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Japanese Army takes charge of Malaya during the Second World War. The Japanese occupation caused uncertainty and chaos for the local residents. During the Japanese occupation for 3 ½ years, all the local people controlled by Japanese and much suffering be in effect. All the policies have impact on social, political and economic life of Malaya. The people were suffering and depressed by the Japanese government policy. The following paragraphs will be discussed of several major impacts.
The social impact of the Japanese occupation of Malaya, lead to a more distant relationship between local races. Japanese military given a different treatment for Malays and Indians and for Chinese they treated unfairly. Malay people have been appointed as Japanese secret police especially ” Kempeitai”.
Whoever the anti-Japanese as Chinese people have been killed and tortured by the Japanese.
Indian people were used as forced labor and send to the Thai-Burmese board to work as construct. Food shortages and disease caused many deaths, until the railway is known as the “Death Railway”. Lack of food, especially rice, have been caused by various diseases.
Among the many deadly diseases are malaria and beriberi. More serious disease problems because a lack of medication especially went the drugs were seized by the Japanese’s for their need in Malaya. All the Japanese hospitality to the Malays has agreed the Chinese people. Even the Japan has appointed Malays as Police and Army force. The reason of the Malays police and army which they are used by the Japanese to resist giving it the appearance consistently of the Chinese people. Japanese spies to add more anger the Chinese. The result after the Japanese occupation racial clashes occurred between the Malays and Chinese.
Other than that, Goods from the juice of pineapple leaves, coconut sugar, industrious occupation of Japan between the Malays and the spirit of self-reliance. Japan’s occupation realizes the importance of teaching the Malays, raise awareness. Japan has adopted its culture in the local community, especially the Malays. In this regard Japan has expanded the Japanese language in Malaya. The Medium of instruction in school was changed from English to Japanese language. To promote the language, government has taken initiative to organized short courses for Japanese language for the locals. The adoption of the Japanese culture has been carried out the whole community like public holiday on the festival season in Japan were declared. Japans government also banned to use Chinese language in Chinese school in Malaya.
Japan also involved Malaya school system which they fully implemented to require singing the Japan national anthem (Kamigayo) every morning and respecting the Japanese flag so the people of Malaya will honor the emperor of Japan.
The Malaya economic is badly affected during the Japanese occupation. The Malayan economy dependent on the rubber exports but eventually all the rubber reduced production due to the war and also because of the policy of “Scorched Earth” as implemented by the British.
British is damaging all the rubber trees, factories, Mines and mining machinery before left from Malaya. The reason of the British is they don’t want to keep it from falling into Japanese hands. If the British didn’t destroy trees, Japanese will export and import to their country.
During the Japanese occupation, Malaya has consumer goods especially food. Malaya only produces 40% of the population of rice. After several measures have been carried out on the order of the Japanese to increase rice production in Malaya. The Malaya people rely on other crops, such as corn, bananas, cassava, etc.
Malaya banknotes up to $ 40 million, $ 2 million for the Japanese occupational distribution of banknotes. By the deterioration of the Japanese economy Malaya communications systems and other infrastructure damage are irreparable. Although Japan has implemented a range of industries, such as shoe making factories, tires, etc., but it is not a success.
After mastering the Malay, Japanese administrative restructure the organization as puts Malaya under military management called Malaya military government (MMA) in accordance with the state of war at the time. MMA’s main goal is to restore public order, to take advantage of the resources necessary to sustain the war economy and the needs of the troops in Malaya, to ensure that there is sufficient.
The MMA Management help Japanese secret police and intelligence agencies were called the Japanese Kempeitai. Under the direct control of the Strait (NNS) directly managed by the Japanese Governor and the systems in other states also continued.
However, the real powers in the hands of the Japanese. In order to get the support of the the Malays, Japan maintains Sultan institutions as administrator along with the Japanese. In the early stages of the Japanese occupation of Malaya, Sumatra combined under one administration based in Singapore (Shonan). However, this combination failed and separated from NNM Sumatra terms of administration in 1944.
