The Formation Of Malaysia 1963 History Essay
The formation of Malaysia is on 16 September 1963. Tunku Abdul Rahman proposed Malaysia and Singapore made, Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei in the British colony formation. All four colonies initially agreed to join the Federation. æœ-è¯»
However, this suggestion was objected to, because they claim the Philippines claim Sabah. The proposal also received from Indonesia opposed to it as a conspiracy of neo-colonialism by the Sukarno and the powerful Indonesian Communist Party of view.
In 1955, and later in 1959, Singapore had suggested that it be merged with Malaya. But this proposal was rejected Malaya. At that time, Singapore's population including China and Malaysia worried that this may affect the racial composition, which is mostly Malay. There are also concerns, the Communist Party, their activities are still rampant in Singapore, Malaya and obstacles that may affect the struggle to eliminate the threat of communism.
However, four years later, the Malaysia' independence, Tunku Abdul Rahman, the Malayan Prime Minister, state that he said in his speech proposed merger of Malaya, Singapore and the Borneo territories of Sabah, Sarawak, and Brunei took the region by surprise on 27th May 1961. Because the state of politics and economy in Singapore and the other territories so his suddenly change his mind.
The proposal also to accelerate in Sarawak, Sabah and Brunei, the immediate effect of political development. Election for the first time to be held in Brunei and Sabah in 1962. However, continued Philippine and Indonesian opposition led to the sending of a United Nations mission to Borneo in 1963, which also reported that the public opinion was in favoured of joining Malaysia. Brunei then pulled out due to an armed revolt staged to oppose its entry to Malaysia. Singapore was part of the newly formed Malaysia in 1963 but withdrew in 1965.
What are the factors that affect the formation of Malaysia? Factors that led to the proposed merger because of Tunku Abdul Rahman is combined with the desire for economic purposes, Singapore is one of them. Singapore's large industrial enterprises and large population, added as an important trading port in the region for more than one position. Tunku Abdul Rahman is also trying to get rid of the colonial these colonies. Malaya independence has reached four years ago. Although Singapore has implemented a large extent, an autonomous policy, Sabah and Sarawak, Britain is still very much under control.
In Brunei, Sudan to maintain his autocratic power, but the residents were forced to receive advice from the UK. Tunku Abdul Rahman believes that a merger with Malaya will speed up these colonies independence from Britain.
Another factor is the bastion of communism more than Singapore. Over time, their activities did not stop. And then by Singapore's Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew, who, with disputes about the strike in the mid 50s frustration, led to the decision of his Government to draw some of the Communists, hoping to find favor with them, and eventually soften their blow. However, continue to adhere to the activities of the Communist Party and eventually formed his own political party, known as the Socialist Front, they were forced to resign from the government. Fear of Malaya will be in grave danger should support the CPC decided to cross-strait their allies in Malaya, Tunku Abdul Rahman believes that the merger with Singapore will make it easier to deal with the Communists.
In addition to Singapore, Sarawak, communism is also booming, where the Communist Party formed an underground association, to play its associations of workers and peasants of the students. In addition, there are between these areas of cultural similarity. United Overseas composition of the population, and there is a Malayan Malays, Chinese and Indians mixed array. By some members of UMNO Malays outnumbered by the initial fear of being dispersed, they were convinced that the ethnic balance will be a Borneo territories, including most of the Malays and indigenous groups, and the Malay Asia combined recovery.
The factors that affect the formation of Malaysia are also avoids the threats and communist influence by other territories. More and more, the independence of Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei and Singapore also need to cover up. The defense of indigenous communities and the safeguard the interest of indigenous rights in Sabah and Sarawak are very important for Tunku Abdul Rahman to take care and concern about it.
Who is giving the issues the formation of Malaysia? That is Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei and Singapore. Their response are very important when formation of Malaysia. And also the process of formation of Malaysia is important too. The process is Malaysia solidarity committee, Cobbold Commission, inter-governmental committee, and Singapore referendum.
Sabah is giving the issue about the party pro-anti Malaysia, Sarawak is giving the issue about there are no economic different, Brunei is giving the issue about believe that they can independence by their own, no need depend with others, while Singapore is giving the issue about the party people of Singapore.
The chairman of Malaysia solidarity consultative committee is Tun Haji Mohammad Fuad Stephens, previously known as, Donald Stephens. He played a key role in negotiating the independence of Sabah. He collects the data from the citizen to form the formation of Malaysia. Malaysia Solidarity Consultative Committee (MSCC) to inform the people of the benefits of the merger.
