The Introduction Of Malacca History Essay
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There is a popular story on how the town Malacca was found by Prince was out hunting one day and while resting under a tree, one of his dogs cornered a mouse-deer or 'pelandok'. The mouse-deer in its defence attacked the dog and even forced it into the river-water. Parameswara was so taken up by the courage of the mouse-deer that he decided on the spot to found a city on the ground he was sitting on. Thus, Melaka or Malacca was born. Many claimed that the prince took this name from the 'Melaka' tree that was shading him.
Melaka was founded by Parameswara (or Raja Iskandar) the last Malay ruler of Temasik (ancient Singapore) in 1396 when he and his followers retreated up the straits to Muar, then to Sungai Ujung before settling at Bertam near the estuary of Melaka River.
Finding the place of strategic location, he decided to make a permanent settlement there, naming it "Melaka" after the name of the tree he leaned against
The Melaka Sultanate occupies a special position in the history of Malaysia. Its inauguration marked the beginning of the emergence of a new Malay empire. The birthplace of the Malay Sultanates and Malaysia's historic city, Melaka provided the stage on which the Portuguese, Dutch and English played out their roles in shaping the history.
Melaka emerged as a strong maritime trading state under the industrious Parameswara and his chiefs. Melaka also began to be noticed by Muslim traders from West Asia and India, who until that period, had been concentrating their activities in Aru, Pedir and Pasai en-route to the East, especially China. Because of its strategic location straddling the Straits of Melaka, it thrived as a port-of-call and a centre of entrepot trade with ships and merchants from China, Japan, India, Arab and South Africa.
In 1511, it fell to the hands of the Portuguese, followed by the Dutch in 1641 after a fierce battle. In 1795, Melaka was given to the British to prevent it falling to the French when the Netherlands was captured during the Napoleonic Wars. It was returned to the Dutch in 1818 under the treaty of Vienna but was later exchanged by the British for Bangkahulu, Sumatra. From 1826 onwards, the British East India Company along with Singapore and Penang governed it, under the Straits Settlement administration in Calcutta.
The Dutch, who held Melaka for over a century, left many fine buildings marking their heritage. The most imposing relic of the Dutch period is the Stadthuys, a strikingly pink town hall which is today the oldest Dutch building in the Far East. Right next to it stands the bright red Christ Church, constructed with pink bricks imported from Holland and covered with local red lacerite. Today, these buildings together with the ruins of the Portuguese built A Famosa and St. Paul's Church are the most prominent reminders of the Europeans' presence in Melaka.
After World War II, anti-colonial sentiment bred in the country among the nationalists, the result of which was the proclamation of Independence by Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra, Malaysia's first Prime Minister, at the Padang Pahlawan (Warrior's Field) at Bandar Hilir, Melaka on 20 February 1956
Where is Melaka located in Malaysia
Melaka road map - via the North-South Highway
Melaka is located on the Western Coast of Peninsular Malaysia facing the Straits of Melaka, about 147 kilometers from Kuala Lumpur and 245 kilometers from Singpore. Melaka is actually found sandwiched between the states of Negeri Sembilan and Johor. It can be reached by excellent roads from Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. Internally it is serviced by a very good network of roads leading to all the historical places of interest. It covers and area of 658 square kilometers and is divided into three districts namely Alor Gajah, Melaka Tengah and Jasin.
Malacca has a population of 648,000 as of 2001. The population comprises: Malays: 50%; Chinese: 40%; Indians, including the Chitty people: a sizeable minority; Kristang, people with partial Portuguese ancestry: a small community. The major towns of Malacca are Malacca Town, Alor Gajah, Masjid Tanah, Jasin, Merlimau, Pulau Sebang and Ayer Keroh.
Food and beverage in Melaka
Malacca is well-known for its baba & nyonya style spicy cooking which normally gets served with rich coconut milk. There are numerous specialist baba & nyonya restaurants in town and the suburb area where they serve the mouth watering food, not only known to be the best in Malacca, but in the South East Asia region too. The baba-nyonya food is not the only delicacies around, there's the "satay celup" (Satay stick with raw meat/Vegas dipped in hot boiling satay sauce for cooking), "ikan bakar" which literally means barbecue fish served in grilled aluminium foil or banana leaf heavily marinated with spices that tingle the senses. Not forgetting the odd looking chicken ball rice (a rice pudding shaped like a golf ball) which you dip with chilly to consume its wholesome goodness. Also there's another local favourite - the oyster omelette served in stir fried egg, spring onions and sweet or spicy paste.
