The Development History Of Tourism
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Tourism industry is one of the largest industries worldwide. It has become a growing industry in recent years. Many countries in the world are blessed with natural beauty while many have developed infrastructure on their own. In fact many countries are getting major portion of their revenues from the tourism industry, so it is considerable as a main source of income for those and it creates income through the consumption of products and services by tourists. It wields economic importance, with hundreds of millions of travelers around the world each year, although it has a responsible in environment, it may lead to habitat destruction, waste and pollution. Global tourism industry came through the stages of time and it has improved for decades, and it has a massive impact on economy, environment and society.
According to (Holloway, J, C. Humphreys, C and Davidson, R. 2009), tourism is a shape of pastime performed over a period for enjoyment, and it can define when people move from place to another place. The World Tourism Organization (1999) defined that tourism is also collection of activities, services in terms of leisure, including transportation, accommodation, and others up to a year.
The development history of tourism
In the nineteenth century
Global tourism industry has a large been improving since the nineteen century, when the earliest travellers were walking or riding domesticated animals. The invention of technology has provided new modes of transportation and increased individuals' opportunities to travel. Because of roads are improved and governments stabilised, interest in travelling rose for studying, sightseeing and religion purposes. More than 100 years ago the introduction of turnpike roads, roads on which a tolls were charged, allowed to buses hold up to 14 travellers for 40 miles distance over 24 hours. For example, a trip from London to Bath was account for about 72 hours, whereas the 400 miles to Edinburgh took completely 10 days (Holloway, J, C. Humphreys, C and Davidson, R. 2009).
Between the middle of twentieth and twenty first century
Since the World War II, travellers have grown up and let them to move abroad, despite the fact that the ability to do that was restricted by political conditions and insufficient funds. Furthermore, travel business changed due to the advance in airplane technology which led to grow commercial flight industry (Holloway, J, C. Humphreys, C and Davidson, R. 2009).Modern technology played an important role on transforming people for living, working and tourism. As a consequence, it gave more spare time, intensified communications and originated many effective approaches of conveying (WTO. 1999). The influence of computers and the internet has shown on tourism as customers can now search about holiday destinations, travel companies comparison and booking online (Holloway, J, C. Humphreys, C and Davidson, R. 2009).
The economic impact of tourism
According to (Holloway, J, C. Humphreys, C and Davidson, R. 2009), while tourism industry may cause many economic pros, there are also some advantages for those nations. "Global tourism is an $8 trillion industry". This means one of largest important industries in the world is tourism industry, it therefore has great importance for several countries attempt to obtain a share of this $8 trillion. 9.9 per cent of global GDP (gross domestic product) was global tourism industry. Moreover, it was predicted that it would bring about 240 million jobs worldwide, representing almost 8.5% of total occupations. The world organisation tourism reported that in January 2007, international tourist arrivals reached to 842 million in 2006, compared to 553 million in 1994, and they are expected to reach 1.6 billion by 2020, while receipts was $354 billion in 1994 and it almost doubled by 2006, that means there a considerable rise just over a period of 10 years for both arrivals and receipts, (WOT.2007).
World's Top 10 Tourism Earners, 2005 Based On Tourism Receipts ($ US Billions)
Source: World Tourism Organization (WTO.2007). Source: World Tourism Organization (WTO.2007).
While there several factors that encourage human to travel abroad, the most significant one is cost compared to their income. Since growth demand led the prices to decline, also transport and accommodation costs falling for every extra person reserved. In other words, there is a strong relationship between price, cost and demand. As a result, it can lead to competition of tourism industry between nations. In recent years, many countries or cities have become depend on flow of tourists or nearly completely dependent on tourism such as Dubai receives a large proportion of revenue from the tourism, with approximately %70 of its revenue. They are known as destinations or receiving areas, and the areas which tourists move to these destinations are known as produced areas. The destination, however, can be a specific resort, town or even a huge area of global. The destinations are financed by transforming tourists` money, this means these areas will undoubtedly make a profit, and the reverse is true for those generating areas. Furthermore, there are many aspects can be affected by the flow of tourists from produced to receiving areas such as income, employment and investment and development (Holloway, J, C. Humphreys, C and Davidson, R. 2009).
