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Partition of India took place after WORLD WAR II , the time when, both Britain and British India were dealing with the economic stresses caused by the war and its demobilization. People wished for a Muslim state to come from British India to have a clean partition between independent and equal “Pakistan” and “Hindustan” once independence came. According to leading politicians such as Jawaharlal Nehru, leader of the Indian National Congress and Mohammed Ali Jinnah, leader of the All India Muslim League believed that Partition would result in peaceful relations. But the partition of British India into Pakistan and India in 1947 did not divide the nations cleanly along religious lines. Almost 50 percent of the Muslim population of British India remained in India. Inter-communal violence between Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs resulted in between 500,000 to 1 million casualties. In the partition, Princely-ruled territories, such as Hyderabad and Kashmir, were also involved. The choice of joining India or Pakistan was given to the Rulers of these territories. The ruler of Kashmir, joined India by signing the Instrument of Accession, although it had a Muslim Majority and India acquired Hyderabad in accordance with the wishes of the people of Hyderabad. However, Pakistan laid its claim on Kashmir and thus it became the MAIN POINT OF CONFLICT.
Also Known as FIRST KASHMIRI WAR. When the Maharajah of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu was pressured to accede to either of the newly independent states of Pakistan or India, the war started in October 1947. The Maharajah was forced to sign the ââ‚¬Å“Agreement to the accession of the princely state to Indiaââ‚¬ as tribal forces prompted by Pakistan attacked and occupied the princely state. Then India invited United Nations to mediate the quarrel. The opinion of the Kashmiriââ‚¬â„¢s must be ascertained , insisted the UN Missions. On 21 April 1948, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 47. In December 1948 , the war ended with the Line of Control dividing Kashmir into territories administered by Pakistan (northern and western areas) and India (southern, central and northeastern areas).
To precipitate an insurgency against rule by India, this war started, following of Pakistan’s Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir. India responded by launching attack on Pakistan. This five-week war caused thousands of casualties on both the sides and witnessed the largest tank battle in military history since World War II. It ended in a United Nations (UN) mandated ceasefire and the subsequent issuance of the Tashken Declaration.
The war was unique as it precipitated by the crisis brewing in erstwhile East Pakistan and did not involve the issue of Kashmir. About 10 million Bengalis in East Pakistan took refuge in neighboring India, following Operation Searchlight. India intervened in the ongoing Bangladesh liberation movement because of the impending humanitarian crisis and its own interest in dismembering Pakistan. Full-scale hostilities between the two countries commenced after a failed pre-emptive strike by Pakistan. Pakistani forces surrendered to India within two weeks of intense fighting, following which Bangladesh was created. Since the Second World War, after the surrender of nearly 90,000 Pakistani police and civilians, this war saw the highest number of casualties in any of the India-Pakistan conflicts, as well as the largest number of prisoners of war.
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Also known as KARGIL WAR. In Kargil district, Pakistani troops along with Kashmiri insurgents infiltrated across the Line of Control (LoC) and occupied Indian territory. Although Pakistani government believed that its nuclear weapons would deter a full-scale escalation in conflict but India launched a major military campaign to flush out the infiltrators. Pakistan was forced to withdraw its forces back across the LoC, due to Indian military advances and increasing foreign diplomatic pressure.
There have been skirmishes between the two nations from time to time, apart from the aforementioned wars. In 1955, countries were expected to fight each other after warlike posturing on both sides, but full-scale war did not break out.
India launched Operation Meghdoot capturing most of the Siachen Glacier in 1984. Many clashes erupted in the glacial area in 1985, 1987 and 1995 as Pakistan sought without success to oust India from its stronghold.
India conducted Operation Brasstacks between November 1986 and March 1987. This military exercise was feared could lead to another war between the two neighbors. Tensions were high again after militancy in Indian-administered Kashmir greatly increased in 1990. On 13 December 2001, a terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament, which India blamed on the Pakistan-based terrorist organizations Lashkar-e-Toiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed, prompted the 2001-2002 India-Pakistan standoff and brought both sides close to war.
Solution of Indo-pak relations:-
Hindustan had been fighting for independence and got it , because they all were Joint. We, the people of Hindustan suffered the bifurcation as the people who were at the helm of affairs were not in a position to distribute power amongst themselves and the two countries were formed , which had never been the desire of the people and we have seen that lakhs of our people were killed and crores of people had to migrate to unknown places.Â Kashmir problem could not be solved by these two countries and on that account they had to fight two to three wars directly and when they could not win or lose, they are at indirect war since then.
Kashmir problem which is the root cause of all the direct and indirect wars, both India and Pakistan are talking on this subject but it seems they shall not be able to solve.US mediated but both the countries are talking on the subject and they still say that they shall solve the problem.
India says that whole of Kashmir belongs to it and on the other hand, Pakistan claims Kashmir on the basis of more population of Muslims in that part but it seems they shall not be able to solve this problem. It shall be in best interest of the two countries and if a third country like US may mediate and say that this line of control between the two countries shall be international borders between the two countries and it seems this is the only solution. The people living in both the part have already accepted India and Pakistan as their own countries and they shall not agree for the new arrangement. US may mediate and get this solution as final. This may be done so that all these direct and indirect wars could stop.
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