For the more adventurous and able to withstand spicy food, there's the portuguese village with a few specialty "tongue burning" dishes, the dishes that will get your stomach growling whole night after a heavy meal.
There's also a restaurant behind some obscure back lane which serves the soft-shell crab, yes !!!! ... a crab dish that you can eat the flesh together with the shell intact. This place has limited seating and one needs to book 3 days in advance to reserve a place.
The "Cin-Cau", a kind of dark grass jelly drink which has a cooling effect is popularly served at restaurants. For that icy-cool feeling, indulge in the "ice kacang" , a refreshment made of shaved ice with red beans, nuts, jelly etc.
Also not forgetting the "cendol", a kind a pandan flavoured jelly served in coconut milk. Someone even improvise on the "cendol" and invented the "durian" flavoured cendol. This is extremely popular with the local tourist but the aroma maybe a bit too pungent for overseas visitors.
There are many variation for cendol desserts offered, one of the best was the shaved ice red bean paste cendol in rich coconut milk. It's served in a small stall with barely 5 tables and every weekend afternoon, folks are literally queuing up to get a seat at the stall. The cost? Only a mere RM 1.
Another local favourite is the "Bubur Cha Cha, a sweet dessert made from steamed sweet potatoes, yam, white beans, tapioca jelly in coconut milk.
Places of interest in Melaka
A Famosa, or "The Famous" in Portuguese, is among the oldest surviving European architectural remains in Asia. Once part of a mighty fortress, this tiny gate (called the Porta de Santiago) is all that is left of a once-mighty fortress. In 1511 a Portuguese fleet arrived under the command of Alfonso de Albequerque. His forces attacked and successfully defeated the armies of the native Sultanate. Moving quickly to consolidate his gains, Albequerque had the fortress built around a natural hill near the sea. Albequerque believed that Melaka would become an important port linking Portugal to the spice trade from China. At his time other Portuguese were establishing outposts in such places as Macau, China and Goa, India in order to create a string of friendly ports for ships heading to China and returning home to Portugal.
Air Keroh lies about 15 km east of Melaka Town, a tourist complex with hotels, golf courses, recreational forest, a zoo, a reptile park, butterfly farm, crocodile farm, aquarium, Mini Malaysia and Mini Asean.
Bukit China burial ground
Bukit China is situated southeast of Malacca Town, about 148 metres above sea level and covers an area of 42 hectares.
There are more than 12,500 graves on Bukit China including approximately 20 Muslim tombs. The existence of these Muslim tombs has made this Chinese cemetery all the more special and unique. Bukit China is also believed to be the oldest and largest traditional Chinese cemetery outside China. According to our records, there were also graves of Kapitans and early Chinese immigrants on the hill long before the hill was purchased from the Dutch Government in 1685 by Capitan Lee Wei King and donated to the Cheng Hoon Teng Temple as a burial ground for the Chinese community in Malacca.
The oldest tomb, more than three centuries old, is a double burial. The tomb of Mr. & Mrs. Huang Wei-Hung (situated near the basketball court of SRJK Pay Fong III) was built in the second year of Tian Hee of Ming Dynasty (1622). The weather had taken a heavy toll on the tomb, and in 1933 Cheng Hoon Teng Temple had undertaken to repair it. A stone inscription was erected to mark it. The tomb was again restored in 2001.
Bukit China Bukit China
Since the British rule until today, there had been several attempts to acquire Bukit China for road widening, land reclamation and development purposes. However, Cheng Hoon Teng Temple, which is responsible for the management of the hill, had strongly opposed these attempts. With the support of the general public, Cheng Hoon Teng Temple managed to preserve Bukit China. Bukit China is the place where early traders from China were buried.
It was stated on the stone steles that many of the Chinese traders came to this country with high expectations for success in trade. Sadly, some died before fulfilling their ambitions. Since their families did not travel with them, there was no one to pray for their souls. As such, prayers were initiated by the Chinese Kapitans for them. However, these were always hampered by strong winds and heavy rainfalls because there was no proper shelter.