The environmental impact of tourism
According to (Wall, G and Mathieson, A.2006), the history of tourism undoubtedly point out that the tourism was birth and progressed by contributing of environmental factors. The Places which are blessed with natural beauty and pleasant landscape and skyscraper features have had a major impact on particular locations or regions. However, tourism can have a negative impact on environment such as excessive building like roads and hotels, destroys natural habitats. It can also create pollution and waste, as a result, the city or region no doubt will be polluted by smog around it. Furthermore, it puts pressure on local resources such as food , water and energy supplies.
(Holloway, J, C. Humphreys, C and Davidson, R. 2009) said that the use of transportation particularly by airplanes are double fuel-efficient than they were 30 years ago. Air travel was account for 9% of global warming in 2004. In Britain, for example, the figure of travellers inside and outside of the UK would increase from 180 million in 2003 to half a billion by 2030, whereas the responsibility of flying aircraft will be almost 67% of all the UK's greenhouse emissions in 2050. A large proportion of the oil purchased in the world is just for leisure uses. In addition, all transportation forms of road, sea and air can annoy on the quiet resort by increasing noise levels, whether in rural districts or in living areas. Both local people and tourists especially who are near of busy airports greatly would be in worry by making anxious from airplanes taking off and landing.
The cultural and social impact of tourism
Sociocultural impacts are consequences of specific types of relationships that happen between tourists and hosts due to their coming into contact. Tourists can experience different customs and cultural such as sight-seeing, sunbathing and testing new cuisine. It would open our minds as well as it can broaden our horizons. However, when foreign people come to the tourist city they surely will affect on local people. Therefore, the local people will forget their own culture. Another drawback for tourism industry is raising prices, even though citizen's salaries are constant the prices rise when the city receives the tourists especially in restaurants, transportation, and fundamental requirements. Furthermore, the government would focus on tourism .Thus it will ignore facilities and needs of local region. In addition to this, crimes rate usually increase in tourist cities. Moreover, local traditions may be lost like traditional jobs and skills would die out such as farming and fishing (Wall, G and Mathieson, A.2006).
When using of culture as a tourist attraction can lead to risen support for traditional cultures and would display identity of ethnic .What is more, direct contact between residents and tourists probably would remove negative stereotypes, as a result, it will increase social opportunities. Another benefit of sociocultural impact of tourism is that encourage competition for tourist business and improve standard of living for hosts and income undoubtedly will rise for those as well (WTO. 1999).
The historic of tourism has a great importance throughout the world for ages, despite the fact that the drawbacks which faced global tourism industry. Tourism provided numerous benefits for destinations, hosts communities and travellers, although its few negative effects. It has become link between them and it made the world as one village. The predictions of global tourism after it entered a new millennium look set to continue growing up and greater importance in the world economy, even though it faces several challenges.
The Brainy Quote was definition the immigration and said that 'The act of immigrating; the passing or coming into a country for the purpose of permanent residence'. That means is anyone who left his country and went to another country to live there and find a job.
Immigration is one of the ways to develop and change a lot of culture in any country in the world. Since World War II several changes have occurred in the United Kingdom, and immigration has been one of the major events. Many newcomers have come from all parts of the world; the majority came from Ireland, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Germany, Africa and the West Indies. Because World War II destroyed many cities in Britain, the British government allowed people to live and work in Britain without a visa.
Post-war immigrants have affected the English way of life. In addition, they have changed other parts of popular culture (Panikos, 1999). The impact of immigration on the economy can be seen in many ways. The British economy grew after World War II because many immigrants found themselves in new employment. Britain needed these immigrants to work in the factories and replace the men who died in World War II (House of Lords, 2008).
