The Biography Of Alexander The Great History Essay
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Alexander the great was one of the intelligent, tough and determined leaders in the world history. Alexander the great was born in the beautiful castle in Macedonia, a country located in the Northern Greece in 356 B.C. He was also a student of famous Greek scientist Aristotle too. Alexander ruled his empire for only ten years; he could make his empire become the largest empire. He fought and won many battles by using unconventional military tactics. He can destroyed force of enemies that were bigger than his own three or four times. He is also known for creating of Hellenistic Culture, How this man can become the best leader in the world history? Or what can we learn from him? In this writing, I am going to discuss about his early life, his rise to power, political career and legacy.
Alexander was born in Pella the city of Macedonia in 356 B.C. His father was the Philip II, who was the king of Macedonia, and his mother was the princess of Epirus whose name is Olympias. Alexander spent his childhood with the transforming of Macedonia into a great military power
One of Alexander's first teachers was Leonidas, who was a relative of his mother; Philip hired Leonidas to train Alexander in math, archery, and horsemanship. And in 343 B.C, Alexander just 13 year old, Philip hired Aristotle, the Greek philosopher and scientist to be Alexander personal tutor. For three years after teaching form Aristotle , Alexander gain a lot of knowledge that were related to philosophy , government , political , poetry ,drama ,and the sciences, all of which became importance in Alexander later life.
Alexander's education from Aristotle ended in 340 B.C. While Philip was assembled a large Macedonian army and invaded Thrace, he left Alexander who just 16 year old, with the power to rue Macedonia. Which show that Alexander has capacity enough to fight even thought he still young. But as the Macedonian army advanced deep into Thrace, the Thracian tribe of Maedi bordering north- eastern Macedonian rebelled and posed a danger to the country Alexander assembled an army, led it against the rebels and defeated the Maedi.
Two years later in 338 B.C, Philip gave Alexander a commanding post among the senior generals as the Macedonian army invaded Greece At the battle of Chaeronea, then the Greeks were defeated.
In 336 B.C at the ancient Macedonian capital of Aegai, while joining his daughter wedding Philip was assassinated by a young Macedonian noble, Pausanias. After Philip's death, the generals agreed and proclaimed Alexander the ruler of Macedon. In order to secure his throne, Alexander killed everyone who could have a possible claim to kingship.
Although Alexander was the king of Macedon, Alexander did not gain control of the Corinthian. Some Greek states rejoiced at Philip murder, and Athens wanted to rule the League. Throughout Greece independence movements arose, Alexander led armies to Greece to stop these movements. The Greek states quickly recognized him as their leader, while Sparta still refused to join. The league gave Alexander unlimited military powers to attack Persia, a large kingdom to the east of Greece.
In October 335 B.C Alexander came to Macedon and prepared to Persian. In numbers of troops, ships, and wealth, Alexander's resources were inferior to those of Darius III (380-330 B.C) who was the king of Persia. In 334 B.C Alexander's army fought with Darious's army for the first time. Alexander's army defeated the Persian and continued to move west. Darius's capitals at Sardis feel easily, followed by cities of Miletus and Halicarnassus. The territories where Alexander conquered formed the foundations of his Asian empire. Then in autumn 334 B.C Alexander had crossed the southern coast of Asia Minor (now Turkey). In Asia Minor, Alexander cut the famous Gordian knot. According to tradition, whoever untied the intricate Gordian knot would become ruler of Asia. Many people began to believe that Alexander had godlike powers and was destined to rule Asia.
In 333 B.C Alexander moved his forces east and then met the Darious's forces at the city of Issus. Alexander used creative military formations to beat Darius's forces. Darius fled. Alexander then attacked the Persian royal camp where he gain lots of riches and captured the royal family. He treated Darius's wife, mother, and three children with respect. Darius's armies were defeated, Alexander proclaimed himself as a King of Asia.
As a result of the defeat, Darius wanted to sign a truce with Alexander. He offered a large ransom for his family, a marriage alliance, a treaty of friendship and part of his empire, but Alexander ignored Darius's offer because he wanted to conquer all of Asia.
In September 331 B.C Alexander defeated the Persians at the Battle of Gaugamela. The Persian army collapsed, but Darius fled again. Instead of chasing Darius, Alexander explored Babylonia, which was the region that Darius had abandoned. The land had rich farmlands, palaces and treasures. Alexander became the king of Babylon, King of Asia, and king of the four Quarters of the world.
Alexander caught up king Darius in July 330 B.C but Darius's assistants had assassinated him. Alexander ordered a royal funeral with honors for his enemy. As Darius's successor, Alexander captured the assassins and punished them based on Persian Law. Alexander was the king of Persia and he began to wear Persian royal clothes. Alexander respected the local customs everywhere.
