The Beautiful Mountain In Indonesia History Essay
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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016
Mount is a form of land protruding above the surrounding area. A mountain is usually higher and steeper than a hill, but they are having similarity and usage often depends on local custom. Some authorities define a mountain with a peak of more than a certain amount; for example, the Encyclopedia Britannica requires elevation 2000 feet (610 m) to be defined as a mountain.
Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on usage among the local people. Other definitions of “mountain” include:
* Height over base of at least 2,500
* Height over base of 1500-2500m with a slope greater than 2 degrees
* Height over base of 1000-1500m with a slope greater than 5 degrees
* Local (radius 7 km) elevation greater than 300m, or 300-1000m if local (radius 7 km) elevation is greater than 300m.
By this definition, mountains cover 64% of Asia, 25% of Europe, 22% of South America, 17% of Australia, and 3% of Africa. As a whole, 24% of the Earth’s land mass is mountainous and 10% of people live in mountainous regions. Most of the world’s rivers are fed from mountain sources, and more than half of humanity depends on mountains for water.
High mountains, as well as those located close to the Earth’s poles, reach into the colder layers of the atmosphere. They are consequently subject to glaciations, and erosion through frost action. Such processes produce the peak shape. Some of these mountains have glacial lakes, created by melting glaciers; for example, there are an estimated 3,000 glacial lakes in Bhutan. Mountains can be eroded and weathered, altering their characteristics over time.
Tall mountains have different climatic conditions at the top than at the base, and will thus have different life zones at different altitudes. The flora and fauna found in these zones tend to become isolated since the conditions above and below a particular zone will be inhospitable to those organisms. These isolated ecological systems are known as sky islands and/or microclimates.
Mountains are colder than lower ground, because the Sun heats Earth from the ground up. The Sun’s radiation travels through the atmosphere to the ground, where Earth absorbs the heat. Air closest to the Earth’s surface is, in general, warmest. Air temperature normally drops 1 to 2 degrees Celsius for each 300 meters (1000 feet) of altitude.
Mountains are generally less preferable for human habitation than lowlands; the weather is often harsher, and there is little level ground suitable for agriculture. At very high altitudes, there is less oxygen in the air and less protection against solar radiation (UV). Acute mountain sickness (caused by hypoxia – a lack of oxygen in the blood) affects over half of lowlanders who spend more than a few hours above 3,500 meters (11,483 ft).
Mountains and mountain ranges throughout the world have been left in their natural state, and are today primarily used for recreation, while others are used for logging, mining, grazing, or see little use. Some mountains offer spectacular views from their summits, while others are densely wooded. Summit accessibility is affected by height, steepness, latitude, terrain, weather. Roads, lifts, or tramways affect accessibility. Hiking, backpacking, mountaineering, rock climbing, ice climbing, downhill skiing, and snowboarding are recreational activities enjoyed on mountains. Mountains that support heavy recreational use (especially downhill skiing) are often the locations of mountain resorts.
Mountains can be characterized in several ways. Some mountains are volcanoes and can be characterized by the type of lava. Other mountains are shaped by glacial processes and can be characterized by their glaciated features. Still others are typified by the faulting and folding of the Earth’s crust, or by the collision of continental plates via plate tectonics (the Himalayas, for instance). Finally, the type of rock that makes up their composition can characterize mountains.
The movement of lithospheric plates, either orogenic movement or epeirogenic movement, usually produces a mountain. The compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features. The height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if higher and steeper, a mountain. The absolute heights of features termed mountains and hills vary greatly according to an area’s terrain. The major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity. Two types of mountain are formed depending on how the rock reacts to the tectonic forces – block mountains or fold mountains.