The next section looks at the impact of migration after World War II in Britain, and focuses on the economic prospects and cultural effects of it.
The post-war period from 1945 to 1970 was important for immigration into Britain .At the same time many British people were migrating to neighbouring countries such as Australia and Canada. Many blacks from the West Indies came to live in the United Kingdom. More than 400 people arrived in 1948; they were the first major group of Caribbean immigrants. Moreover, by 1970 more than 60,000 immigrants had come from India, the majority of whom settled in London, Liverpool and Cardiff and got different kinds of job (Panikos, 1999).
In addition, many people from Pakistan, Ireland and Bangladesh found work and new homes in different cities, for instance Manchester, Bradford and Leicester. By the late 1970s, non-white people had become a familiar sight in most big cities like London and Nottingham. The early WWII decades during which the majority of people from the West Indies who made their way to Britain gained a pretty image of the country played an important role in the decision of many African-Caribbeans to come to the UK (Gourvish and O'Day, 1992).
'Since 1945 important developments have occurred in the occupational structure of black and Asian immigrant groups notwithstanding their continued and pronounced working-class character' (Gourvish and O'Day, 1992, p. 215).
The first group of blacks to get a job consisted of about 120 men and 20 women. They worked with the London transport service, on buses and the underground railway system. At the same time many Irish people moved to Great Britain, the majority of them staying in inner city areas. Some people, for instance Germans, did not concentrate their numbers in poor areas, but moved out to the suburbs (Panikos, 1999).
The Home Office paper's technical annex defines immigrants as 'foreign born population and UK born dependent children â€¦' It continues by saying that, 'under this assumption, immigrants account for 8.4 per cent of the UK population'. This is a category of about five million people.
Muslim immigrants have grown remarkably since the newcomers first came after WWII .In addition, the number of Muslim buildings in Britain, according to 2008 figures is 1,500 mosques and Islamic centres, the most important Islamic centre being in Mayfair in London. Furthermore, the number of Muslims in Britain was nearly one million by some estimates in 2008 (Islammemo.cc).
However, since the end of WWII Britain's economic system has grown. The immigration in Britain has had significant economic effects on public services, for example on education and health. In the period between 1950 and 1973 general revenue rose significantly. Moreover, in the same period the income of a man per hour in the manufacturing industry rose more than 200 per cent. Although, following World War II, the UK had few workers and needed more to fill its many new factories, there were also a new health service that was an incentive for people to work there. Factory owners searched for new workers from countries such as Poland and Italy; however, they did not find what they wanted because other European countries were short of workers too. In the period between 1945 and 1947 more than 340,000 European newcomers came to the UK. After that, employers began looking in different countries where English was spoken and where people had worked in Britain in the previous period, for example Commonwealth countries and the colonies (UK Immigration Law).
Britain controlled many countries, for instance India, the Caribbean, and some countries in Africa until they became independent. A lot of men and women worked in factories to produce equipment and some of them were soldiers. When the soldiers fought in Africa, the Far East and Europe, they received a higher salary than in other countries .That was one of the reasons why people chose to stay and work in Britain. The situation did not last long. In 1962 the Commonwealth Immigration Law was issued to make immigration more difficult, possibly because Britain by then had enough workers (Gourvish and O'Day, 1992).
In addition, many Asian trades were opening up in areas with a high concentration of newcomers, generally in city centres, to help develop the city. Moreover, the large number of newcomers after World War II was important in causing house prices to rise steeply, which has been a huge problem over the last 20 years.
The House of Lords (2008, p. 18) stated:
Labour Force Survey data for 2006 suggest that the three most popular sectors for foreign-born workers in the UK are public administration, education and health (32%), distribution, hotels and restaurants (21%) and banking, finance and insurance (20%). Among A8 immigrants, the top sectors are distribution, hotels and restaurants (24%), manufacturing (21%) and construction (14%). (ONS, p. 50) In some sectors and regions, the share of immigrants is much higher.
