Introduction To Augustus Caesar History Essay
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The most important empire in Rome History is Augustus. Through his long life (63 BC - AD 14) and his deeds and his successor Rome lived in the peaceful period more than ever know as the Pax Romana, or Roman peace which last from 27 B.C to 180 A.D. In this period Rome developed and lives in wealthy life without and any effect from war or turmoil.
Because of his successful career, I am going to show his childhood life, the rise to power, his political achievement, his politic career, his success and his failure.
The future emperor Augustus was born into an equestrian family as Gaius Octavius at Rome on 23 September 63 BC. His father, Gaius Octavius, was the first in the family to become a senator, but died when Octavian was only four. It was his mother who had the more distinguished connection. She was the daughter of Julia, sister to Julius Caesar.
He graduated his academic and military study in Apollonia in Epirus. He was in school with his friends Marcus Agrippa and Marcus Salvidienus. He got his uncle was assassinate's news when he was in the school.
The rise to power
Heir to Ceasar
Although his health was not good at those time, His uncle Caesar still asked him to served military service in the Spanish expedition in 46 BC. Caesar's planned Parthian expedition of 44 BC; He became a senior military command when he was 18 years old.
When he learnt his uncle was assassinated, he returned to Rome at ones. At that time, he knew that Caesar had adopted him in his will. No doubt this only increased his desire to avenge Caesar's murder.
War with Pompius
Sextus Pompeius didn't agree to stay under control of Octovian. He started to again with Octavian in Italy by denying to the peninsula shipments of grain through the Mediterranean; in the purpose to make widespread famine in Italia, Pompeius' own son responsible as a naval commander. Because of his strong naval army Pompeius could control over the sea. He tooke the name Neptuni filius, "son of Neptune". Otovian and Pompeius had a temporary peace agreement in 39 BC with the treaty of Misenum and the embargo on Italy was lifted. Anyways Otovian became a consul in 35 BC after he got A Pompeius Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, and the Peloponnese from Pompeius. on 17 January 38 BC he married Livia after divorced with Scribonia. At this time triumvirs reached the territorial agreement with Sextus Pompeius. One of naval commanders run from Pompeius and gave Corsica and Sardinia to Octavian. Although Octovian got support from this general he still needed cooperate with Antony to fight with Pompeius. This reason leads to reach an agreement with the Second Triumvirate's extension for another five-year period beginning in 37 BC. Antony also got advantage from this agreement. He hoped he would fight again Parthia, desiring to avenge Rome's defeat at Carrhae in 53 BC. They have an agreement at Tarentum. Antony agreed to provide 120 ships for Octavian to use against Pompeius, while Octavian was to send 20,000 legionaries to Antony for use against Parthia. But Octovian didn't be honest with Antony. He only sent only a tenth the number of those promised, which was viewed by Antony as an intentional provocation.
In 36 BC, Octovian and Lepidus made a big war again Sextus. Although Sextus tried to fought back but his naval fleet was seriously destroyed on 3 September by General Agrippa at the naval battle of Naulochus. Sextus had to run out to the east with his remaining forces. Anyways he was arrested and assassinated by one of Atony's general in Miletus in the following year. The surrendered army of Pompeius joint with both Lepidus and Octavian. Lepidus believed he had enough power to take Sicily to put under his control and force Octovian get out this area. Anyways, He was betrayed by his own troop because all the troop were tired from war and Octovian also promised giving them a lot of money and land if they agreed to serve him. Because of these reason, Lepidus surrendered to Octavian and was agreed to become the office of ponitifex maximus (head of the college of priests) but was ejected from the Triumvirate. His politic life came to an end. He was effectively exiled to a villa at Cape Circei in Italy.
At this time, Octavian took the West and Antony was in the East.
War with Antony
Octovian only sent 2000 legionaries to Antony's operation again Pathia so it became dangerous for Antony. He had to engage with Cleopatra who could build up his army become stronger. And since he was already engaged in a romantic affair with her, he decided to send Octavia back to Rome. Antony also refused all suggestion raised by Octovian to end the civil war in Rom.