Compressional forces in continental collisions may cause the compressed region to thicken, so the upper surface is forced upward. In order to balance the weight of the earth surface, much of the compressed rock is forced downward, producing deep “mountain roots” [see the Book of “Earth”, Press and Siever page.413]. Mountains therefore form downward as well as upward (see isostasy). However, in some continental collisions part of one continent may simply override part of the others, crumpling in the process. Volcanoes, including many apparently small islands that reach a great height above the ocean floor, produced some isolated mountains.
Block Mountains are created when large areas are widely broken up by faults creating large vertical displacements. This occurrence is fairly common. The uplifted blocks are Block Mountains or horsts. The intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range province of Western North America and the Rhine valley. These areas often occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. The mid-ocean ridges are often referred to as undersea mountain ranges due to their bathymetric prominence.
Rock that does not fault may fold, either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The up folds are anticlines and the down folds are synclines: in asymmetric folding their may also be recumbent and overturned folds. The Jura Mountains are an example of folding. Over time, erosion can bring about an inversion of relief: the soft up thrust rock is worn away so the anticlines are actually lower than the tougher, more compressed rock of the synclines.
As in the world have many beautiful mountains. So, according to the previous research there are some beautiful mountains with their special character, which located in Indonesia and usually interesting to visit.
For the first mountain, that it will be explained is mount Jayawijaya, The highest mountain in Indonesia. Jayawijaya also a mountain covered with snow. Because of that, Mount Jayawijaya make Indonesia to be proud have that mountain.
Puncak Jayawijaya or a shorter called Puncak Jaya has reached the height of approximately 4884 meters above sea level. Stretched lengthwise in the middle of the province of West Papua and Papua (Indonesia) to Papua New Guinea Newguinea on with coordinate S 04°04.733 and E 137°09.572.
Puncak Jaya also called Carstensz Pyramide comes from name a Dutch adventurer named Carstenz January, he was the first seeing snow in the mountain area. Jan Carstensz makes observations through an ocean liner in 1623. Because cannot be determined by direct observation, the report was considered ridiculous. Because for Europeans, found the snowy mountains in the tropics is something that almost impossible.
The truth of the Carstensz report revealed after almost three hundred years later, when in 1899 dutch expedition made a Papua Island map and found the snow covered a mountain like Carstensz report said. To honor Carstensz, so the peak of that mountain named as the name implies.
Recorded the first climbers ever to conquer the Puncak Jaya is the expedition team led by Heinrich Harrer in 1962. Heinrich Harrer is an excellent climber and seasoned authors. His famous book, Seven Years in Tibet, is the true story of wanderings and friendship in the Himalayas, Tibet. Before Harrer, actually have a lot of other climbers who try to climb, but no one has ever succeeded. After Heinrich Harrer, following the expedition of Indonesia made it to the top. The expedition led by Lieutenant Colonel Hamid Azwar Topography of the Directorate of the Army is successfully achieving Puncak Jaya in 1964.
Jayawijaya Mountain is known as one of the seven highest peaks in the world (seven summit). Therefore, mount Jayawijaya is the ideals of true climbers, let alone climbing into the Puncak Jaya is the subjugation of the snow-covered mountain. Presented obstacles in the climb, such as a steep natural condition, very cold temperatures, strong winds and rain, and the lack of oxygen at altitude areas is a challenge to be conquered by the climbers.
Puncak Jaya is one of the snowy mountain peaks in crossing the equator, except in the mountains in Africa and Latin America. When viewed from the air, Puncak Jaya looks like a black carpet covered by a white hood. If the sun was bright, the snow will reflect blinding sunlight. Content of ice in the mountains is expected to reach 5 percent of world reserves of ice outside the continent of Antarctica. However, due to global warming, that amount from year to year increasingly shrinking. If viewed from the type of glacier into the types of Alpine Glaciation, the flow of glaciers that flow from a high to a lower area. Therefore, in this area have made possible the flow of the glacier.
