The French revolution was marked by an event in the European history back in the year 1789. The French revolution ended in late 1790 after Napoleon Bonaparte accented (Lynch, 1973). During this time, the French political landscape was redesigned marked by the wide uprooting of major institutions including the feudal system. With widespread discontent in the absolute monarchy and the poor economic policies, the French upheaval degenerated with a chaotic bloodbath signifying the will of the people in power shaping. France becomes highly involved in the American Revolution as the 18 the century ended (Sando, & Agoyo, 2005). Therefore, both the American and the French revolution exhibited similarities and differences.
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In the 13 colonies where the colonials operated, it was clear that the common people wrote many grievances against the rulers. In the United States of America, the declaration of the famous independence was published. In France also, the famous Cahiers De Doleances texts were published and they directly maintained grievances of the common people. The Cahiers de Doleances was a compilation of grievances by the common French citizens complaining against the ruthless king Louis XVI (Lynch, 1973). On the other hand, there was manuscript by the American colonists with grievances by the common people towards King George III. The formation of the United States of America inspired the French revolution. Most scholars believe that the revolutions were a solid first step in the creation of ripe conditions for constitutionalism, patriotism and the struggle for freedom. Further similarities suggest that this mirror struggles initially appeared top produce profound elements with intricate differences for both the revolutions. Technically, goal for independence accelerated these revolutions. On the contrary, the initial American upheaval was primarily fought to remove unfair taxes that were imposed on them by the British rulers. Henceforth, France sparked their revolution in an interest for an independent way of living after decades of class separation (Sando, & Agoyo, 2005). Meanwhile, for both was a challenge by the Republicans to the monarchies all over the world. North Americans exhibited interest in the French revolution with believing that this was the experience with Britain following the events backs in the years 1789 (De Tocqueville, 1998). Surprisingly, not all the Americans approved the Frances method; however, majority largely remained supportive all through the revolutionary period. Equality and the rights of man, which was emphasized on the bill of rights, were vital revolutionary tenets. These principles sprung major theories presented with sentiments of sovereignty and equal opportunities for all. Like the American manuscripts, the French declaration proclaims presumption of innocence and prohibits the application of ex-facto.
The Pueblo revolt was literally a fight for survival for pueblo citizens who had passed through extreme abuses in the arms of the Spanish regime. Arguably, the American Revolution occurred because of several issues and the major cause was the resistance to the heavy taxes that were imposed on the common people. Eventually, the Americans gained independence from the British colonists and so did the pueblos. Unfortunately, the Spanish made a comeback and re-established themselves but this time treating the Pueblos in a much better way. In a similar sense, they were components of empires that had successfully revolted. Concisely, the Spanish explorers enslaved the common pueblo citizens trying to dilute their religious acts at the American southwest region at around 1500 (Lynch, 1973). This became the first upheaval organized on the American soil against a foreign power. In a surprise attack and through the leadership of Po’Pay a medicine man they successfully managed to defeat the Spaniards and chased them away from the territory. However, the medicine man became proud and began to behave like a dictator.
The Spaniard’s actions altered the life of many natives in a variety of ways (Lynch, 1973). Through their plight, they started dominating into the lives of the native forcing alterations in, politics, social manners and causing a lot of religious oppression. Their actions caused a lot of terror within the people as they continued to do an alteration of culture, for example, the ways of marriage. Underage kids were taken for industrial work whereas women were sexually harassed and assaulted. If an individual resisted their legs were cut off and persons above the age of 15 years became enslaved.
Maintaining order in America was a challenge. Even though Britain had acquired Canada from France, the efforts towards establishing peaceful relations with Indian tribes were weakening. Consequently, Britain kept a standing army in America. This move led a number of challenges with the colonialists. Besides, the Indian uprising during the Ohio frontier caused a proclamation in 1763, which prevented colonialists from settling at the west of the Allegany Mountains (De Tocqueville, 1998). This move would further lead to conflicts with land speculators and land-hungry settlers. Some British leaders also felt the urge to enhance control over their empire. American colonialists were known for evading laws controlling navigation and imperial trade. Besides, the American colonialists traded with the French during the war.
History documents that in the period between 1765 and 1783, America witnessed significant expansion in various spheres towards the West. America employed different methods to overpower rivals (De Tocqueville, 1998). The methods included dealings in unfair land purchases and formation of treaties. Unfair land purchases helped governments get military service with minimal financial constraints. Furthermore, the fighters engaged natives and Brits’ in a life and death war. Consequently, different cities emerged during the period.