After Roman troops captured Armenia in 34 BC, Antony made his son Alexander Helios the ruler of Armenia; he also awarded the title "Queen of Kings" to Cleopatra, acts which Octavian used to convince the Roman Senate that Antony had ambitions to diminish the preeminence of Rome. In early 31 BC, Antony and Cleopatra were set based in Greece, Octavian got first victory when his general named Agripa lead the navy troop and won ferried troops across the Adriatic Sea. Agrippa fought Antony and Cleopatra's main force in the sea and cut Antony's supplied rout and Octavian landed on the mainland opposite the island of Corcyra (modern Corfu) and marched south.
Everyday more and more Antony's army were forced to surround Octovian side so Octovian got enough time to prepare his forces. Antony runs out by crossing the bay of Actium on the western coast of Greek. Commanders Agrippa and Gaius Sosius were in the battle of Actium on 2 September 31 BC. Antony and his remaining forces were only spared due to a last-ditch effort by Cleopatra's fleet that had been waiting nearby. Octavian pursued them, and after another defeat in Alexandria on 1 August 30 BC, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide; Antony fell on his own sword and into Cleopatra's arms, while she let a poisonous snake bite her.
War and Expansion
In his era, the emperor Augustus won the war and put a lot of area under control of Rome. There were Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal), the Alpine regions of Raetia and Noricum (modern Switzerland, Bavaria, Austria, Slovenia), Illyricum and Pannonia (modern Albania, Croatia, Hungary, Serbia, etc.), and extended the borders of the Africa Province to the east and south.After the reign of the client king Herod the Great (73-4 BC), Judea was added to the province of Syria when Augustus deposed his successor Herod Archelaus. In 25 BC, when Galatia (modern Turkey) was converted to a Roman province. Spain were finally quelled in 19 BC, the territory fell under the provinces of Hispania and Lusitania. Conquering the peoples of the Alps in 16 BC was another important victory for Rome since it provided a large territorial buffer between the Roman citizens of Italy and Rome's enemies in Germania to the north. To protect Rome's eastern territories from the Parthian Empire, Augustus relied on the client states of the east to act as territorial buffers and areas which could raise their own troops for defense.
Bringing peace to Rome
After wining on Antony, He decided to share the power with the senate. But the true he control all of the power in Rome. He got the name Augustus Caesar in 27 BC meaning "revered one". He became one of the greatest and brilliant leaders in Rome history. He finished all civil war in Rome and built the peaceful society in his era and the following year more than 200 years. They called this period as the Pax Romana which lasted from 27 B.C. to 180 A.D.
In the Augustus era, Rome changed to become one of the greatest Empires in human civilization. He got the name "emperator". It means commander-in-chief of the roman armies. That why we still use this word in English.
In his life, he did many efforts to reform the empire strength. His army became more discipline army, more professional and loyal to the empire. His former soldiers were encouraged to live in the provinces so they could protect their territory too. He still kept in mind and continued his nephew policy by providing the province resident the citizenship. This policy made his people loyal to empire.
The confidential was set up again in Rome in the era. He led the policy again the corruption and develop local administration. By not considering people's social class, all of people could get opportunities to became high-range officer in his government depend on his talent. Employers also were provided the salary. Empire ordered a complete cencus that it was used until 16th century. People were collected taxes in fairly by population survey. The peace of Pax Roman brought the development of Christianity and the organization of the church that still exist today.
Augustus led Rome becoming a wealthy and peaceful country for hundred years. Because of his success, the world got more peaceful then before. He made reform to government, military and the arts. Until now, his reform still effect to the Europe life and world today. These effects are administration, art, language and literature. Now we can still see his heritages in the former Rome colonial. The world history would be change if Augustus didn't exist in the past and we could not see how greatest Roman empire today. "Rome was not built in a day" is the word that wants to remind us that if we want wealthy and success as Rome we have to struggle every day.
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