Cheng Hong Teng s Temple
Cheng Hoon Teng's Temple
Cheng Hoon Teng is a premier historical monument that has survived the ravages of time. It remains the finest of Chinese temples in Malaysia - a fact underscored by an UNESCO award for outstanding architectural restoration. The temple ranks among the most significant in Southeast Asia, being central to the spiritual aspirations of the Chinese community in historic Malacca.
This site is dedicated to the vision of Cheng Hoon Teng's founders and the determination of its devotees to preserve their unique bastion of culture and heritage.
Situated near Jalan Laksamana and Jalan Gereja in Melaka city.
This is a churh built in 1753 by Dutch to commemorate a century of their rule. It is reputed as the oldest protestant church in Malaysia. It is now an Anglican Church. The building shows the ingenuity of the Dutch architectural world. The beams were constructed from cutting and carving from a single tree and have no joints. The hand-made pews dated back some 200 years. The altar is a beautiful piece of the 'Last Supper' done in glazed tiles.
Gadek Hot Spring
Gadek Hot Spring
Located in the District of Alor Gajah, approximately 30 km away from Malacca. It was believed that local villagers discovered the hot spring in the forest after watching some English soldiers settled around the spring. After the war, visitors from far and wide discovered that the hot spring had strong healing elements unlike many that they had encountered before. Today visitors can enjoy the spa pool or the "Soak In Pool" for those seeking therapeutic cure for skin ailments. A restuarant and playground is made available to provide additional attractions for visitors. An ideal spot for family outing.
Hang Jebat's Mausoleum
Hang Jebat's Mausoleum
Hang Jebat was the champion of justice who died a tragic death. Hang Jebat was unceremoniously killed by Hang Tuah in a duel of honour that lasted 3 days and 3 nights. He ran amuck after suffering a fatal wound from Hang Tuah's dagger 'Keris Taming Sari.' In the name of justice to avenge the Sultan's hasty punishment against Hang Tuah for a crime he didn't commit. Hang Jebat was accused by Hang Tuah of 'derhaka' (contumacy). The duel between two of Malacca's most prominent knights has left a permanent question as to the moral behind Hang Jebat's aberrant reaction against authority and the conventions by which Hang Tuah exercised his conduct as a loyal subject of the Sultan.
A definite haven for antique collectors and bargain hunters. Authentic artifacts and relics. some dating as far back as 300 years, can be found among a host of interesting collectibles, each with its own history and mystery. Jalan Hang Jebat, formerly known as Jonker Street, is known worldwide among famous antique collectors as one of the best places to hunt and bargain for antiques.
Melaka's Sultanate Palace
Melaka's Sultanate Palace
Malacca Sultanate Palace is an exquisite piece of Malay architecture and is a replica of the original 15th century palace of Malacca's extinct Sultanate. The palace is built based on sketches found in the ancient Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals). This wooden replica of the Sultan's palace houses the Malacca Cultural Museum.
Facing the palace is the Historic City Memorial Garden. An intriguing monument to commemorate the declaration of Malacca as a Historic City is the showpiece of this garden. The monument is topped with a replica of a Malay royal headdress, a symbol of Malaysians' allegiance to the throne.
Trading system in the modern Melaka
Resourceless Malacca with a Iand area of only 1,638 sq. metres practises a two-pronged development via industrialisation and tourism.
The state started inviting over foreign investors in the early 7Os and since then has met with commendable success. By end of 1997, the state had registered a total investment of over RM16 bil., leading to over 80,000 job opportunities.
There are now 23 industrial estates with nearly 500 factories coming from the United States, Germany, Japan, Taiwan and also Singapore.
Their products range from rubber gloves to sophisticated weaponry components and from footwear to computer parts.
The state is also keen on the development of small-scale industries and to accommodate these, a number of estates have been earmarked for them. The Tanjung Kling and Batu Berendam areas are Free Trade Zones where imported materials used in manufacture are tax-free.
Current projections include developing Malacca into a manufacturing haven to help achieve developed country status by 2020.Over 140 acres in Pegoh, Alor Gajah, have been earmarked for the automotive industry for the production of defence trucks by DRH-Hicom.
This industry is expected to provide opportunities for supporting industries, like mould and die, metal stamping, plastic injection, alternators and many others.
ANTIQUE SHOPS AND THE MODERN SHOPPING MALLS
Malacca is truly an antique shopper's paradise. Many artifacts and authentic antique items are available at more than 15 antique shops lining the busy streets of Jonker Street, affectionately known as the "street of antiques" and is well known among the international antique collectors. The street is named Jalan Hang Jebat today. Along the streets, one can find houses built in the 17th century, still standing strong and housing generations of Malaccans.
