The Evolution On Mankind History Essay
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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016
I was given some information that the subject English Part B will be having a research on the topic that attracted our attention or enlightened us. This subject’s lecture will be conducted by Ms. Manjit throughout the whole semester. I was told to keep an eye of any topics that we can be aware of. She told us about the research is going to be personal, so we have to decide on what topic to be researching on. But we must not have a same topic with anyone in the same class. So, with a swift decision, I decided to touch on “The Evolution of Mankind”.
As a human being, we lived in an Age as known as the “Information Age”, in this 21st Century. Subsequently, I would be sure that most of us did not know how we are evolved, when we evolved and why we evolve. As time goes by, the enhancement and the footstep of human evolution is observed going faster and faster, incline speed is not calculated in addition, but multiplying. So we lived as a human, we should know about our pass, where do we come from, and what event or discoveries made the change that forces human come apart among a large civilization or dividing into groups or races, and again, reunion from a small clan into a large civilization. This is the core factor I chose this topic, to let myself, and my friends to be acquainted with more about the history of ourselves.
Furthermore, in the past holiday, I had been attracted by a game developed by Microsoft Company named “The Rise of Nation”. The game is simply a strategic game by building a city, training infantries, collecting resources and manages the balance of the particular civilization that you are controlling. The game system also allows you to upgrade your ages from the ancient stone age, through the real historical timeline that human been through until now, the Information Age. The attraction of the game for me is not about the playing of the game, but the rising of one nation, and civilization. Moreover, allowing the competition between players had let me widen my vision of the history because I saw the competitive between civilizations, watching those well risen nations, crushing down the weaker one gave me the passion that I should find out the real truth of the timeline of human revolution from the Stone Age until now.
The topic “The Evolution of Mankind” is simply too wide in the vision of research. So, I am going to touch up based on the ages that men have evolved from, what changes made and how we are moved to this new era. The research will be carried out by finding sources from reference book from school or public library or home, and electronically by searching reliable sources though internet or electronic books.
However, after I took some time gathering the relevant information, I found out that the topics that I wanted to cover are still too long for the research project. By revising the information gathered, I narrowed the topic once again, into some items invented and some discoveries that made human evolved, and the timeline of the Ages that men have passed through, from Stone Age to Information Age.
The research assignment is a beneficial activity, letting us to know the “Do and don’t” in researching. Furthermore, this research leads me to more knowledge by going deeper or more detail on certain topic researched. We will be given a limited time to present our presentation based on the research done. So, the research that I do will not only bring benefit to me, but to all the students in class. Meantime, others will also share their part of research, sharing the knowledge found in researching; giving us to know more about the topic they researched.
This research assignment is simply an excellent way to bring us to be knowledgeable. I will do my part to make the research assignment a success. I am grateful to school, Sunway College Johor Bahru and my lecturer Miss Manjit for giving me the chance to participate in the assignment.
As an inhabitant of Information Age, we should know our own source. So the history of mankind should be well known by anyone of us. We are the evolution product of the humans in the past, from Stone Age, going on evolution from years to years, era to era, the evolution of the mankind is going on more rapidly, and will never halt.
Human being had survived from thousand years till now. Besides human, some of the other animal did survive, but part of it extinct due to unsuitable living environment. The environment forced us, the human being to evolve. Maybe not be more advance, but to survive.
The origin man, from Stone Age is just a naked human with bare hands, no tools and no equipment for surviving. But the man managed to survive well! How he survived? In the ages back ago in Stone Age, no water supplies supplied to the living area of men. And they did not even know what electricity is. But they managed to survive, lived well. Human might not have strength like elephant, speed like cheetah, but the intelligent.
Soon, human realize they cannot live without something to protect them, so they started to put on some leaves as clothing, some wood sharpen equipment as weapons. As they faced more and more threatens of living, they started to solve it one by one, making more and more items, tools, equipments, weapons and more.