Not only enjoy the natural charm of snow in the tropics, in the mountains tourists can also witness direct geological evidence about the history of the formation of Jayawijaya Mountains. Geological studies found empirical evidence that this mountain was originally a deep sea floor. A geologist named Francis Benedict in Margotomo http://www.e-samarinda.com Widodo said that the formation of the island of Papua with a peak in the IDR occurred about 60 million years ago. The island is formed from sedimentary rocks, which rose due to plate collision Indo-Pacific and Indo-Australian on the seabed, resulting in raised seabed became a large island. The evidence can be seen from the fossil marine animals left in the rocks Jayawijaya Mountains. Therefore, besides being a paradise for hikers, this region is also a paradise for geological research.
If exploring the mountains of Mining, of course the main thing is to prepare the physical readiness, supplies, and logistics. Exercise regularly in an area with a fairly cold temperature is one of the most effective conditioning to avoid the threat of hypothermia (hypothermia), which is due to heat loss in the temperate regions, very cold. In addition, the licensing aspect should also be prepared long before the ascent fingers. Because, apart from the heavy terrain, Papua region often hit by riots, tribal warfare, natural disasters and other disorders. The difficulty of licensing to climb “the roof of Indonesia” This often led to expressions of satire: “more difficult than taking care of his permission to climb the mountain”.
Given the weight of climbing terrain, complex licensing process, as well as security guarantees during the ascent, the climbers should use the services of an experienced travel agent. Various travel agents who have international reputations have provided two route options, the classic route through the Village Ilaga, or line kedia more comfortable with a helicopter ride to the Basecamp Hill Lake (Lake Valley).
Travel agent will usually handle the issue of licensing, transportation from Jakarta to Papua, renting a helicopter to the base camp, climbing guide, insurance, and training and conditioning team before the climb. Of course, the cost per person for a climbing team using travel agent services requires considerable cost, which is about 10,000 USD per person (or about one hundred million rupiah).
The next, it will be mount Tangkuban Perahu. As known mount Tangkuban Perahu has a unique legend. Tangkuban perahu or Tangkuban parahu according to the Sundanese dialect is a volcano, type stratovulcano. Tangkuban perahu is 25 km from Lembang, Bandung with the coordinate 6°46â€²S 107°36â€²E»¿ / »¿6.77°S 107.60°E»¿ / -6.77; 107.60. Its location is in between Sagalaherang village, Sagalaherang district, Subang regency and Cikole village, Lembang district, Bandung regency.
Tangkuban perahu has height about 2084 meter (837 feet), with the last eruption in 1983. Mount Tangkuban Perahu is the easiest hike route. This stratovolcano offers many places to see and explore. Whether we look into the huge crater or hike down into it, stroll through the forest on its slopes, or simply enjoy the splendid panoramic scenery. Mt. Tangkuban Perahu is an interesting destination that everyone in the Bandung area is fond of visiting.
Based on experience, is better to visit Mt. Tangkuban Perahu in the morning. It’s still quite, cold weather, even still in the base ground before you going up to the mountain. Many people said that if going into hike down, could find a huge crater, which many sulfur inside.
The huge crater is also the main tourism spot. Its look likes a little lake with hot surface that feel like in the spa. It’s rather hot in that huge crater. Visitor can relax awhile boil egg. But, visitor must aware with the hot gas from explosion holes.
Each mountain has urban legend for their name, or how it does created so does mount Tangkuban perahu. Mt. Tangkuban perahu named and created referring to the local legend.
Is told that king Sungging Perbangkara go hunting. In the middle of forest, king threw urine, which deposited in caring leaves. A female pig named Wayungyang the middle of an ascetic to become a man had to drink urine. Wayungyang pregnant and gave birth to a beautiful baby. The king brings that baby to the castle and king gave her name Dayang Sumbi or Rarasati. A lot of kings want to marry her, but no one Dayang sumbi accept to be her husband. That’s making the kings warring among themselves.