Malaya economic impact, especially Malaya political consciousness and to improve the patriotic spirit of the Malaya independence from Japan and British. Propaganda by the Japanese, when they inculcate the spirit of nationalism for the Malaya, Chinese and Indians to do the same in the conflict between them. Therefore, the gap between Malays, Chinese and Indians, the ethnic tensions further complicate the process, national unity. The suffering and Japanese propaganda “Asia for Asia” has raised awareness of the local population to fight for freedom and independence politics. Japan is very satisfied with Indian people and hopes their support to the success of Japanese plans to dominate India. Encourage Indians to cooperate with Japan, the liberation of India from British.
They asked the Indian National Army (MIA) was established by the Japanese in Malaya.
Also got the support of India, the Japanese government under the leadership of the exile in India known as Azad Hind in Singapore owned by Subhas Chandra Bose.
Japanese policy towards the Indians was a problem in an effort to create a national consciousness among Indians in Malaya. They were expelled, the treatment of prisoners by the Japanese and another British dignity decline. The British failed to remind them that they cannot rely on the British defense of Malaya. This scenario awareness of local people, their own to defend their rights and interests, as well as their homeland. Japan is regarded as the liberator of the liberation of Malaya is a colonial power country. What will happen, in fact been replaced by the British colonial rule Japanese occupation of the brutal Japanese occupation of the British rule.
During the Japanese occupation, this shows the growth of the MCP. It began to get widespread support, especially from China, is regarded as Japan’s oppression of their protector.
They join the Malayan Anti-Japanese Union (GROW), which is established by the British. The next CPM People’s Anti-Japanese Army established the Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA). MPAJA get help, weapons, food, medicine, and training of the Allies, in particular, is a team of 136.
Japanese occupation, CPM has become a powerful and well-organized political party. Recalling CPM services to help the British against the Japanese, people think this is a legitimate political party since 1945. Failed to achieve by the Constitution, prompting the CPM armed rebellion since June 16, 1948 in furtherance of their goals capture of Malaya and then set up the Malayan Communist Republic.
The Japanese occupation, led to the emergence of political consciousness of assembly and association between the Malayan People after the Japanese occupation. Between political parties that exist is UMNO, MCA, MIC, API, CAUTION, PKMM, Hizbul Muslims and others.
Is also available as a separate idea, because of the Japanese occupation. It has promised to grant independence to Malaya under the ambit of “Indonesia Raya”. To this end, the people of Indonesia Peninsula (KRIS) Union were established in July 1945. The leaders of the two countries, Dr. Yaacob Ibrahim Burhannudin and Indonesian leader Sukarno and Hatta, held the talk in order to achieve the mutual independent.
Following an incendiary act, destroyed many Japanese cities, the Allies prepared for expensive Japanese invasion. The end of the war in Europe, Nazi Germany signed the Instrument of Surrender. Together with the United Kingdom and the Republic of the United States known as the Japanese surrender, “the Potsdam Declaration of July 26, 1945, the threat to Japan,” a rapid and total destruction. The Japanese government ignored this ultimatum, the United States deployed two nuclear weapons developed by the Manhattan Project. The little boy of American pilots dropped city of Hiroshima, August 6, 1945, the fat man in Nagasaki on August 9.
Seriously affected in the first two to four months of the bombings, the death of 90,000-166,000 people in Hiroshima and 60,000-80,000 in Nagasaki, about half of the deaths occur in the first day of each city. Estimates, the Hiroshima county health department people who died the day of the explosion, 60% died from flash or flame burns, falling debris and 30%, 10%, for other reasons. In the next few months, a large number of dying of burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries, exacerbating the effects of the disease. The estimated direct and short-term causes of death in the United States, 15-20% died from radiation sickness, 20-30% burns and other injuries, exacerbated by 50-60% of the disease. In these two cities, the majority of the dead were civilians, although the Hiroshima huge garrison.
Question 2: Elaborate on the factors favoring the formation of Malaysia and the consequent challenges.
Malaysia has announced 16th September 1963 as a New Nation which includes Malaya, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak. There are several factors that have lead to this major formation and will be discussed hereafter.