The streets are very narrow and most are converted into one-way streets. Most of the houses are very spacious, has an air-well and occupies up to 50 metres in length. It's along these streets one will find the unmistakable historical charm that is uniquely Malacca. Apart from antique shops, one can also find a few art galleries and some antique furniture shops that cater to international visitors.
Opposite the padang Pahlawan, within a short walking distance from the Dutch square is the largest shopping mall in Malacca - The Mahkota Parade. Its modern facilites and well-managed shop fronts (over 150 of them) offer visitors the comfort and luxury of shopping for just about everything under the sun "under one roof".
There are over 30 stalls in the food courts, numerous fast food chains, restaurants and even ice cream parlours to satisfy the youngest and toughest of shoppers. For entertainment, there's also a cineplex for viewing the latest movies, family video games arcade,. spa and a 30 lane spanking new bowling complex.
Introduction of financial and monetary system
The Malaysian financial system has emerged stronger and more diversified and competitive since the Asian financial crisis. And that is because The Malaysian financial landscape has undergone continuous transformation in the last decade, driven by financial liberalization and consolidation, economic transformation, technological advancements and more discerning consumers.
The Malaysian economy was flourishing prior to the crisis, with strong broad-based economic growth amidst low and stable inflation. Growth in gross domestic product averaged 8% for eight consecutive years, with low unemployment and high domestic savings. Coupled with a strong fiscal surplus and low foreign indebtedness, Malaysia's economic fundamentals were relatively strong. The banking sector was also at its strongest position following periods of regulatory enhancements. At the time, Malaysia had already complied with 22 of the 25 Bank for International Settlements Core Principles. These developments attracted the influx of capital flows, prompting the government to introduce
Measures to prevent further overheating in the economy and address the vulnerabilities that emerged. Despite the strong fundamentals and responses of the government, the country was hit by the crisis through contagion. When all that happens the government is the one to take responsibilities on what to do.
Financial systems are crucial to the allocation of resources in a modern economy but They seeks the efficient allocation of resources among savers and borrowers. A healthy financial system requires, among other things, efficient and solvent financial intermediaries, efficient and deep markets, and a legal framework that defines clearly the rights and obligations of all agents involved.and the function of financial system is that; Financial systems help inform your organization's planningand action plans. Financial systems also help you track and manage the resources required to successfully complete your work. These tips provide basic practices you will need to build financial sustainability in your organization.
Other reasons why developing financial systems are important include:
Financial systems and capacity help the organization to make sound decisions based on cash flow and available resources
Monitoring funds, or comparing actual income and expenses versus budgeted amounts, helps managers ensure that the necessary funds are in place to complete an activity
Most governments require that registered, charitable organizations create accounts that track income and expenses
Funders require reports that demonstrate that grants were used for intended purposes
Establishing financial controls and clear accounting procedures help ensure that funds are used for intended purposes
Transparency, clear planning and realistic projections contributes to the credibility of the organization.
FINANCIAL CONTROLS AND MONITORING
Financial Monitoring and Reporting
Establish a process that records every financial transaction by maintaining paper files, an
electronic database, and copying all records in a virtual library. Your organization needs to be able to demonstrate what funds were received and how funds were spent. A system should also be developed to track donations from individuals to keep donors updated of the organization's progress or to solicit annual and repeat contributions. A separate accounting system should be developed for funding from foundations with the original proposal and budget, dates of receipt of funds, notes on allowable expenditures, and reporting requirements so that you can respond to funders' requests for financial records or in case of audits.
Financial planning converts your organization's objectives into a budget. The budget serves as a critical planning guide for your staff and governing board. It is a public record for funders of how you intend to spend the funds received. Financial planning allows you to review your organization, examining successes and challenges in the past. Planning also enables you to make projections and set targets, informing strategies for future success.
Financial Monitoring and Reporting
Drawing from the information in the accounting records, your organization can create internal reports that help monitor progress by comparing budgets to actual expenses. Frequent reviews and monitoring allows the governing board and staff to measure your organization's progress and helps inform decisionmaking about the organization's or a project's future. Internal reports, sometimes called management reports, allow you to be forward thinking as you assess the financial status of the organization and what will be needed to realize your goals. Accounting records are also the source for creating external financial reports that demonstrate to funders and other stakeholders how funds have been spent. Funders may require financial reports at the completion of the project or periodically during the project's implementation.