In the beginning of 331 B.C Alexander entered Egypt. Egyptians surrendered and they had despised living under Persian rule for almost two centuries. Then Alexander ordered to design and found a city by using his name at the mouth of river Nile, as trading and military Macedonian outpost. That city was named Alexandria. Alexandria became a major economic and cultural center in the Mediterranean world not only during the Macedonian rule in Egypt but centuries after.
Alexander pushed eastward toward Mesopotamia (Present-day Iraq). He conquered the region, built cities, and established colonies of Macedonians. In the spring of 327 B.C.E. he seized the fortress of Ariamazes and captured the prince Oxyartes. Alexander married Oxyartes's daughter Rhoxana to hold together his Eastern Empire more closely in a political alliance.
In the summer of 327 B.C Alexander marched toward India. In northern India, he defeated the armies of king Porus. Impressed with his bravery and nobility, Alexander allowed Porus to remain king and gained his loyalty. By July 325 the army continued north to the harsh and barren land in the Persian Gulf. The hardship and death that occurred after arriving brought disorganization to the army, and this disorder began to spread throughout the empire. Alexander was greatly concerned with the rule of his empire and the need of soldiers, officers and administrators. In order to strengthen the empire, Alexander then made an attempt to bind the Persian nobility to the Macedonians to create a ruling class. To accomplish this goal, he ordered eighty of his Macedonian companions to marry Persian princesses. Alexander, although married to Rhoxana, married Stateira, a daughter of Darius, to solidify his rule. When Alexander incorporated thirty thousand Persians into the army, his soldiers grumbled. Later that summer, when he dismissed his aged and wounded Macedonian soldiers, the soldiers spoke out against Alexander's Persian troops and his Persian manners. Alexander arrested thirteen of their leaders and executed them. He then addressed the army and reminded his soldiers of their glories and honors. After three days the Macedonians apologized for their criticism. In a thanksgiving feast the Persians joined the Macedonians as forces of Alexander.
In the spring of 324, Alexander held a great victory celebration at Susa. He and 80 of his close associates married Persian noblewomen. In addition, he legitimized previous so-called marriages between soldiers and native women and gave them, rich wedding gifts, no doubt to encourage such unions.
Later In the spring of 323 B.C.E. Alexander moved to Babylon and made plans to explore the Caspian Sea and Arabia and then to conquer northern Africa. But on June 2nd he fell ill, and he died eleven days later. He had a high fever after attending a private party at his friend's Medius of Larisa. When he drank from the cup he "shrieked aloud as if smitten by a violent blow". The fever became stronger with each following day to the point that he was unable to move and speak. The Macedonians were allowed to file past their leader for the last time before he finally succumbed to the illness on June 11, 323 BC in the Macedonian month of Daesius. Alexander the Great, the Macedonian king and the great conqueror of Persian Empire, died at the age of 33 without designating a successor to the Macedonian Empire.
After his death, nearly all the noble Susa marriages dissolved, which shows that the Macedonians despised the idea. There never came to unity between Macedonians and Persians and there wasn't even a unity among the Macedonians. Alexander's death Opened the anarchic age of the Successors and a bloody Macedonian civil war for power followed.
In Asia the Macedonian commanders who served Alexander fought each other for power. Then the Macedonian Empire split into four main kingdoms, the one of Seleucus (Asia), Ptolemy (Egypt), Lysimachus (Thrace) and Antipater's son Cassander(Macedonia, including Greece).
Spreading of Greek culture was the most lasting achievement of Alexander the Great. Alexander encouraged the mixing of Greek culture with cultures of ancient Middle East, such as, he married a Persian princess and also arranged thousands of his soldier married Persian woman. He arranged those marriages because he hoped the children of these marriages would help to unite the empire. Alexander worshipped Persian gods, Greek gods and adopted Persian customs and dress, even though he though himself as Greek. He gained the support of his new subjects by adopting some of their practices.
Hellenistic Civilization emerged in Greece and in the other land he had won after Alexander's death. Hellenistic Civilization was a blend of eastern and western influences, including Persian, Egyptian, Indian, and Greek. Alexandria in Egypt was the center of Hellenistic civilization.
Alexander the Great, the name alone inspires images of a man with a massive army at his back, his face laden with both the burden and the right to sweep the world and bring it under his rule. During his time, for centuries afterwards, Alexander the Great, son of the Phillip of Macedon become the most outstanding leader in the world history. Alexander the Great was unquestionably one of the greatest military geniuses in the history of war. Alexander conquered much of what was then the civilized world, driven by his divine ambition of the world conquest and the creation of a universal world monarchy. Alexander had tremendous impulsive energy and a fervid imagination.
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