des Willens (Triumph of the Will, 1934) (figure 3.2.1) and the Der ewige Jude (The Eternal Jew, 1940) (figure 3.2.2). Triumph of the Will is written by Leni Riefenstahl. Leni Riefenstahl was a German actress, film director, a filmmaker and a dancer. Triumph of the Will was originally is to file the early days of the Nazi Party of how the Third Reich began for the future generations, but in reality, is to show on how the Nazi state won over the peoples through propaganda and also to show how Adolf Hitler had a terrifying and unique ability to allure crowds to his convictions by the power of his words. At the same time, The Eternal Jew is described as evil, filthy, corrupt and target on world dominance and been characterized as the most repulsive success of the anti-Semitic films that made during the era. It was written by Eberhard Taubert. Eberhard Taubert was an anti-Semitic Nazi propagandist and a lawyer. He was a member of the Nazi Propagandaministerium under Joseph Goebbels since 1933. These anti-Semitic German Nazis’ propaganda films were respectively one of the well-known propaganda film in film history and the failure. With no doubt, Hitler advertised the films and his cinemas and directly linked into the propaganda of the newspaper. It made him insanely famous amongst the public and gained more power at that time. Der Angriff (“The Attack”) (figure 3.2.3) was a German language newspaper established by Berlin Gau in 1927 of the Nazi Party. It was first published on 4 July 1927 by the Angriff Press and the last edition was published on 24 April 1945.
Figure 3.2.1: Triumph of the Will, movie poster, 1935
Figure 3.2.2: The Eternal Jew, movie poster, 1940
Figure 3.2.3: ‘The Attack’ newspaper, 1927
Speeches (figure 3.2.4) are another way that the Nazis used for the Führer technique and speeches that Hitler gave usually would make the Nazis sounds better than they actually were in his given speeches. His speeches had a huge impact on the public as it attracted them being at the side of Hitler. To persuade the people into joining the Nazi Party, Hitler would do anything even worse by giving out speeches on things that aren’t essentially true. Other than speeches, radio broadcasting perhaps another tool for persuasion which they believed that the radio is an important tool in Nazi propaganda. In fact, the Nazis owned a radio station (figure 3.2.5). They brought out a series of inexpensive radio sets – the Volksempfänger (figure 3.2.6), or so-called people’s radios so the poorer Germans could listen to the Nazi propaganda. Goebbels himself also did frequently spoke about Hitler to continue to worship him. Joseph Goebbels (figure 3.2.7) was a Reich Minister of Propaganda in Nazi Germany from and a German politician. He was one of the most dedicated followers and side associates of Adolf Hitler.
Figure 3.2.4: Adolf Hitler on the podium, giving speeches, 1942
Figure 3.2.5: Radio station owned by the Nazis Figure 3.2.6: the Volksempfänger
Figure 3.2.7: Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945)
Thus, along the World War, all the propaganda techniques carried an important role itself in different situations no matter in war, politics or economies. Hitler, the Führer, always planted great and strong strategies against enemies all by himself no matter with medias, posters, books, etc. While in the World War, the Führer propaganda technique that Hitler applied on everything like medias, just well-used. All comes in handy when Adolf Hitler needs to raise more people into the Nazis. Hitler is very well in persuasion. His speeches were so provoking and were often more than just a man speaking on a podium. Another example, the propaganda poster, picture of himself portrayed with his famous ‘renaissance pose’ and with some slogan can affect a lot of citizens starting to adore him and believe him. On the other side, Hitler loves animal. Hitler was seemingly very fond of Blondi, his German Shepherd dog. He always keeping Blondi around him and letting Blondi to sleep in his own bedroom in the hollow. This fondness was not shared by Hitler’s wife, Eva Braun. Eva herself was a photographer. Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide together on 30 April 1945.
From my point of view, Adolf Hitler doesn’t need any beautiful people to present Nazis. He was the perfect person to present Nazis. With no doubt, Hitler is one of the most sufficient leaders at all time although he was the meanest one. Hitler had a large effect on the world while he was in control of the Germany as he was an outstanding leader. Most of the people under Hitler’s rule came together in unity and saw him as an excellent leader. There is a thought that everything that Hitler did during was a great aid for Germany and its people, and only a good leader would do for his people. It is hard, nearly impossible, to picture the Nazi tragedy without Adolf Hitler at its center. While his motivations may have been disputed, his skill to guide and control people is not.
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