The Communist Threat
Many parties interested in the joint in the Federation of Malaya and Singapore. The British came with the fact that there are many similarities in the history, laws, economic and financial aspects of this joint agreement.
The British and the Federation of Malaya certainly do not want to administrate Singapore leaders of the communist ideology. If Singapore election is held within that formation period, left-wing party has a chance of defeating the People Action Party (PAP) and take over the administration. This was what the Federation of Malaya wanted to avoid, a communist administration.
Ethnic Politics and Ethnic Balances
A merger of Malaya and Singapore, which will make their main indigenous population (sons of the soil), Chinese to dominate the population of Malay in Malaya. This imbalance can be corrected if the British territory of Borneo joins in the federation too.
In Singapore to a large extent, an autonomous policy, Sabah and Sarawak, to give the child to maintain their own dictatorial powers in the British control. In Brunei, the Sultan maintained his autocratic powers but was compelled to receive advice from a British Resident. Tunku Abdul Rahman believes that with the Malaya formation with these colonies will accelerate independence from the British.
Decline of British Power
British power continued to decline, as it has since the end of the Second World War steadily.
In this case, it is relatively easy to surrender their power, rather than trying to continue their role as a colonial power in Malaysia.
Economic Cooperation and International Relation in the region
The British began to take over as administrator in Malaya. Rubber and palm trees were introduced for commercial use. The British found the source of labour, from China and India rather than Malays to provide expertise. Although many of them return to their respective countries, they agreed at the end of its term, some stay in Malaysia, and as a permanent settlement. Over the time, Malaysia became the world’s largest manufacturer of tin, rubber, palm oil. These three (3) commodities and other raw materials to firmly establish Malaysia’s economic rhythm to the mid-20th century.
Tunku Abdul Rahman was keen to merge with Singapore because of economic purposes. Singapore has a large number of industrial enterprises, large population; to complement its position is more important. The country also comes with its own trading ports in this area. One of the areas of Borneo, on the other hand, boast a wealth of natural resources such as oil, natural gas and timber, and fertile agricultural production, pepper, rubber and more. Tunku Abdul Rahman, the merger of these colonies will be much value for Malaya. Tunku Abdul Rahman also seeks independent from colonization.
The idea to unite Malaysia with neighbouring countries was raised several times. In 1961, Tunku Abdul Rahman suggested the merger of Malaya with Singapore, North Borneo (Sabah), Sarawak, Brunei.
The main political reasons to curb the communist threat to boost and accelerate the independence of Brunei, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak.
Tunku’s proposal triggered different reactions from the people in the five countries.
Lee Kuan Yew welcomed the idea. However, there was a strong opposition from left-wing leaders United People’s Party (UPP), People Action Party (PAP). Lee Kuan Yew more determined to merge initially people not so keen preferred Brunei to achieve own independence before joining Malaysia.
Some agreed to the idea of merging, Sultan Omar Ali Sarifuddin was interested and thought the idea was excellent. The idea of â€‹â€‹unity with the neighbouring countries of Malaysia made â€‹â€‹a number of times.
In 1961, Tunku Abdul Rahman proposed merger of Malaya and Singapore, North Borneo (Sabah), Sarawak and Brunei. Mainly political reasons, in order to curb the threat of communism. In order to facilitate and speed up the independence of Brunei, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak.
The Philippines and Indonesia strongly opposed to the development in this area, claimed that Malaysia and Indonesia on behalf of “neo-colonialism” and the Philippines claimed Sabah as their territory. Sukarno, and tried to oppose the formation of the Indonesian government to postpone Malaysia Sarawak United People’s Party leadership. As a result of these factors, the formation of the eight members of the United Nations team had to re-determine whether Sabah and Sarawak truly wanted to join Malaysia. Malaysia was officially established on September 16, 1963, from Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore. In 1963, Malaysia’s total population of about 10 million.
If we don’t have the above motivating factor, maybe there will be no Malaysia today. Adding to that we have few countries joined with us and with more population. The living environment also has been different because of mix population of different races.
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