Dayang Sumbi ask permitted from her father to leaving and go to the hill accompany with a male dog named Tumang. When she was busy weaving, piston, which used to weave the cloth, fell to the bottom. Dayang Sumbi felling lazy, uttered the word without the second thought before, she promised to get anyone who found that piston-sex male, would be her husband. Tumang found that piston and give to Dayang Sumbi. Then, Tumang become her husband. Dayang Sumbi was shocking when knew Tumang is the incarnation of gods. Another gods was cursed Tumang because disobedience. In short time, Dayang Sumbi pregnant and eventually gave birth to a handsome baby named Sangkuriang. Sangkuriang never know that Tumang is the incarnation of gods and also his father.
Sangkuriang is very fond of hunting. He was hunting accompanied with Tumang. When Sangkuriang hunting in the forest instructed to pursue the Tumang Wayungyang sow. Tumang not want to follow his orders, then Sangkuriang killed Tumang. Sangkuriang give heart of the Tumang to Dayang Sumbi, then cooked and eaten. Dayang Sumbi never know that she already ate her husband’s heart until she wonder where the dog going. At last, Sangkuriang confess that he killed Tumang and that heart was Tumang’s heart. Dayang Sumbi anger was rising to the fore head beaten with hit Sangkuriang’s head with the rice spoon made from coconut shell, so his head have a scar. Dayang Sumbi cast away Sangkuriang for killed her husband. In her sadness she granted the power of eternal youth by the gods.
Sangkuriang go wandering around the world. After a long walk to the east finally arrived in the west again and unknowingly has arrived back in place Dayang Sumbi, where his mother was. Sangkuriang not know that the beautiful princess who was found Dayang Sumbi – his mother. Sangkuriang fell in love with Dayang Sumbi and planned to marry her, only for Dayang Sumbi to recognize his scar just as he was about to go hunting. In order to prevent the marriage from taking place, Dayang Sumbi asked Sangkuriang to build a dam on the river Citarum and build a large boat to cross the river, both before the sunrise. Sangkuriang meditated and summoned mythical ogre-like creatures -buta hejo or green giant(s)- to do his bidding. Dayang Sumbi saw that the tasks were almost completed and called on her workers to spread red silk cloths east of the city, to give the impression of impending sunrise. Sangkuriang was fooled, and upon believing that he had failed, kicked the dam and the unfinished boat, resulting in severe flooding and the creation of Tangkuban perahu from the hull of the boat. Sangkuriang pursued Dayang Sumbi a sudden disappeared in Gunung Putri and turned into a Jaksi flower. Sangkuriang after arriving at a place called the Edge Berung finally disappeared into the spirit world (ngahiyang).
The next mountain it will be mount Krakatau, as known Krakatau have an amazing eruption. Krakatau is a volcano that still active and located in Sunda strait of Indonesia, between Java Island and Sumatra. Its type is volcanic caldera. Krakatau rises 813 meters (2,667 feet) above sea level. This name has been pinned on the summit of the volcano there is, because the eruption on August 26th-27th 1883, then vanished. The explosion very powerful and the resulting tsunami killed around 36,000 people. Until December 26th 2004, this tsunami is the most powerful in Indian Ocean region. The explosion heard even in Alice Springs, Australia and Rodriguez Island 4.653 kilometers near Africa. The yield is estimated at 30,000 times the atomic bomb that detonated on Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II.
Krakatau eruption caused global climate change. World had dark during two and a half day due to volcanic ash that surround the atmosphere. The sun was dreary enough until next year. Ash scatter looks in Norwegian sky to New York.
Krakatau Explosion actually still loses compare with Toba Mount and Tambora Mount explosion. Whereas in New Zealand Tanpo Mount and Katmal Mount in Alaska. However that mountain explode long time when human population still very little. Meanwhile Krakatau eruption, human population already dense enough, science and technology are evolved. Telegraph was found and submarine cable has been installed. Thus we can say that moment of information technology is growing and growing rapidly.