On the other hand, Britain has been affected by some of the culture of its immigrants. For example, the post-war arrivals brought their own style of dress. All groups from various countries bring their cultures with them. The Indians brought their food and clothes; the Caribbeans brought their festivals and carnivals; and the Muslims brought the Islamic religion. An important point is that Britain is one of the few countries in the world in which people are allowed to do this, meaning that it is a free country. This was the most important reason why newcomers came to live in Great Britain.
More clearly, the impact of immigrants and their generations after World War II became more pronounced than it was before the war, especially in terms of popular music, sport and media. In addition, the Germans have been credited with the spread of classical music throughout the nineteenth century.
A lot of immigrants live in rural towns so that they can practise their religion and build churches and temples. Religion has played an important role in differentiating between one category and another. For example, the Asian community has more than one religion, the most important of them being Islam, Sikhism and Hinduism (Panikos, 1999).
To sum up, newcomers after World War II have supported progress and helped to rebuild the infrastructure and public services in the United Kingdom. Moreover, immigration has made a significant improvement to the economic system in Britain since 1945, particularly between 1950 and 1970. Immigrants who live in rural areas have nevertheless helped to develop the cities, because they work and bring their trades with them. In addition, factories saw an increase in the number of workers and raised people's income as well.
Britain has been affected by the culture of immigrants from different countries. However, the most impact has been the religious one, because each group has brought their religion with them.
Give a brief outline of the pattern of immigration to Britain since WWII and discuss is impact on British economy and culture. Support your views with clear relevant examples
Since the Second World War the immigration has been one of the solutions to reconstruct and improve the United Kingdom from the weak economic situation and devastation that happened in that time . In that period of time the Second World War breakdown most of Britain cities, especially the infrastructure and caused many damages to the ecosystem and even to citizens emotions. It is definitely that the United Kingdom won the Second World War, however the country found itself in a bad economic situation. Moreover they took their in cheap workers from its colonies to help reconstruct the country. Although, the Oxford Dictionary defines immigration as "To move to live permanently in a foreign country". These people have to work and act within community to give a basic quality of life. That played a important role in developing the UK. Basically the cities were rebuilt and became better than they were before the war. However, in this assignment, the economic situation will be examined. Then how Britain dealt with this devastation and what were the advantages of immigration will be included. Finally, I will look at how immigration has impact on the British community.
The Second World War made many British citizens migrated to different countries in the world such as USA and Australia , however that was offset by a massive number of Immigrants who came to the United Kingdom. The Afro-Caribbean from the West India was the first group who migrated to the UK . In addition, there were many people migrated to Britain that escape religious persecution and civil war (Foreign &Commonwealth Office reported). for example from 1947 Pakistanis , Indians and Bangladeshis from 1971 . Furthermore, one of the main reasons that made migrants move to the UK which is political persecution and racial discrimination. When the Caribbean immigrants arrived to the United King doom the government provide for them many different jobs for example manual work, health, public transport, they staying in the most of cities in Britain such as London, Bradford and B. after that Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis came and they worked in factories such as cars industries and textile factories in Huddersfield, Leeds and Yorkshire. Many refugees from East African countries who had experience in business skills they got opportunity to find jobs as doctors, chemists and lawyers or ran small businesses. In the last 1970s, it was a familiar sight to see non-white people in the biggest cities in the UK. Moreover they extended to most of Britain, North and west Midlands were those people set in huge industrial cities as Sheffield, Liverpool, Nottingham and Greater London. In 1990s in the UK there were approximately 3.3 million non-white ethnic minorities that is representing 5.9 per cent of the British people. . In 18th century the Muslims sailors came, as known lascars, those who served on British ships they started settling in the port cities such as Liverpool, Glasgow and Cardiff. In the 1950s, there were migrate of the largest Muslim communities that who came from South Asia and seating in the poor areas, the textile towns of Lancashire , and the industrial towns in the Midlands, Strathclyde also in the Yorkshire. By the late 1840 there was growth number of immigrants to Britain that especially the immigrants who came from Irish. Moreover, at that period of time other group moved to the UK escape political and refugees from Nazism. Most of the Irish people who moved to Britain were agricultural workers.
