Gandhi: Charasmatic Leadership In Termoil
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Charismatic leader with high ethics and objective have the strength to inspire and transform the followers they lead. The Country or Nation runs successfully when the leader is skilful and influent. Charismatic leader have magical ability that attract followers and motivate them but without showing their authority or external power, it is not the only thing that leaders can do. A great leader can structure the country in the way he wants and they know how to achieve their goal. Most of the leaders use ample range of strategy to manage their image but Gandhi ji was a charismatic leader people follow them because they have charm, dint of personality and self-confidence. Max Weber classifies leader as a charismatic leader and in 1978 James Macgregor Burns define yet another categories of leadership: Transactional and Transformational leaders. Charismatic leadership is similar to Transformational leadership style.
WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?
John Garden describe that the leadership is the process of persuasion or example by which an individual (or a leadership team) induces a group to pursue objectives held by the leader or shared by the leader and his or her followers (Philip Sadler, 2003).
WHAT IS CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP?
The term 'Charisma' will be applied to a certain quality of an individual personality by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary men and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. These are such as are not accessible to the ordinary person, but are regarded as of divine origin or as exemplary, and on the basis of them the individual concerned is treated as a leader." (Roe, Kavin's Notices weak 7)
According to Weber charismatic leaders have some unique qualities which give him the ability in leading and convince the people by his judgement and prepared them follow him. The charismatic leader did not learn these characteristics from his social, economic, or from political status and from his education but from his personal traits. The main aim of the charismatic leader is to help either people or his country or anyone around him. But in negative way some of the leader who misguides the people for their own interest by convincing them with illusory or fake promises. Most of the countries got freedom when a charismatic person leads the people of their country. There are lots of charismatic leader who fought for their country and for their followers such as Mahatma Gandhi, Jesus Christ, Z.A Bhutto. All those charismatic persons use their charisma to collect the people around them to gain the independence for their country. According to Weber Mahatma Gandhi ji was a charismatic leader because charismatic can not taught or learned so it could not be the symbol of bureaucratic managerial system because charisma is not bureaucracy it is totally different charismatic leaders do not order the peoples to follow them so that why Gandhi ji was a charismatic leader he did not force people to follow them. People follow them because they like the way of Gandhi ji life by using nationality clothes. One of the principles of the Weber also shoes that charismatic leader do not have governmental powers or weapons but they defined that he is the biggest power in the country; they can fight with the army without any weapons and could win.
METHODS OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP
The process of Charismatic leadership is seen as a mixed product of three factors such as the leader and his characteristics, the circumstances which wants for such a leader and the communication between leader and the lead. The Four steps of the charismatic leadership process and indentify Mahatma Gandhi ji with his leadership in India's non-violent freedom movement:
In recognition the aspiring leader is on the social prospect; the followers of that leader are suffering and they want someone who will resolve their problems and one who recognize themselves. At this level the social situation getting worsened gradually. The social situation is gradually getting worsened at this level. This is the time when the leader recognized their strength, their power and their ability. Before returning to India from South Africa in 1915 Gandhi jihad started a movement for public rights in South Africa, because once he was travelling in the first class compartment of the train which was reserved for whites only was thrown out from train because he was not white. The movement was successful and that incidence was also famous in India and when he returned to India, Indian peoples welcomed him as a hero and then he became a leader of Indian national congress at that time Gandhi ji realise their ability and the charismatic quality was just started showing its colours.
2) ACTIVITY STIMULATION
In this stage followers become the part of revolution because the leader provokes them. In this situation the people who are just follower and just admire the leader now they become supporter of the leader. The longer this period ends the longer is duration of the charismatic leadership. In the case of Gandhi ji this step ended from 1920 till 1930. In 1921 the non-cooperation movement by Gandhi ji was a clear example of activity stimulation period, in this period whole country was awakened and was against the British rule.