Noted that the eruption of Krakatau was the first major disaster in the world after the discovery of submarine telegraph. Progress is, unfortunately, has not been matched by progress in the field of geology. The geologist was not even able to give an explanation of these eruptions.
Look around mount Krakatau region in Sunda strait, experts estimated that in ancient time there is a huge mount in Sunda strait which finally extreme explode and gave rest a caldera (huge crater) called Ancient Mount Krakatau which is the main of eruption mount Krakatau in 1883. This mount is composed of andesitic rocks.
Note on the Ancient Krakatoa eruption taken from an ancient Javanese text, entitled Library Parwa King estimated dating from 416 AD. It contained among other states:
“There was thunder booming voice came from Mount Batuwara. There is also a frightening shock earth, darkness, thunder and lightning. Then came the storm of wind and rain and all the terrible storms darkened the entire world. A great flood came from Batuwara Mountain and flows east to Mount Kamula. When water drowning, the island of Java, separated into two, creating the island of Sumatra “
Geologists Berend George Escher and the other some argue that natural event as told in that text which called Mount Batuwara. Based on that Library King Parwa book, Krakatau height reach 2,000 meters above sea level, and circumstance the sea reach 11 kilometers.
Due to the great explosion, three-quarters of the body destroyed leave the rest caldera (a large crater) in Sunda strait. The sides or edge crater, known as Rakata Island, Panjang Island and Sertung Island.
This explosion was point out the responsibility for the occurrence of the dark ages on earth. Bubonic disease occurred due to cold temperature. This disease is significantly decrease human population on the earth.
The eruption was also considered contributing to the end of the heyday of ancient Persia, transmutation Roma kingdom to Byzantium, the end of the civilization of South Arabia, the extinction of a large Mayan City, Tikal and collapse of the Nazca civilization in South America which enigmatic. The Ancient Krakatau eruption estimated during 10 days with an estimated mass of vomit speeds reach 1 million tons per second. The explosion has formed a shield 20-150 meters thick atmosphere, lower temperature of 10-20 degrees for 5-10 years.
Rakata Island, which is one of rest the Ancient Krakatau Mount, and grow in accordance with encouragement from the volcanic bowels of the earth known as Mount Krakatau, made in basaltic rock. Then, two volcanoes in the middle crater, named Danan Mount and Perbuwatan later merged with Rakata Mount that shown first. This blend mount was called Krakatau Mount.
Mount Krakatau had erupted in 1680 produced andesitic lava acid. Moreover in 1880, Mount Perbuwatan active produced lava without explosion. After that time, there is no more volcanic activity in Krakatau until May 20th 1883. In that day, after 200 years of sleep, a little explosion happens in Krakatau.
That’s the first sign of eruption will occur in the Sunda Strait. This small explosion followed by small explosions that occurred on 26-27 summits in August 1883.
Monday August 27th 1883, exactly 10.20 o’clock, that mount was explode. Simon Winchester, a geologist who graduated from Oxford University in England and also the author of National Geographic said that Krakatau Explosion was the biggest, loudest voices and volcanic events of the most devastating in modern human history. Voices of the explosion heard until 4.600 km from the center of the explosion and even 1/8 earth citizen could hear at that time.
According to the researchers in University of North Dakota, Krakatau explosion together with Tambora eruption (1815) noted the biggest score of Volcanic Explosives Index (VEI) in modern history. The Guiness Book of Record noted that Krakatau explosion became the most powerful explosion that recorded in history.
Krakatau explosion had thrown stones pumice and volcanic ash with a volume of 18 cubic miles. A burst of the volcanic dusts reaches 80 km. Hard objects which flew into the air that fell on the plains of Java and Sumatra, even to Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Australia and New Zealand.
Eruption destroyed Danan Mountain, Mount Perbuwatan and partially Mount Rakata, where a half cone is missing, creates a basin-wide depth of 7 km and 250 meters. Ocean waves rise as high as 40 meters to destroy the villages and anything around coastal area. The tsunami was caused not only because of the eruption but also underwater avalanches.