This made the human slowly turns into evolving, getting more intelligent, solving more and more problems. The origin man has a more powerful arms and legs compared to us. But as human evolves, they realize that with bare hands, they could survive for a short period of time, but not forever. So as more and more tools invented and created, human starts to build defensive tools and offensive tools such as fences on living area, spears, throwing stones.
Human starts to desire more, from basic surviving into offensive, by expanding the living territory. From onwards, human created and invented more and more advanced tools and equipment, making them stronger and stronger, and a better living environment. As the evolution goes by, many things had changed. Old or item that is less useful is replaced by a better, more advanced one. By replacing and substitution with more and more advanced tools and equipments, the humans’ evolution footstep goes faster and faster, human had evolve until today, 21st century, the Information Age.
The world is going on a change. This change takes place anytime, anywhere, influenced by anything. The changes made by the human in the pass, known as revolution. There will be many things to be explored throughout this whole research, from the Apes in Stone Age, until the Aliens at this moment in the 21st century, the great Information Age.
The evolution of mankind
We, as a human being, have already existed on the earth for about 3 million years. We turned ourselves from Apes into Aliens. Which means, with a bare hand, into an intelligent creature that could use the tools they invented, finally conquered the earth. Actually, human being did not really evolve or just very slow in the first two million years from the day they exist. By then, what caused the evolution of the human being and turn into one of us sitting or standing in front of you today? And what is the humans’ pass? How do they survived and changed? What they congregated and what ages have they been from their inauguration until now?
Items invented and discoveries that made human evolved
Viral Dholakia, 3rd June 2010, Top 10 events that shaped Human Evolution- Journey from Apes to Aliens, viewed on 8th August 2010 (http://trak.in/tags/business/2010/06/03/top-10-greatest-events-human-evolution-events/)
There are many items or event that turned human from an ape, into an alien. In this 3 million years time, human had evolved from naked, two bare hands and unequipped, turned into aliens with powerful killing machines, swift moving transport and advanced tools. (Additional information: Human lived uninvolved for about 2 million years in the 3 million years mentioned above) What could have made human flash evolve?
Back in 800,000 years ago
The homo-erectus (origin man) found the potential of fire. They found that fire has a lot of uses and be use as a defensive tool when they meet dangerous situation.
The use of fire:
As light during night, keeps unknown animals from getting near them
Heat source, keeps them warm when the weather is cold
Cooking tool, could make raw meat into cooked and becomes tasty
Back in 50,000 to 100,000 years ago
Before the language was developed, the homo-erectus was unable to communicate with each other. Therefore, they have no chance to gain any knowledge from their elders. The knowledge that they could learn is imitating their parents, learning from physical motion and style, causes the knowledge transfer speed slow, and many information cannot be transferred.
When language is found, the communication between them has started. Therefore, the knowledge transfer speed would be much faster and less risking for being trial-and-error. Compare to others, they started to learn way faster than other, making them evolve faster than anyone of them else. They are then renamed as homo-sapiens.
5,000 to 6,000 years ago
By the time the wheel is invented, the forefather of modern human has come. They were carrying bag with loads on animal walking along the road, they saw logs rolling on, found the potential of the rolling thing, converting them into wheels. Wheel represented a transformation from how you carry the loads. This changes the transfer of objects from dragging, become passing. Different type, size and material of wheel are created of different purposes. Some logs are used as transporting heavy loads by arranging the logs in series, rolling the heavy loads on the log. The Egyptians used this idea to build the Wonder of the World: Pyramid.
2,000 to 3,000 years ago
Since the paper is created, human recording has been improved much better. As for ancient Chinese, they record their paperwork by crafting on a roll of bamboo sticks. Egyptian used to record their recordings on stones, Mesopotamians used to record on tablets made of mud, while Indian records on palm leaves before the paper is invented. The invention of paper is still a debate on the creator of paper. Rome uses the plant called Papyrus while Chinese uses bamboo to make paper. Which one is the creator of paper? There is still no absolute answer till now.