Yet, the immigration influence was clear in the United Kingdom specifically on the economy. Since the Second World War the immigrants who came to the UK were looking for a higher standard of living, better jobs, good education and social safety which they missed in their countries. The United Kingdom had welcome to immigrants in that period of time because there was suffering and shortage of workers which made them accepted low wages. The immigration affected the British economy by many reasons. Firstly, there were growing up of the workers number which helps the rate of production. Secondly, the immigrants made a lot of investments which improved and supported the ecosystem. Finally, the immigrants have been assisting to reconstruct country. The House of Lords (2007 p16) said that ''the economic impact of immigration depends partly on immigrants' length of stay in the UK. Among new immigrants in 2005, 44% said they intended to stay for 1-2 years (up from 35% in 1996), followed by 19% who said they intended to stay for 3-4 years, and 30% more than 4 years (down from 39% in 1996)''. most of employers found that migrants labour are very smart and respect the work ethic, and are more enthusiastic about work for long hours. Although , there are matters about the conditions under which many migrant workers operate. The Low Pay Commission has expressed concern that some of them may be being paid below the National Minimum Wage. In Scotland, and in the United Kingdom as a whole, ''the food and health sectors are dependent on migrant workers and there are significant advantages for employers to recruit migrants in those sectors that face strong competition from abroad'' (Craig, 2007). Moreover, migrants worker can fill the gaps in skilled labour, it has been show that by the increasing the number of new National Health Service (NHS) dentists who are migrants. Moreover, the National Health Service depend on immigrants to produce them with qualified doctors. Though the data are not recent, the Scottish Executive reported that, in 2000, all hospital doctors in NHS Scotland were certified outside the UK., The number of doctors have rosin in 1990 by more 12.3%,while the percentages of GPs was about the same as a decade earlier. These insure that immigrants have become an important source of supply for the health insurance system. With the growth of medical school places in the last two years, this situation looks set to being modified (House of Lords, 2007). In addition, the immigrants made the prices grow- up especially in the propriety which made it weighed heavily on the British people that made the Government tried to control it. The House of Lords (2007) said that "The Prime Minister unveiled a new target of building 3 million homes by 2020". These new proprietary announced by the government following line with expectations, in that the number of households in England is predicted to increase by equivalent to almost 5 million new households. This growth is assumed because a huge figure of human beings is choosing to live alone. It is notable that the number of new families is unequal with the numbers of new houses to be built.
On the other hand, the culture in the UK has been affected by large number of immigrants. Furthermore they arrivals have changed many aspects of British culture. After II W W the immigrants brought with them their won culture such as clothes. Each group had it is own traditional culture as we mention before Indian affected in the English culture with them their food .moreover Muslims involved with them their religion easily in the UK which the British culture accepted freedom of religions . That they were allowed to pray as well as they could do the Religious events freely, and they Germans brought their classic music. This shows that Britain welcomed the various civilizations, and treated with them like if they were in their countries of origin.
To conclude, immigration has helped the United Kingdom for developing by rebuilding the infrastructure and other important facilities since Second World War. Furthermore, the migratory groups had the huge impact on the British economy by working in many different part of factories. The huge number of immigrants made the trade and real estate growth it is has seen a great deal with immigrants who started came to the UK. It is said that about the economic effected of immigration, the immigrants have also influenced English culture. The largest cities in the UK are activated cities. As a result, this produces a nice atmosphere for both tourists and for other people to find whatever they want. What is more immigration has played an important role in changing and constructing the United Kingdom after the Second War Wolrd to what it is look like nowadays.
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