The chairman of Cobbold Commission is Lord Cobbold. He is going to Sabah and Sarawak to collect the data from the citizen when formation of Malaysia. He will discuss the merger of Sabah and Sarawak's response. Two months later, received thousands of letters to and Sabah and Sarawak and the numerous public meetings of the thousands of interviews, come to a consensus. Only one-third of third of the population rejected the merger, want to join Malaya before achieved their independence. Wholeheartedly support the merger or other two-thirds or support, on the grounds that its rights be retained. Won the majority in favor of the merger, which is approved by the British.
The chairman of Inter-governmental committee is Lord Landsdowne and Tun Abdul Rayak. The function of inter-governmental committee is forming a Federation of Malaya. It is concentrated on Islam, Malay, education and integration.
In Malaya, Singapore remains, so the initial interest, eager to merge with Malaya, Tunku Abdul Rahman's proposal in 1961. His efforts paid off, September 1, 1962 referendum showed that 71.1% of the population, Singapore supported the merger. Singapore is committed to autonomy, education, income and labor, while the central government will operate in Kuala Lumpur. It's free entrepot status will also be maintained.
Such as Singapore, Brunei, also keen to merge because of its ruler, Sultan Ali Saifuddin was hoping to get greater protection from the likes of Malaya. AM Azahari, the opposition party, the party National Front leader, but strongly against the merger, and which resulted in one of the Brunei government, he was defeated in the resistance. Azahari an ulterior motive - merge all the territories and the North Borneo Brunei placed in their reins.
When the establishment of Malaysia, Indonesia and the new establishment rejected due to their own ulterior motives, Philippines. Sabah claimed by the Philippines, pointed out that the Sultanate of Sulu under the Sabah belongs to the Philippines came. Therefore, the Philippines is not recognized as an independent state official statements or the occurrence of on16th September 1963 Malaysia.æœ-è¯»
However, North Borneo and Singapore declared August 31, 1963 sovereignty. Indonesia's opposition, and later upgraded to a military conflict with Malaysia. Indonesia, Sarawak and Sabah as the colonial province of new forms of Borneo Island in Malaysia (bordering Kalimantan, Indonesia), they laid claim.
In order to ensure that Indonesia, Malaysia is not neo-colonialism, a referendum by the United Nations and Lord Cobbold Commission Cobbold leadership, organization, form, developed to determine whether the people of Sabah and Sarawak wished to join Malaysia. The end result, which indicates strong support for Malaysia's Sabah and Sarawak between people, Malaysia has paved the way, and declared the road.
OF: Federation of Malaysia subsequently announced the formation of 16 September 1963, Malaysia. Independence Day celebration is still held on August 31, the original Malaya Independence Day.
Malaysia has enjoyed 53 years of independence, is known as a sovereign state of the world. We can achieve the economic, political and social stability, to the developed countries rapidly. Although Malaysia is a pluralistic society, different ethnic composition, they can live, mutual cooperation, both in harmony to build a strong and developed country presence. Understanding between races, but also created national unity, played in shaping the political stability of Malaysia as a very important role in the country.
New Economic Policy (NEP) is a socio-economic program in the Malaysia which was introduced in 1971 by Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak, Dato 'Hussein. Implementation of divide and rule policy will turn the British in the Malay community cohesion. The British were encouraging the arrival of labor from China and India in the interest of the colonial economy of tin mining, trading and farming. Separation of Singapore from Malaysia in 1965 due to the concept of "Malaysia to the Philippines" which was not directly dispute the status and privileges of the Malays has diapi-naming of Lee Kuan Yew fueled anti-Chinese and anti-Malay.
Bloody events that occurred on May 13, 1969 have revealed the true manifestation of the feelings of the three largest ethnic groups in Malaysia. Bloody events also forcing the government to declare a state of emergency. This declaration has led to a parliamentary system of government is suspended. Since the Japanese occupation during the Second World War, Japan adopted a policy of anti-Chinese and pro-Malay bias has angered the Chinese and the Malays. National Consultative Council was established to ensure the effectiveness of the NOC, the National Consultative Council which is responsible for discussing and reviewing issues of national unity and resolve to find a way multi-ethnic society.
Unity to be achieved not only involve the consolidation race but was found to be economic and social unification should be done. In connection with the National Consultative Council have agreed to form a national ideology that became known as the Pillars of the five key principles:
Kepercayaan kepada Tuhan
Kesetiaan kepada Raja dan Negara
Kesopanan dan Kesusilaan
New Economic Policy was established through the Majlis Perundingan Negara as a catalyst to eradicate poverty and restructure society. Majlis Perundingan Negara also recommended the government to create the Jabatan Perpaduan Negara to implement the activities of the Muhibah in the form of Muhibah and Pejabat Muhibah at the federal, state, region and area has been established under the provisions of the Essential Regulations (Pejabat Muhibah) 1969 which was gazetted on July 18, 1969.