Noted that the number of the dead reached 36.417 people from 295 villages around coastal from Merak (Serang) until Cimalaya in Karawang, west coast of Banten to display on the Island of Cape Panaitan (Ujung Kulon) also Southern part of Sumatra. In Ujung Kulon, the flood went until 15 km to the west. The next day until a few days’ later, residents Jakarta and Lampung hinterland no longer see the sun.
Tsunami waves generated even creeping up to the Hawaiian coast, west coast of Central America and the Arabian Peninsula that 7 thousand miles away.
Begin in 1927 or at least 40 years after Mount Krakatau eruption, shown volcanic which as known Krakatau son from ancient caldera area that still active and grow up. Speed of the growth rate about 20 inches per month. Every year it becomes higher 20 feet high and 40 feet wide. Other records mention the high increase about 4 cm per year and if in calculate, so in 25 years later high increase Rakata son reached 7.500 inches or 500 feet higher than 25 years before. The growth rate itself due to material that comes out from of the new belly of the mountain.
It this time Son of Krakatau rises about 230 meters above sea level, meanwhile the previous Mount Krakatau rises about 813 meters above sea level.
According to Simon Winchester, despite what happened in the first Krakatau live very frightening realities of geology, seismic and tectonic in Java and Sumatra, which will ensure that the strange what happens once in a while will happen again. No one knows exactly when the Son of Krakatau to erupt. Some geologists predict eruptions in will occur between 2015-2083. But the influence of the earthquake in the Indian Ocean base at December 26, 2004 also cannot be ignored.
According to Professor Ueda Nakayama one expert Japanese volcano, son of Krakatau is still relatively safe although there are active and frequent small eruptions, there are only certain times of the tourists are prohibited from approaching the area because of the dangers of spit lava of this volcano. Other experts said there is no plausible theory of the Son of Krakatau erupted that will come back. If there is at least 3 century or after 2325 AD. But clearly, the number of victims caused more awesome than the previous eruption.
After explanation about mount Krakatau, go to the next mountain it will be mount Rinjani, a favorite for mountain clmbers because of the beauty of the scenery Indonesia. Mount Rinjani is a mountain located in Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara. Mountain, which is the second highest volcano in Indonesia with a height of 3726 meters above sea level, it similar in height to Mount Fuji in Japan and located at latitude 8 ° 25 ‘S and 116 ° 28’ E.
Administratively, this mount is in the area the three of district, which is East Lombok, Central Lombok, and West Lombok.
With the height Mount Rinjani, dominating most of the scenery of northern Lombok Island. In the western Rinjani cone there is caldera with area about 3.500m x 4.800 m, extending west towards. Inside this caldera, there is Segera Anak ( Segera = sea, lake) area of 11.000.000 sq m with the depth 230 m. The water that flow from this lake is forming a very beautiful waterfall, flow through away canyon. In Segera Anak there are a lot of goldfish and mujair, so it usually used to fishing.
In the eastern of caldera there is New Mount (Mount Barujari) which have a crater with size 170 m x 200 m and rises 2296- 2376 m above sea level. This little mountain eruption since May 2nd 2009 and along May, after also previously erupted in 2004. In 2004, this eruption did not take casualties; the eruption in 2009 has been take indirect 31 casualties.
To arrive in Mount Rinjani, climbers can use the direct bus Jakarta to Mataram with across the sea using feri two times.
Rinjani have scenery, which is the most beautiful scenery in Indonesia. Every year (june-august) there are a lot of visitor like local residents, college student, nature lovers. Temperature average around 20 0C; the lowest 12 0C. Strong winds are common in August.
Besides at the peak, the place that usual in visit is Segera Anak. To reach this location visitor can climb from Senaru village or Sembalun Lawang. Most of climbers love start entry from Sembalun, because it could save 700m altitudes. Sembalun route is quite far but flat, and the weather more heat because trough away desert savanna. Shading cream is highly recommended.