1,000 years ago
The invention from human would not be always positive on changing human’s life. The found of gunpowder had changed the way that a civilization used to be. It can make a Fortress that is hard like rock to be exploded and collapse in no time. Way to 3 million years ago, the fights between human is hand-to-hand with some melee weapon such as pole arm, spears, sword or ranged weapon such as bow and arrow or stone slings. The appearance of gunpowder changed the concept of the art of fight. The human had changed the war from fighting to firing. Before gunpowder appears, warriors are respected because they fought physically for their own sake. The present of gunpowder can be describe as an old man can take down a strong well-built body young man by just firing a bullet from a gun (Gunpowder usage). The creator of the gunpowder is actually Chinese, for a purpose of information transferring by firing a fire rocket signal from one post to another on the Great Wall of China. The gunpowder usage is transformed into the use of guns and bombs or cannons by Western.
235 years ago
The invention of steam engine is not a great invention by itself. But the present of steam engine heralded the Industry Revolution. Before the steam engine is invented, the society still uses manpower or animal force for work (on transportation).That is the reason why the engine is measured by “Horsepower” in force generating unit. The steam engine has made human’s life much easier that enables human to sit or relax without contributing energy to let the transport move. The car, ships, jets, airplane and spacecraft are improved and reworked on this steam engine.
130 years ago
The modern world of human finally arrives when the electricity is invented, yet discovered and can be used by human. The present of electricity has brought way many benefit to human, as a large contributor in human’s evolution. Appearance of electricity made humans in that time does something unimaginable, an example of reading at night by using electrical bulb. Almost all inventions after the appearance of electricity use the electricity source. Anything you could think of uses electricity. Electricity is the most important for our daily life. The world is dependent on electricity.
15 years ago
We are really fortunate that we could witness one of the greatest inventions in the history of mankind in our life time: the internet. With the advent of Internet made the world shrunk out of a sudden. An ordinary human could reach the desired data across country within a click in 1 sec, which physically impossible, due to distance and speed limitation. But Internet did it. Internet brought the world wide connection of date, bringing communication for human for the whole world, connects people in different country. The internet usage is going wider nowadays. All the electronic device and electrical appliances could connect to the internet. There are examples like computers, laptops, mobile phones and even calculator.
The timeline of Ages
(From 2 Million years ago until now)
The Ancient Age
(Fagan, Brian. 2007. World Prehistory: A brief introduction New York: Prentice-Hall, Seventh Edition, Chapter One)
The ancient age is classified as 3 main stages (The three-age system) by chronological order, Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age. The ancient age is considered as prehistory. Prehistory is meant by a pass period which does not included in written history. Most of us used “prehistory” as the initial stage of the universe though it is more referred to the time since living thing appeared on the earth.
The Stone Age
The time period for this age is indefinite, disputed due to erratic records from various sources over the world. However, experts believe that this age had started since 2.5 million years ago with a first group of human which starts to use stone as tools such as weapon, or cutlery. Due to the pervasiveness of stone artefact discovered which only several left remained exist, the analysis is crucial and dedicated form for the investigation by investigators that research Stone Age. In Stone Age, there are sub ages for the discoveries made due to the period of Stone Age exist is too long. Most of the food sources are from wild animals and consumable plants. The shelters made by the human in this age are believed as some simple arrangement of stones to hold the branches if tree in the position. There are some art products found in Stone Age. Some rock painting had been discovered. The modern studies and the in-depth analysis from the Stone Age by the Archaeologists discovers that human lived in Stone Age do have rituals and beliefs.
The sub ages of Stone Age are Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic in chronological order.
It is a prehistoric era illustrious by the development of tools made of stone. During this age, the humans are gathered as a small group of people, many small societies scattered over the earth. Subsistence of the human living in this age is by hunting down the wild animals and gathers consumable wild plants. The main characteristic of this age is the usage of the knapped tools made up of stone. But there are other tools and items used apart from stones. They also use bones, wood and some organic materials such as leather from wild animals as clothing. However, there is limited technology during this age; tools made up of organic material are not preserved, so the tools might be easily rotten. Human is then gradually evolving throughout this age from the early members of human (Homo-Habilis) who uses simple stone tools for survival into behaviorally and anatomically modern human (Homo-Sapiens) during this Paleolithic sub age. Some of the fossils and DNA evidence have been discovered by the archeologists indicates that the source of modern human was from The Africa Plains about 200,000 years ago. The engage of religious belief and the spiritual behavior such as burial and ritual are in the end of Paleolithic Age.