The objective of NEP was national unity but it also aims to restructure the socio-economic imbalance that exists in this country. As we know that a balanced distribution of economic importance in creating a united nation, as well as taking into account the poverty and the inability of some people to compete with other people then the NEP was designed to improve the situation.
The primary objective of this introduction is to create national unity by reducing the economic, social, cultural, placement and so forth. n other words, DEB's designed to eliminate race in the country with all the general poverty among the Malays and other Bumiputras, this is precisely the most particular and the earliest settlers of the country. DEB will ensure that all ethnic Malays and Indians in particular, will be the same for China's prosperity. In these times, until today, our leaders believe that when all the games are the same country will enjoy stability and prosperity, peace and harmony.
With the equitable sharing of the prosperity of all, the three main competition will be happy and satisfied in Malaysia, which will greatly help in the maintenance of peace and harmonious country. With the new economic policy, the Government must ensure that the May 13, 1969 racial riots will not happen again in the future.With equal share of prosperity all, the three major races in Malaysia will be happy and contented; this will contribute greatly in maintaining peace, and harmony in the country. With the New Economic Policy, the government wants to ensure that the incidents of racial riots of 13 May 1969 will never happen again in the future.
The tension between those who are wealthy and not wealthy is a result of poverty. It was found that the Malays are facing more poverty than other races. Found also the Malays are still lagging behind and less able to compete with other races even though Malaysia had good economic growth. The NEP was designed as a long-term program that will run for 20 years, starting from 1970 to 1990. Development plans under the New Economic Policy is carried out through a two-pronged strategy:
restructuring of society to reduce and eventually eliminate the identification of race with economic function.
eradication of poverty irrespective of race
Goals of poverty eradication is achieved, the strategy focused on eliminating poverty in rural and urban areas. Based on 1970 population census shows that about 49.3% of all poor families in the Philippines income below the poverty line (income poverty line 1970 population is RM200.00) and about 86% of that number are in rural areas.
To achieve this objective, the government has implemented a variety of services and facilities through the provision of education, health, water and electricity. In addition, preference is given to the poor to get help, such as fertilizer subsidy assistance program, educational scholarships and textbooks, supplementary food to children and low-cost housing program.
Create employment opportunities for all groups of people who are unemployed. To provide opportunities for transfer of persons working in low productivity sectors to more lucrative sectors. Increase the productivity and income. Reducing the income gap between races between urban and rural areas and between regions and also modernize rural life. Need to establish indigenous groups and commercial companies. Organize a working environment that reflects the racial composition in Malaysia.æœ-è¯»
Toward the end date of the NEP, the objectives to eradicate poverty have been achieved.
To ensure that both goals were achieved in the NEP, the government has tried to improve the economic situation and at the same time, eliminating the identification of race with economic function. Based on the imbalance between the races, the government has launched several programs such as industry and trade, agriculture, mining, construction, transport and agriculture. To achieve the second goal of the NEP, various strategies have been designed, including:
Reducing the imbalance in the structure of employment to the participation of various races in the primary sector will reflect the position of the labor force by 1990 the racial composition.
Adding to the fast part of the people of Pakistan in possession of the productive sector. Special attention will be focused on indigenous people are a bit behind compared to other races.
Raising productivity and living standards of poor people in rural areas.
To ensure the establishment of a commercial and industrial community among the Malays and natives as they manage and own at least 30% of all levels of economic activity such as MARA, Bank Pembangunan, Bank Bumiputera, Amanah Saham Nasional.
Advancing the state and region that are considered backward by the new regional development such as DARA, KESEDAR, KEJORA and so on.
As a conclusion, New Economic Policy, aimed at national unity through poverty eradication and restructuring of society in the context of a strong national security. All national development programs and policies introduced by the government during planned and implemented to achieve the above objectives. This will require not only the determined efforts of the government and its employees, but it requires a change of attitude, energy and mindset of people from the private sector.
Although the NEP was hailed in some quarters as having reduced the socioeconomic disparity between the Chinese minority and Malay majority, others accused it of having reduced non-Malays to the status of second-class citizens by cementing ketuanan Melayu (Malay supremacy). The NEP is often invoked as part of the Malay Agenda, which is in turn part of the Malaysian social contract granting Malays special rights in return for citizenship for non-Malays.
Cite This Essay
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: