Benito Mussolini And Adolf Hitler
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Published: Wed, 03 May 2017
Throughout history, many leaders have impacted their countries and the world around them. Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini are two brutal yet significant leaders who came to power in their nations during a time of inflation, depression, and devastation. They both gained their power similarly and improved their country’s conditions after the devastation of World War I. During their rule they ruined many people’s lives and negatively impacted other countries. Hitler and Mussolini benefited their county’s economy. These leaders used totalitarian regimes as a way to gain order and control. Despite their many similarities, they also have many differences such as their very different principles. Hitler’s principle was based on the racial superiority of the Arian race. Mussolini empathized nationalism based on remembering Rome’s glory. Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini had many similarities and differences; however their role in history impacted their country and World War II both negatively and positively.
There are many similarities between Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy were unhappy with the outcome of World War I. “Italians are showing great sympathy for the Hitler government in Germany. They consider the Treaty of Versailles cheated them of the fruit of victory (New York Times, 1933).” Germany and Italy had serious social and economic problems caused by the outcome of World War I. Hitler promised to end reparations, and create jobs through the creation of public works programs. It employed people by having them, build highways and housing. Mussolini promised a strong and stable government. Hitler and Mussolini had a totalitarian style in which they ruled their countries. A totalitarian government is regulated with only one leader that makes all the decisions for the entire country and regulates every aspect of a citizen’s life. Hitler and Mussolini both used this form of government to help their counties Germany and Italy out of a deep economic depression after the devastation of World War I. Hitler and Mussolini became allies during the axis pact. They formed forces before gaining their power. Hitler formed the Nazi party. The Nazi Party stands for the Nationalists Socialist German workers party. The Nazi party supported violent racial nationalism and anti Semitism. Mussolini formed the black shirts. They chose violence over the democratic process. The black shirts used violence, censorship, and extreme propaganda. “Propaganda must not serve the truth, especially as it might bring out something favorable for the opponent (Hitler, 582).” Hitler explained that, “All propaganda must be popular and its intellectual level must be adjusted to the most limited intelligence among those it is addressed to. Consequently, the greater the mass it is intended to reach, the lower its purely intellectual level will have to be (Hitler, 583).” They both were anti- communist. Hitler and Mussolini used terror and force to gain more power. “The one means that wins the easiest victory over reason: terror and force (Hitler, 600). They both had scapegoats. Hitler blamed the Jewish for everything, especially for the loss of World War I. Mussolini blamed anyone that went against him. They formed alliances with each other before the start of World War II. Hitler and Mussolini both were talented speakers helping them gain support of the people.
Although there are many similarities between Hitler and Mussolini, there are many differences between these two men. A major difference between Germany and Italy was on racism. Italy under Mussolini was not really bias and was not particularly anti Semite like Hitler. In Germany under Hitler racism, the superiority of the German race and anti-Semitism was a major part of the party of Nazism. Germany glorified itself with the “master race theory” and many anti- Jewish campaigns. Hitler and Mussolini had very different principles. Hitler’s principle was based on the racial superiority of the Arian people. He dehumanized people especially Jewish with Nuremberg laws. “We, as Aryans, can conceive of the state only as the living organism of a nationality which not only assures the preservation of its nationality, but by the development of its spiritual and ideal abilities leads it to the highest freedom (Hitler, 285).”The Arian people had blue eyed, pale blond hair, and fair skin traits. Hitler believed that the Germans were the “master race.” “For a racially pure people which is conscious of its blood can never be enslaved by the Jew. In this world he will forever be master over bastards and bastards alone (Hitler, 287).” Hitler is an anti- Semite. An anti Semite believes that living space needed to be expanded to create space for its Hitler’s “ideal people.” “The anti-Semitism of the new [Christian Social] movement was based on religious ideas instead of racial knowledge (Hitler, 405).” Mussolini’s principle was more nationalism based reviving Rome’s former glory. “It is not without emotion, without pride, that after seven months of fierce hostilities, I pronounce this great world, but it is strictly necessary for me to add it to out peace, roman peace, which is expressed in this simple, irrevocable, definite phrase-“Ethiopia is Italian (New York Times, 1936).”After Hitler spoke out against the Weimar government, he was arrested for his role in the Munich Putsch of 1923, which was an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the government. While incarcerated Hitler wrote a book, Mien Kampf. This work contained many of his ideas including ideas the Jewish, Slavs, Gypsies, and Africans were inferior races. Basically anyone that isn’t pure German is inferior according to Hitler. Hitler wanted to create the thousand year Reich uniting all the German people. “The personification of the devil as the symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the Jew (Hitler, 410).” Hitler hated the Jews; he blamed them for the German loss of World War One.
Hitler and Mussolini impacted their countries and the world around them both negatively and positively in many ways. It is very clear that some people benefited from the Nazi rule under Hitler whereas some didn’t. The Jewish, Africans, Gypsies, homosexuals, and basically anyone that was not pure German were killed. “All non-Germans shall be expelled from Germany as long as unemployment exists and while it is impossible property to nourish all Germans (New York Times, 1945).” The Nazi party implemented the Nuremburg laws. The Nuremburg laws were laws that placed restrictions on Jews. It prohibited Jews from marrying non-Jews, attending or teaching at schools, and holding governmental jobs. Nazi’s beat Jews and also encouraged others to do then same. Hitler created the public works program which employed people. Anyone who resisted Hitler’s Nazi program would be taken away or killed just like all of the other groups that Hitler felt were undesirable. “A threat to take their children away from non-Nazi parents if they resist the program of the Third Reich was made by Chancellor Adolf Hitler in a speech here today (New York Times, 1933).” “If the older generation cannot get accustomed to us, we shall take their children away from them and rearm them as needful for the fatherland (New York Times).” Hitler started to kick Jewish people out of their jobs and replace their position with Germans people. The Nazis were responsible for The Holocaust, the killing of about six million Jewish people and four million others who weren’t up to Hitler’s standards of being pure German including Jews, handicapped, communist, gypsies, homosexual, and anyone non-German. These concentration camps were set up for the extermination of anyone Hitler felt was not useful to him and non-German. Even though Hitler impacted people negatively he did bring back pride and stability back to the country after the Treaty of Versailles by abandoning it. This impacted Germany positively because they did not have to pay back the reparations; however it impacted France, Britain, and the United States negativity. Hitler started to rearm Germany and began to expand. The allied powers used appeasement trying to keep peace with Hitler. Hitler started to annex Sunderland, Austria, Poland, and Rhineland.
“What a use could be made of the Treaty of Versailles! How each one of the points in that Treaty could be branded in the minds and hearts of the German people until sixty million men and women find their souls aflame with a feeling of rage and shame; and a torrent of fire bursts forth as from a furnace, and a will of steel is forged from it, with the common cry: Wir wollen wieder waffen!-We will rearm! (Hitler, 160).” Rule under Mussolini was similar to Hitler, however the way he ruled wasn’t based on hatred towards non Germans especially Jews. It was based on Italian nationalism. Mussolini unified Italy and made Italians proud of their country. Papers and books were censored, so it would favor the fascist government. Mussolini helped the public by using public work camps, which gave jobs to the large number of unemployed people in Italy. It also provided Italy with new and improved roadways. However Mussolini did make an alliance with Hitler and sent weapons to Francisco Franco during their civil war helping him win the civil war. This caused him to become the leader of Spain and creating a fascist dictatorship similar to Mussolini and Hitler. Hitler and Mussolini gave weapons to Franco as long as he allowed Hitler to practice Blitzkrieg in Spain. Blitzkrieg is lightening war. Hitler caused World War Two because he went against the Nazi Soviet Pact with Stalin. The Nazi Soviet pact was an agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union to not attack each other and stay on their own sides of Poland after they divided Poland. Hitler went against this pact and it started the war. However the World War did benefit the Unites States in a way because it took them out of the Great Depression because they were selling weapons. Over sixty million people were killed after World War Two ended. During the war many civilians died as a result of starvation, bombings, genocide, or disease.
Hitler and Mussolini ruled similarity and differently while influencing their countries the world around them both negatively and positively. Hitler and Mussolini both came into power while their countries were in trouble economy after the outcome of World War II were their principles were different. Hitler’s principle was based on the racial superiority of the Arian peoples and his hatred towards the Jewish. Mussolini’s was more nationalism based on remembering Rome’s glory. Hitler created public works to decrease the unemployment. However Hitler created the Nuremburg laws which placed restrictions on Jews. It prohibited Jews from marrying non- Jews, attending or teaching at schools, and holding government jobs. Mussolini stabilized Italy and made Italians proud of their country. However the fascist government censored a lot so no one would go against the fascist government. Even though they ruled similarly and differently while impacting their countries and the world around them both negatively and positively they did do a lot of good for their countries, however it didn’t help certain groups within their empire.
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