The Mesolithic (also known as Epipalaeolithic)
There are several of similar records recorded that the Mesolithic Age started after the end of the ice age at about 10,000 years ago to 6,000 years ago, commenced approximately 4,000 years. Humans living in this age have to face the challenge of rising sea levels and the change of the environment and to adapt to a new environment and new types of food sources. The microlith tools development took place to respond to the new environment of food sources searching and hunting place. The microlith tools improves the efficiency of hunting while more complex settlements and enables human for fishing. The domestication of the dog as a hunting companion probably dates to this period.
The Neolithic is last sub age in Stone Age. Adoption of agriculture, development of pottery, and more complex and polished stone tools are the characteristic of Neolithic Age. The first Neolithic culture started at about 7,000 years before century. The ground stones and polished stone artifact became much wide spread, including grinding, chopping and cutting tools due to the increased demand of the harvest and the process of agricultural products. In this Age, the first large-scale construction was built. The construction includes tower and wall. This showed that they have sufficient resources and manpower with co-operations to enable them to work on the large constructions. The development of the elites and social hierarchies are the matters that are having an “on-going” debate. The earliest verification for the established trade exists in this Age. The newly settled down people imports good from hundred miles away apart of the village they lived. Some of the community would contain some more civilized items such as stone bed, shelves and even an indoor toilet that links with a stream.
The Classical Age (Also known as Antiquity)
Paul, Fargis (1998). The New York Public Library Desk Reference – 3rd Editions. Macmillan General Reference. pp. 262. ISBN 0-02-862169-7
Francis J. Witty, The Journal of Library History (1974-1987), Vol. 9, No. 2 (Apr., 1974), pp. 101-119, Published by University of Texas Press
William Vernon Harris, Dreams and experience in classical antiquity, Harvard University Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0-674-03297-2
A classical antiquity is a long period where the cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, consist of the interconnection Civilizations of Ancient Greek and Ancient Rome. This is period where Greek and Roman literature burgeons. The classical Age is unadventurously taken place and began with the earliest-recorded literature, the Greek poetry of Homer at about 8 or 7 before century. It continues and had been through many huge events such as the rise of the Christianity, the decline of the Western Roman Empire in about 5th before century. The ending of the age was caused by the dissolution of the classical cultures at about 300 to 600 AD blending into the Medieval Age.
For the Ancient Greek civilization, they have been immensely influential on the language, education system, philosophy, politic, science, arts and the architectural style of the modern world, fueling the Renaissance period in Western Europe and again resurrect them during assorted during various neo-classical resurrection in the interlude of 18th and 19th centuries.
Medieval Age (also known as Middle Age)
Lawrence, C.H (2001). Medieval Monasticism: Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the middle Ages (third Ed.). Longman. ISBN 0582404274
Albrow, Martin, The global age: state and society beyond modernity (1997), p. 205.
The Medieval Age is a period where European history starts at 5th century to the 15th century. The Medieval Age is initiated by a great event: The decline of the Western Roman Empire in year 476. Medieval Age is the age that goes before the early modern era. It is between the age of three-period division of history, which is Classical to Medieval, and Medieval to Modern. The middle age was featured in the 15th century, reflecting that this period is still under a process of digression from the path of classical learning, where there path supposing reconnects by the Renaissance scholarship.
