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European colonial period was the period 1500-1900 in most of the European powers to colonize Africa, America and Asia. Designed to boost the bottom of the first region of the national economy at the expense of rivals, the colonies are usually allowed to deal only with the mother nation. By mid-19th century, the great British Empire as trade restrictions mercantilism and established the principle of free trade, the conditions of the restrictions or charges.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2006 "used the word colonialism to describe the process in Europe in other regions of the world, including the Americas, Australia, Africa and parts of Asia settlement and political control. Countries of imperialism and colonialism, constantly discussed because it is difficult to distinguish between these two words distinction, and use this project as a broad concept of colonialism is the dominant 16th-century European political project to the end of the twentieth century, the national liberation movement in the 1960s.
The relationship between the colonial force of the majority (or import) and foreign invaders of indigenous minorities. What is the decision, affecting the life of colonial peoples and the implementation of the colonial rulers in pursuit of interests, is usually defined in a distant city. Refused to compromise cultural colonial population, are convinced the settlers and their ordained task, in order to rule out the advantage. 
Activities that can be called colonialism has a long history. Africa, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans built in the ancient colony from the colonial empires. "Metropolis" from the Greek metropolis - the "mother city", "colonial" word comes from the Latin Cologne "grew up." Between 11th and 18th centuries, Vietnamese established military colonies south of their original terrain and immersed the territory, in a procedure known as nam tiá°¿n.
Recent colonialism started with the Age of Discovery. Spain and portugal discovered new land built or opened large tracts of land between the ocean and shopping centers. For some people, it is the expansion of other types of construction colonialism colonial characteristics of the other side of the ocean. In this new land was divided between the Portuguese Empire and the Spanish Empire, and so between the papal bulls and the Treaty of Tordesillas and Zaragoza (1529) of the Treaty.
With this commercial revolution. See the late Middle Ages in Italy and the eastern Mediterranean, accounting and banking sector reform. These ideas were adopted, and adapt to the high risk in Western Europe, and return to the colonial enterprise.
In the 17th century, the establishment of Dutch colonial empire and the French Empire and the French colonial empire, and later became the British Empire. He also believes that the establishment of colonial empires, colonies abroad in Denmark and Sweden.
Reduce the spread of colonial empires in the late 19th century, the United States as early as in 18 of the Revolutionary War and the War of Independence in Latin America. However, the introduction of a new colony, after this period, including the Belgian colonial empire and German colonial empire. And participated in several European powers in the late 19th century, the scramble for Africa.
I found, at the same time above the Empire, the Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, but does not extend over the ocean. In contrast, the traditional route of the invasion of neighboring lands imperial expansion. , However, some of Russia's Bering Strait colonial rule in the United States. Empire of Japan itself along the European colonial empires. Overseas Territories in the United States after the Spanish-American War, the "American Empire".
After World War I, the victors divided the German colonial empire. Many of the Ottoman Empire and between them these tasks Alliance land is divided into three different speed, and believes he will be ready for independence.  However, outside the United States until after World War II decolonization delay. In 1962, the United Nations Special Decolonization Committee, and is often referred to as the Committee of 24, in order to facilitate this process.
In addition, tens of thousands of the independence movement and the political unity of the global project, the former colonies of the Movement of Non-Aligned key role in the decolonization efforts.
Marxist view of colonialism
Marxism sights colonialism as a form of capitalism, imposing exploitation and social variation. Marx believed that working within the capitalist world system, the uneven development of colonialism is closely related. A file corruption and large-scale development and system-dependent economic distortions, psychological and social chaos, poverty and the great dependence of neo-colonialism. " according to Marxist historians, whether it is in the Western European countries colony, "stealing more than half of a normal life, the lack of nutrition citizens."  in the colonies and production means. Raw materials and looking for new investment opportunities is the result of the accumulation of capital, competition between capitalism. Lenin, imperialism, colonialism, imperialist monopoly capitalism through colonialism and night Sonja S. He explains: "Vladimir Lenin called a firm principle of self-determination of the people in his "socialist revolution thesis on the right to self-determination" of the socialist International's plan OLL a key factor, "he quoted Lenin that" the right of peoples to self-determination, special rights, in the political sense of independence, freedom political separation of the rights of the oppressed countries. more specifically, the demand for political reasons. democracy suggests complete freedom to stir for secession and for a survey on secession by the seceding nation-state."
In recent years, scientists have invested less attention to the discussion of colonialism in the Marxist tradition. This decline reflects the influence of Marxism in academic practice and policy. However, Marxism, moved the independence movement of all post-colonial theory and anti-colonial rule over the world. Drew attention to the expansion, helps to explain the concept of European politics after the end of the sustained economic development of direct political rule, and pointed out that the material basis of Marxism. From the point of view of Marxism, a form of imperialism is inevitable. Large population exported to overseas resource-rich land, the country's industrial products and a reliable source of natural resources to create a market. Or, you can be the weakest countries face the choice between voluntary acceptance of foreign products, is not conducive to work under the influence of the local industry or political, in order to achieve the same goal. Marx's analysis of the progressive forces of colonialism brought update feudal society like a transparent rationalization of foreign domination. However, his British hegemony account reflects the contradictions of capitalism in Europe. In both cases, the Marx recognized during the transition from feudal society to bourgeois society caused great pain at the same time stressed that the change is necessary and progressive end. He said, the penetration of the trade, lead to a social revolution in India. For Marx, the positive and negative consequences of the disease. Traditional farmers are losing their livelihoods, is a lot of human suffering, but also shows that the traditional rural communities far from ideal, but the site of class oppression and slavery, suffering and cruelty. The first phase of the modernization process is completely negative, because of the poor pay heavy taxes to support the British rule, withstand economic crisis the English cotton production cheaper. Ultimately, however, British merchants began to realize that the Indians can not afford to buy clothes or imports of British administration, if they do not effectively trade in goods, providing incentives for production and investment in infrastructure in the UK. Marx believed that the British ruled greedy and cruel exercise, he feels he is still an agent of progress. Therefore, Marx discussed the British rule in India three aspects: the account of the advanced nature of foreign domination, the critique of the human suffering involved, and the last parameter of the British rule should be temporary, if the evolutionary potential to achieve .
Lenin's perspective, imperialism clear key. He stressed that imperialism is a way to make the European countries to postpone the inevitable revolutionary crisis exports by countries with weak local economic burden. Lenin said, the economic logic of the reasons advanced capitalist imperialism in the late nineteenth century. Declining margins caused by the economic crisis can not be resolved through regional expansion. Group of capitalism forced to expand in seeking to transcend national boundaries, conquer new markets and resources. In a certain sense, Marx's analysis, see the expansion and the ongoing process of European colonialism in the country and throughout Europe within, which is fully compatible. The thought of Marx and Lenin, imperialism and colonialism led to the same logic, leading to economic development and modernization in the surrounding areas of Europe. But there is an element of the unique analysis, Lenin. Around the state monopoly capitalism since the end of the competition in the market take the form of military competition between the countries on Earth can be masters of their own exclusive economic zone.