During the American Revolution, people used carts and wagons to move things to different places. The roads were poor and carts had to be pulled by several horses. However, during the expansion towards the west, rail network expanded and agricultural land improved (Sando, & Agoyo, 2005). During the civil war, America lacked an expansive rail network to the west of Mississippi River. Rather, most of the railway development was done in the eastern part. The west was, however, considered as a frontier during the 1765s and the 1783s (De Tocqueville, 1998). Americans then embarked on a mission to achieve manifest destiny. They used the land acquired through treaties to construct an extensive railway network that would serve the entire American continent. The main objective of the mission was to connect the Eastern and Western coast of America. This move would enhance communication, transport and trade in the entire region
The Congress viewed the transcontinental railroad network, during the westward expansion, as a development that would simplify Americans settlement in the western territories. Furthermore, trade and communication would increase and thus more economic growth. In 1783, the Congress came up with an act that would see the completion of the railroad network (De Tocqueville, 1998). The central Pacific railroad company and the union pacific railroad company were tasked with constructing a railroad network from the west to the east. The two companies took a total of seven years to complete the project. The union pacific railroad company began building the rail network in 1865, from Omaha, Nebraska running westwards (De Tocqueville, 1998). On the other hand, the central Pacific railroad company began constructing the rail network at Sacramento, California heading eastwards.
Most of the employees of union pacific railroad company were Irish Americans while those of central Pacific railroad company were Chinese immigrants, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Native Americans. The completion of the transcontinental railroad network eased the movement of Americans across the nation. People would easily move from New York City to San Francisco in a week.
The states ignore indigenous communities of the United States. People’s voices and cries are rarely considered in the entire mainstreams (Sando, 2005). The rules always disregard their issues. It is prudent that the United States of America has not yet fully recognizes humanity. Indigenous communities have greatly suffered several years of injustices and incarceration by the government of the United States. By adding the American dimension of the native populations to framing a precise analysis, the criminal system grants a new insight towards the suffering of the natives and gives essential teachings for alternatives (Sando, 2005)
Majority of the serious offences that indigenous community has committed are always handled in the national rank. Generally, this still entails a more severe punishment. Researchers have shown that it is more likely for a Native American to be shot by the police than other racial people are. Although a large number of Americans, minorities do not have the communitarian infrastructure to facilitate mitigation of the crime, indigenous Americans are always deprived. The civil rights of the native communities are not considered. The administration of the United States should take disparities based on race to in the criminal system (De Tocqueville, 1998). Research has shown that the indi8geniouh s lining in prisons has risen at a higher rate. The fear of victimization by the police has induced tension o the people. As the indigenous communities live in fear of incarceration, they as well struggle to get what they call justice with a hope that some days they will be free from imprisonment
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The indigenous communities of the United States relate with the native Hawaiians in some ways. Children in both communities combine their leadership skills, abilities and ideas to settle their disputes family organizations are always shared among family members. Such values including sharing work, respect among others (De Tocqueville, 1998). While children assume family responsibility at their early stages hence being collectively responsible for life tasks the only way that both communities who have already been incarcerated are to return to their cultural values and traditions.
Consequently, it is untrue to say that all past events had some role in the present. According to the “American Revolution,” there is a logical error in a view that African-Americans would be worse off if there were no slavery which helps clarify the above stand (Lynch, 1973). In the end, the position taken in the article is unclear as it presents both dimensions of the discussion without evidently supporting either. It is misleading to claim that counterfactuals set more than a century ago have no impact on the way people exist today.
Most individuals are compelled by the necessity to initialize the capacity of economic necessity. Such individuals involve inequality of status and ethics. To submerge these actions historians develop a unique objective of transforming social connections from an exploitative nature to a Flourish able nature (De Tocqueville, 1998). Chaos and isolation will prevail in an international system Where there seems to be inequality in the distribution of resources and lack of a good democracy. Ultimately, (De Tocqueville, 1998) pledges for a culture that is founded in truth and honesty. ‘We can only achieve the highest grades though teaching inequality and exploitation’. ‘Democracy will prevail in a society which is familiar with issues revolving around, empire and racism’.
- De Tocqueville, A. (1998). The Old Regime and the Revolution, Volume II: Notes on the French Revolution and Napoleon (Vol. 2). University of Chicago Press.
- Sando, J. S., & Agoyo, H. (Eds.). (2005). Po’Pay: Leader of the first American revolution. Clear Light Pub.
- Lynch, J. (1973). The Spanish American Revolution, 1808-1826. Revolutions in the Modern World. New York, WW Norton & Company, Inc.
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