There is a trend of continuation observed from the late classical antiquity to the early Medieval Age. The increase in the number of barbarians’ invasion, the noticeable deurbanization, and depopulation can be observed as the trend. One part of the Eastern Roman Empire located in North Africa and Middle East, were conquered by the Islam. Later on, the institution of the feudal system allowed a revisit to systemic cultivation. Sustained urbanization occurred in Northern Europe and Western Europe. During the mid-late Medieval Age (around c. 1000 to 1300), Christian-oriented art and architecture burgeoned and the Crusades were mounted to evoke the Holy Land. The ideal of international Christendom had tempered by the influence of the come into sight in nation-state. The codes of chivalry and courtly love set the rules for proper behavior, while the Scholastic philosophers attempted to reconcile faith and reason. There are some outstanding achievements though, including the Code of Justinian, the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas, the mathematics of Fibonacci and Orense, the paint of Giotto, and the poetry of Dante and Chaucer.
The origin of the Medieval Age is from the later of Roman Empire. The Roman Empire had reached their furthermost territorial coverage during the 2nd century. The control over the outlying territory of the Roman had been observed declining throughout the two centuries later. The emperor Diocletian splits the empire administrations into separate administrated eastern and western halves in year 285. The Constantine, the one who found the city Byzantium again as the new capital, Constantinople, encourages the division of the eastern and the western administration in year 330.
During the 4th century, the military expenses had inclined progressively. Those tribes who previously kept contact with Roman as trading partners, mercenaries, or rivals had wanted the entrance to access the wealth throughout the whole century. A strong governmental bureaucracy, modified taxation, strengthened army had been constructed since Diocletian’s reform. These reform brought benefits to the Empire, but they demanded for money. The maintenance of well trained and equipped armies is the power of Roman. However, the maintenance of armies drained the Roman Empire’s finance. Moreover, as the warfare more dependent to the heavy cavalry, the infantry based military system of Roman became a disadvantage against the rivals. At the defeat of Battle of Adrianople in year 378, the Roman armies were crushed by hands of mounted Gothic Lancers made the western Empire left undefended. The empire is then forced to lodge the large numbers of Germanic tribes who sought after asylum within its frontier.
Roman institutions were disintegrated by the end of 5th century. The epithet of “Dark Age” was given by the early historians for this period of societal collapse. This is because there were a contrast circumstance of the rising of the empire and the collapse of the empire. The last emperor of the Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus, was dethroned by the barbarian king Odoacer by the year 476. The eastern Roman Empire had a little ability to emphasize manage over the misplaced western region. Even though the Byzantium Emperor (Eastern Roman Emperor) maintained a claim over the territory and no barbarian king dare to elevate himself to the position of Emperor of the west, Byzantium controlled over most of the West could not be persistent, only “renovatio imperil” by Justinian was the sole, the exception.
As Roman authority vanished in the west, cities, literacy, trading networks and metropolitan infrastructures were declining. Where civic functions and infrastructures were maintained, it was only by the Christian church. The famed bishop, Augustine of Hippo is an example who became the proficient civic administrator.
Norwich, John Julius, A Short History of Byzantium, 1997, Knopf, ISBN 0679450882
Jennifer , Speake, and Thomas G. Bergin, eds. Encyclopaedia of the Renaissance and the Reformation. (Year 2004). 550 pp.
James Bruce, Ross, and Mary M. McLaughlin, Eds. The Portable Renaissance Reader (Year 1977)
Michael H. History of Libraries in the Western World, Scarecrow Press Incorporate, Year 1999, ISBN 0810837242
The word “Renaissance” was a word from Italian language and French. The word Renaissance in Italian language is meant by reborn while French has the same meaning, rebirth. The renaissance period is a cultural movement that spans throughout the occurring period. There are two renaissance periods which the first is occurred in the 12th century, and the second on 14th to 17th century. As a cultural movement, it includes a resurgence of learning based on classical source and culture, developing a linear perspective in painting, gradually wide spreading the educational reform. In the traditional way, this intellectual transformation caused this Renaissance period a bridge of culture between the medieval age and the Modern age. Although several intellectual pursuits were evolved in this period, as well as political and social cataclysm, perhaps, they have been best known for the development of artistic and the contribution of the “Renaissance Man” where those famous artists like Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo were encompassed.
