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In the Word War II, in the Kokoda Trial, there was the first campaign that Australia attended in without the help of UK. The Kokoda trial is so important to the defense of Australia that the soldiers made the every effort to win the war. In this report, firstly, it will introduce the background of Kokoda Trial and what the Kokoda trial is. Secondly, it will give several reasons to show Reasons why Australian troops were involved. And then, how well were the troops prepared and difficulties encountered by the soldiers will be discussed in this report. Finally, it will give the significance of this campaign for the defence of Australia.
2.0 What is Kokoda Trial
Kokoda Trail is a 100 km-long trail, from the face of the Coral Sea in the Port Moresby suburb proceed through the Owen Stanley Range to Kokoda, the Section control over the Coral Sea overlooking the coastal lowlands. If the Japanese armies occupied this channel in Port Moresby, and then to establish adequate naval and air force combat, they can access the channel in Australia, or even a direct threat to Australia’s native north-east, so has its strategic importance. Kokoda Trail Campaign (Kokoda Track campaign) is a World War II Pacific War outsiders often overlook the important battle. In July 1942 to 11 months in Australia, Papua New Guinea’s Kokoda Trail possessions along the route, initiated by the Japanese and Australian forces conducted a series of battles.
3.0 Reasons why Australian troops were involved
Generally speaking, the war in Kokoda trial is the most important war that the Australians attended in the World War II. There are several reasons.
1. On 21 July 1942, the Japanese army landed near Gona in Papua New Guinea’s north coast. Port Moresby is an important defense Australian port. Japanese set Port Moresby to be the first goal as the invasion (Lindsay, P 1992). Japanese troops invaded Australia; the Australians were forced to fight. The battle is to defend his Australian homeland and for the defensive battle.
2. Kokoda Trail is an important Japanese army to invade Port Moresby War repeatedly arteries. For Australians, Kokoda Trail is an important defense fortress to defend territory, Kokoda Trail, once missed; Australia will have occupied the risk. Therefore, in the absence of support of coalition forces, local militias in Australia, in order to defend the homeland, spontaneous forces waged a tenacious Japanese resistance.
3. As part of the Pacific War, Australian troops realize that Australia was once occupied; the advantage of the Pacific War will be controlled by the Japanese army. In this way, Australia will become Japan’s attack on the United States, an important strategic base. As a member of the military alliance, the Australian army has the responsibility to participate in the war. In the Kokoda campaign, the United States in the later provides an important support.
4.0 How well the troops prepared were
Kokoda Trail campaign was the first Australian troops led the fight to protect Australia, and block the Japanese offensive. This is the first independent Australian military support in the Commonwealth outside the actual combat. Troops are made up by the local Aboriginal Australia Babu infantry battalion (Papua Infantry Battalion) and the Australian Army Reserve units of 39 infantry battalions to the initial defense (FitzSimons, P, 2004). Although Kokoda Trail the narrow, mountain and forest on both sides of the valley is still more than ten kilometers wide. Faced up to the large number of Japanese troops, training, weapons are far better than them, for tough defensive battle, been waiting for an opportunity onslaught, retreat, delaying the Japanese. For example, the Japanese army in fierce fighting two days after the July 29 capture by the 77 Australian troops defending the Kokoda airstrip, due to the strong performance of Australian troops, Japanese estimated garrison troops at Kokoda airstrip for the 1200 (Brune, P 1991). During the time of Australian army fight, the shortcomings exposured are immediately thereafter to reflect on and correct. Since lack of planning in advance, Australian combat troops by air to many additional troops, material transport and casualty evacuation, etc. must be carried out by the local Aborigines to human. Logistics system was significantly strengthened after the war.
5.0 Difficulties encountered by the soldiers
There are two aspects of difficulties encountered by the soldiers. On the on hand, the Japanese army is so skilled in the jungle war and the number of the soldiers is much more than the Australian army. On the other hand, when allied intelligence behind the fight: Map old, unfamiliar terrain, the lack of the space-time according to; so allied armies of high-United States and Australia are often unable to perform field commander issued the order. Although the lack of personal skills of training and scheduling training, Australian soldiers and officers still achieved the strategic objectives.
6.0 Significance of this campaign for the defenses of Australia
In the campaign, Japanese fortitude bravery, jungle operations have a high standard of training. In order to prevent the homeland, Australian troops paid a heavy price. In the latter part of campaign, with help of the US army, Australia has made homeland security as the victory. In a later review of the war, experts view the trend of the Pacific War, finds Kokoda Trail campaign is the US-Japan trade potential key offensive and defensive battle (Bill James, 2006). If the Japanese success and control across the Kokoda Trail, captured Port Moresby, swept through Australia, the U.S. military from the American shore, and prevent possible counterattack (Lindsay, P 2002).
Kokoda campaign was Australia to defend their homes and carried out with the Japanese army. As for the strategic terrain of Kokoda Trail, Australia and the Japanese armies were engaged in a fierce campaign. During the war, faced up to frenzied attacks and Japanese difficulties, Australia paid a terrible price. Later with the U.S. military’s help, the Australian soldiers repelled the Japanese army, successfully defending their homes. It also reversed the form of the Pacific War.
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