In this stage the charismatic leader is confident about their decision and they make lots of commitment with their followers. Charismatic leadership is on peak at this stage and they also can start losing his charisma at this level because this is the time when the leader make lots of commitment with there followers but in the end some of them achieve their desire goal and some are not, those who achieve success they become more famous but who failed they loose their followers. The charismatic leader make commitment with followers to achieve their goal and the followers do the same commitment with them. In this stage the charismatic leader have to sacrifice for their commitment or some time that commitments should become dangerous for the leader but this sacrifice and danger creates the good image of the leader in the eyes of their followers as the leader is dedicated to their goal and he have courage also to face the problems easily. There are many leaders who make a fallacy commitment with the followers for their own benefits such kind of leaders kwon as pompous and hypocrite. The leader is divided in two categories personalized and social leadership. The personalized leaders are authoritarian and exploitative like Hitler was a dictator he was authoritarian. The second type socialized leaders are more democratic and they believe in sharing power and responsibility with others such as Mahatma Gandhi. In 1930 to 1935 the commitment stage for Gandhi ji. The salt Satyagraha can be consider as the high level of Gandhi ji charisma and the conference of round table was a symbol of disappointment because that conference was a political failure.
This stage is unavoidable on the part of the leader. The social structure carries the disenchantment stage many times. Routinisation creates the fear in the mind of the followers and some time they feel of loss of goal. This stage loses some of the important followers of the leader. Some time leader seems to be failing in this stage because of the situation. From 1933 to 9138 is the period of disenchantment for Gandhi ji because he lost his strongest followers like Subhas Chandra Bose. This is the phrase where disappointment seemed to have taken place clearly.
ATTRIBUTES OF CHRISMATIC LEADERS
It is clear from the above discussion that what is charismatic leadership and the attributes that a charismatic leader posses. Now this section will describe the trait that make a person a potential leader. There are some characteristic which are shown by a person from his childhood or adolescence which create a person potential charismatic leader. At their adolescence charismatic leaders do show some specific type of behaviour.
TRAIT OF CHARISMATIC LEADER
It is a vital part of charismatic leadership. The social scenario motivates the leaders without being prompted about it. The charismatic leader can talk to his followers energetically when he is self-motivated. The leaders who are self-motivated they have the capacity to transform this self-actualisation to their followers as well. They actually raise the level of their followers.
In self-monitoring the leader watch them because they know that the followers are watching them so it is import ant for the leader to make a good picture of themselves for their followers. The charismatic leader are born out for the need of the followers and social situations, it become crucial for the leaders to continually recognize themselves with the need of the followers and social scenario.
3) MOTVE TO ACHIEVE POWER
The charismatic leader does not want any conventional power. They are not looking for any official post or position, they want only social power. They want respect from their followers and see them as their rescuer. They want to make a special place in the hearts of their followers. With the values and beliefs of their followers the leader can identify themselves. They can convince their followers because that leader is high rated on their social skills and appeal them to their hearts. With this power the leader is popular for long time.
The charismatic leaders having self-correcting nature and they are well known for that. They try to improve themselves and judge themselves. The superiority of the leaders makes them different from their followers. Eventually when the charismatic leader will bring their followers to their level of superiority and they believe that if the follower achieves that level then the leader should have gone one step above and remain their leader.
5) OPENNESS TO CHANGE
The charismatic leader represents change and only charismatic leader prove many time that they are the only one who bring changes. Charismatic leaders are most powerful in the situation which demands the changes and they are open to changes. Gandhi ji bring the change, when the Indians were slave under British people and they don't have complete freedom and rights like British people have, so Gandhi ji fought for their rights, after long struggle they got same rights like British people have, with this change Indians become more liberal and democratic.
OUTCOMES OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP
We discussed the process of charismatic leader and their attributes of the leader in which they posses and the outcome are unavoidable of charismatic leadership. Most of the researchers show that the charismatic leader as positive force which yields desirable results and some scholar focused on negative aspect of the leader but we will see negative as well as positive aspect of the charismatic leadership. Charismatic leaders motivate their followers and inspire them to give extra output and the leaders help their followers to achieve self-actualisation in themselves. Gandhi ji motivate their followers to fight for their freedom and with that motivation they achieve their desirable goal.
To conclude charismatic leadership Gandhi ji was a charismatic leader they have the quality to lead followers in the right direction. As we known that the charismatic leader has a magnetic quality which attracts the followers, the followers listen to them and obeys what the charismatic leader said. The charismatic leader has to recognise them selves that they have the potential to lead, when Gandhi ji started movement in South Africa then they come to know they have the charismatic quality. Above discussion show that with charismatic quality of Gandhi ji India got freedom from the British People and without using any weapon they fought with them, only charismatic leader will fight without weapons. Over all we can say that Gandhi ji was a heroic charisma and he was a "great man".
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