A governing board, whether comprised by a board of directors or leadership from the community, serves as stewards of an organization's resources. Governing boards should participate in approving budgets, financial monitoring and reviews, and agree upon and ensure that internal controls are implemented. The board treasurer who has skills in accounting should be the lead person in working with the staff in ensuring financial accountability
Controls are organizational practices that help safeguard your assets and ensure that money is being handled properly. Controls help detect errors in accounting, prevent fraud or theft, and help support the people responsible for handling your organization's finances. Employing financial systems that help build checks and balances, support your program planning ability, and increase your success with budgeting and assessing progress in programming, can significantly advance an organization's capacity to begin thinking about long-term plans and financial sustainability.
Financia markets include the following;
Debt markets- Debt markets are physical and virtual forums and sets of rules that allow investors, issuers, and intermediaries to perform issuance, placement, distribution, and trading operations with the debt instruments registered in the National Securities Registry. Debt instruments are also known as fixed-rate instruments since they promise the holder a fixed cash flow and payments that are determined in accordance with a specified, pre-established formula.
Stock markets- Stock markets are physical and virtual forums and sets of rules that allow investors, issuers, and intermediaries to perform issuance, placement, distribution, and trading operations with the shares registered in the National Securities Registry
Derivatives- Through a derivatives market, participants enter into contracts with instruments whose value is derived or contingent upon the value of another asset or other assets, known as the underlying asset or assets. The key purpose of a derivatives market is to provide financial hedging or investment instruments in order to foster adequate risk management.
Foreign exchange- On a foreign exchange market, buyers and sellers trade foreign currency. The volume of foreign currency transactions determines the daily prices of various currencies , and the exchange rate with respect to the national currency.
Set of mechanisms by which a government provides money in a country's economy. It usually consists of a mint,central bank, and commercial banks OR is anything that is a ccepted as a standard of value and measure of wealth in a particular region.
E-BankSupport- E- BankSupport furnishes the infrastructure services necessary to set up and maintain Monetary System applications. Through strategic relationships with vendors and software developers, E- BankSupport keeps users productive, systems humming and bank clients moving forward and equipped with the hardware and programs required for competition in this digital world. Multiple dimensions of product support are available to all participants in the Monetary System Network, including remote control digital diagnostics and systems repair.
E-BankDocs- E-BankDocs permits you to selectively grant access to privileged information to lawyers, accountants, regulators and consultants as required. Just set up their user privileges and walk away. E- BankDocs can help speed these reviews to completion, and keep these people out of your office as much as possible.
E-BankForms- E- BankForms is our brilliant document creation application that can have anyone creating on-line forms in minutes. Choose from a wide variety of formatting options. Add, delete, or change the layout of a questionnaire with a couple mouse clicks. Designating recipients of the data you collect is as simple as adding an email address. Publish your forms on-line instantly, without resorting to special purpose software. Get the jump on your competition with instant notifications of on-line responses. E- BankForms can add whole new dimensions to your marketing, sales, mortgage processing and administrative operations.
Employ-E-Room- Employ-E-Room adapts the Monetary System's capabilities to the needs of employee's. Keep a comprehensive file of all your personnel forms on-line, and download or print hard copies on-demand and anywhere. Configure them for on-line completion and keep the information you get back safe from prying eyes. Store your policy statements in a place where employees can readily consult them, and managers can easily update them. Post employee directories and get rid of that hard copy phone book. Empoy-E-Room puts it all in reach.
E-Board- The core of the Monetary System is E-Board. This powerhouse application brings boardroom management to the E-age. It's never been so easy to build and organize an electronic filing cabinet for your official records. Store minutes, financials and reports in an electronic bank vault accessible only to your Board and designated staff members. E-Boards built-in communications functionality ensures that information gets information to the people who need it faster, and at lower costs. Authorized users can send bulletins, schedule meetings and retrieve important files and documentation themselves, without assistance, postage or wait time.
Available networking functions let you extend E-Board's utility to the Boardroom itself, and give you even more control over paper flow. Download material to your laptop computers for complete portability. Link units together for dynamic, paperless presentations. Update information in real time across the table or across the state.
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