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that intensely affected the European cerebral life in the early modern period. It began at Italy and spreading throughout the whole Europe by the 16th century, the literatures, art, science, religion, politics, philosophy and other cerebral aspect of the highbrow inquisition is influenced. In the Renaissance, scholars engaged the humanist method in study, and searched for the realism of human and human emotion art.
The Renaissance thinkers sought out in Europe’s frugal libraries and the crumbling of Byzantine Empire’s literary, historical, and melodramatic text of antiquity, characteristically written in Ancient Greek or Latin, which many had descend into the anonymity. And their new focus turned to the historical text and literary that the scholars from Renaissance had differed so noticeably from the medieval scholars from the earlier Renaissance occurred in 12th century, who those scholars focus on the studies of the Greeks and Arabic work of natural sciences, mathematic and philosophy rather such on cultural text compared to the scholars in the later Renaissance in 14th century. Renaissance humanists did not reject the thinking of Christianity; quite converse, many of the great works from Renaissance dedicates to Christianity. The church patronizes many works for the art of Renaissance. Conversely, a restrained reallocate took place in the way that cerebrals drew near religion that was reflected in many behavior and areas in their literary life. Into the bargain, many of the Greek Christian works as well as the Greek New Testament were conveyed back from the Byzantium to west Europe and exposed first time at the late classical antiquity to the western scholars. Lorenzo Valla and Erasmus, both of the famous humanists encouraged the new engagement with Greek Christian works, and predominantly revisit to the original Greek of the New Testament which can help off paving the way for the Protestant Reformation.
“Enlightenment.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 12 August 2010
Micheal J. Spindler, year 2010, Enlightenment Period – Romantic Age Comparisons, A brief history of the humanities, art, music and arc.
Quotation from W. Scott Haine, The World of the Paris Café (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), 7.
Enlightenment age is an era starts in Europe where cerebral, scientific and enlightening life, centered upon the 18th century, in which reason was advocated as the primary source for legitimacy and authority. It is developing concurrently in Great Britain, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, the American colonies and Portugal. The Atlantic revolution, especially the success of American Revolution in breaking free of the British Empire moves the development of the countries towards a modern era. Most of the Europe nations held up include Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Russia, and Scandinavia, along the Latin America in instigating the Haitian revolution. The enlightenment principle had motivated some authors from producing their writings such as American Declaration of Independence, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizenship, the United States Bill of Rights, and the Polish-Lithuanian Constitution of May 3.1971.
The enlightenment in the age was not occurred in a single movement or school of thought, there are often mutually contradictory or deviation for these philosophers. The enlightenment was not as much of a set of thoughts as it was a set of ethics. The core of it was a vital questioning of customary ethics, organizations, and civilization, and a strong in a belief of rationality and science. Consequently, there was tranquil of the substantial degree of resemblance between contending philosophies. Some of the historians also embraced the late 17th century into this Enlightenment Age, where these periods were typically known as the Age of Rationalism or the Age of Reason. Nevertheless, most historians consider this Age of Reason to be a prologue to the thoughts that generated the enlightenment. The modern world would be the differentiation that used to refer to the phase occurred after the Enlightenment Age.
There is a little consensus on the commencement date of the Enlightenment Age. Some of the scholars would simply say that the Age started at the beginning of 18th century, or an earlier stage of central of the 17th century as a default date. Tracing back to the 16th century, we would discover that the origin of the Enlightenment Age’s thought have been recorded in the Descartes’ Discourse on the Method, which was published in the year 1637. There are other traces could be found as the initiation of the Enlightenment Age. The enlightenment were found as the commencement in Britain’s Glorious Revolution back in year 1688 and with the publication of Principia Mathematica by Sir Isaac Newton that appeared in the year 1687. As to the finale of the Enlightenment Age, some of the scholars used the French Revolution in year 1789 or the commencement of the Warfare of Napoleon which occurred in year 1804 to 1815 as the point where the Enlightenment Age ends.
The industrial age commenced when the process of industrialization took place. The word industrialization is meant by the change in economic and social process that leads to the effect of transformation in human group from none or semi industrial into a real industrial one. The process of industrial
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