From Senaru climb without stop, but the weather is soft because through the forest. From this both locations need time to walk away about 9 hours to the lip of the ridge at height 2700m above sea level. In this place, scenery to the lake, as well as scenery to the out side. From Plawangan Senaru down into the lake through the steep wall to a height of 2000m above sea level that can be gone in 2 hours. In the lake visitor could take a camp and fishing (Carper, Mujair) that a lot. Lombok residents have a tradition visit to Segera Anakan for bathing in hot water pool and fishing.
To get to the peak, must take a walk climb the western wall at height 700m and ridge height 1000m taken in 2 steps, 3 hours and 4 hours. The first stage toward Plawangan Sembalun, visit the last camp to wait for the morning. Summit usual attack at 3 o’clock morning to find beautiful moment – the sun rises at the top of Rinjani. Travel to the peak not too easy, for climbing on the crater lip with a safety margin barely. The tracks are sand, stone, and land. The last height 200m to go with some difficulty, because of one step forward followed with a half step down (fallen rocks gravel). For highlander, this place the most challenging and desirable because of the weight field paid off with the beautiful natural scenery. To climb Rinjani no need tools required, just stamina, patience and ” passion”.
After the most beautiful mountain in Indonesia, which is mount Rinjani, the next explanation about mount Galunggung. Mount Galunggung is a stratovolcano with the height 2.167 m above sea level, the location about 17 km from the central of Tasikmalaya.
The mountain, which is located in coordinate 7.25°LS-7°15’0″LS; 108.058°BT-108°3’30″BT, has recorded that Galunggung had erupted in 1882 (VEI = 5). Early signs known eruption in July 1822, in which water becomes turbid Cikunir and muddy. Results of the crater showed that the hot water is murky and sometimes appeared a column of smoke from the crater. Then on October 8 s.d. October 12, the eruption of reddish sand produces rain very hot, fine ash, hot clouds and lava. Lava flow moving toward the southeast following the river flows. This 4011 eruption killed 114 people and destroyed villages, with damage to the land to the east and south as far as 40 km from the top of the mountain.
The next eruption occurred in 1894. In between the dates 7-9 October, eruption clouds that produce heat. Then on October 30th and 27th, the lava flows occurred on the same river flows by lava eruption produced in 1822. This time the eruption destroyed 50 villages, most houses collapsed because of falling ash.
In 1918, in early July, the next eruptions occur and begin with earthquake. July 6th eruption produces ash 2-5mm thick is limited in the crater and the southern slope. And on July 9, noted the appearance of the lava dome inside the lake crater with a size of 85m-high 560x440m, which was then called mountain so.
The last major eruption on Galunggung was in 1982, which had a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 4 and killed 68 people. This eruption also brought the dangers of volcanic ash to aviation to worldwide attention, after two Boeing 747 passenger jets flying downwind of the eruption suffered temporary engine failures and damage to exterior surfaces, both planes being forced to make emergency landings at Jakarta.
One, a British Airways aircraft carrying 240 passengers, accidentally entered the ash cloud during night in June 1982 150 km downwind of the volcano. All four engines failed and the aircraft descended for 16 minutes, losing 7500 meters of its 11500 meters altitude, until the crew managed to restart the engines.
The following month a Singapore Airlines aero plan with 230 passengers aboard also inadvertently entered the cloud at night, and three of its four engines stopped. The crew succeeded in restarting one of the engines after descending 2400 meters. Both aircraft suffered serious damage to their engines and exterior surfaces.
A hummocky deposit known as the Ten Thousand Hills of Tasikmalaya attracted the attention of early 20th century geologists. Houses were built on the hummocks since they provided good defence against hostile people, and being above the paddy fields were free of mosquitoes and rats.
Originally, it was thought that
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