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International Relations Of India Forming Over Time History Essay

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India's international relations initially aimed to work on a traditional policy of nonalignment or be neutral, the exigencies of domestic economic reform and development by being self-sufficient and not allow any foreign business or investment, and lately the belief in universal nuclear disarmament (disarmed). The strategy of nonalignment is to keep India safe and away from the powerful superpower struggle such as US and Soviet in post WWII. Moreover, involving in the cold war would have negative impacts for their political and economic development because wars always cost unnecessary spending.

However, these policies have changed over times. After the end of the cold war and soviet collapse, the policy of nonalignment has rapidly broken down. The self-sufficient policy has failed due to have more competitions and need for economic growth to develop the country. Later, in late 1960s, the commitment to global elimination of nuclear weapons lost ground because India's international relation among other countries faded into territorial wars with China and Pakistan, disputes with other countries in South Asia. Therefore, they attempted to balance Pakistan's support from the United States and China by signing the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Cooperation with the Soviet Union in 1971. As a consequence from the previous changes, India decided to change their foreign policy's goals by protecting a domestic consensus on the definition of Indian national interests and foreign policy goals which build a unified and integrated nation-state based on democratic principles, defending Indian territory and its security interests, and promoting national economic development quickly by over reliance on any country or group of countries.

The foreign policy has transformed over time since the Indian national movement with Nehru, the first prime minister of India since 1947-64 and Krishna Menon, the British lawyer had a wide vision which based on the national thought. Nehru combined India's approach to the world. The primary factor that forced India to play a major role in global affairs is their serious poverty. Regionally, India was the predominant power because of its size and its population. However, relations with its neighbors, Pakistan, were often tense and full of conflicts. In addition, globally India's nonaligned stance was not possible for the political and economic role they wished to play at the first place. Although India obtained substantial Soviet military and economic aid, which helped to strengthen the nation, India's influence was weaken regionally and internationally by the perception that its friendship with the Soviet prevented a more direct condemnation of the Soviet presence in Afghanistan. In the 1980s, India improved relations with the United States and China while continuing close ties with the Soviet.

3. In India there is big group of upper and middle class and at the same time there is a big pool of people living under the line of poverty. Discuss the consequences of that and at the same time discuss how the government should address this social problem?

Even through there are a big group of upper and middle class, there is still a greater number of people living under the line of property in India. More than 38% of Indian population lived under poverty or about 400 million people. These poor people just lived for seeking foods, clothes, and housings. They just need food to subsist in each day, enough cloth to cover their bodies and protect them from cold weather, and some places to sleep at night. And these are the meaning of their lives under this same earth. However, under the pitiful conditions in their lives, it made them has no shelter to live, mal-nutrient, starve to dead, lack of education and sanitation, and unemployed. Often, they do not have food to eat and pure water to drink. Some are dead because of curable disease because they did not have enough money to pay to the clinic or hospital. Moreover, most children in India are underweight and severe levels of malnutrition which was ranking the third in the world. In some cases showed these poor people have to sell their child for making money like in the Slumdog Millionaire Movie. Some tried to kidnap homeless children in slum for making them disabled and then made them become beggar. Furthermore, if we saw this problem as a wider picture, these poor people made the economic in India hard to develop and also created the bad image of India itself throughout the world. Crime could be one consequence of those troubles when people have no means to earn money, they just do crime.

As the consequences that I mentioned above, the government should solve this problem immediately. I suggest the government to increase more budgets to solve the poverty problem. Moreover, they should concentrate on developing agricultural, education, health and sanitation in the society because most poor people worked on agricultural and have no education. Therefore, the government should provide them with all these staff. For education, they should provide compulsory education for every child not only the higher class or lower class with equally and also improve sexual equality in education and working sector. Everyone have the rights to work, equal work with equal pay. If it is possible, they should teach them to control their birth rate which is one of the main problems that created the poverty in each family. In international areas, the government should open markets to foreign countries to invest more by stimulating the trading between countries, so more works require more employees, and this create more opportunities for unemployed people to have jobs.

4. How significant is India in South Asia? What are the factors that allow India to play a dominant role in this region?

If we talk about South Asia, the first country that will pop up or appear in most people's mind is India. Of course, India is outstanding and the most remarkable country in South Asia. Regionally, India was the predominant power because of its size and its population. It also could be seen as one of the regional pillar of civilization in this region. There are several cultures and traditions coexisting together in this society. India is rich in religion teaching, abstract thought and ideal. There are various cultures and religions which including the greater population in India that affected them to create a strong relationship or harmony in society.

Moreover, India has greater economic development which is outstanding than the other countries in this region and that allowed India to play the dominant role in South Asia. It has the strong democratic system which helped them to be one of the powerful countries in economic arena. We could give this feat to British when the time they colonized India, they taught India many things and this made India came to be on the first row with other powerful countries. India has large number of neighboring countries which include Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and China, so they could trade, exchange and build up strong relationship with each other. Also, they have evolved education system, scientific and technology progression especially in computer and IT technology. Lastly, significance in India is the most using English language in the world.

5. "It is found where as in caste system, some persons are forced to carry on the prescribed callings which are not their choice". Discuss.

If we look at the caste system in India which is not only in Hinduism itself but also other religions in that area, it is more strict than the other parts of the world. Many people in that region were shaped which the idea of Hinduism involving in caste system. It is primarily associated with Hinduism but also exist among other Indian religious groups. This includes Muslim, Buddhism, and also Christian in India. Most of them were forced to carry on each of those castes which are not their choice because the society forced and shaped them to believe in that system. If they do not follow those systems strictly, they will likely be punished by social sanction, so people's behavior toward one another is constantly shaped by the knowledge of caste system.

Originally, Hinduism believes in an eternal circle of rebirth which ends in the Nirvana like the heaven. This means a Hindu has many lives and is reborn after death or reincarnation. Karma is the account of good and bad things they have done in their life which will decide in which caste they will be born into in the next life. The rigidity may well be due to the influence of the idea of karma that poor birth is morally deserved. Therefore, the caste system is justified them.

The caste system is like a religious social standing system which divides people into higher and lower classes. Each caste has their own duty to perform. For example, Brahmin is the higher caste recognized as a priest. Kshatriya is the second caste, they were warriors and kings. Vaishaya is the third caste, and most of them are merchants and landowners. Shudra is the fourth caste recognized as workers and carpenters so they worked for the others. Dalit is so low and outside of the caste system. They do dirty jobs such as remove waste or can be called the untouchables. They must not have social contact with other castes. Moreover, there is no social mobility in the caste system because people must not marry people of the other castes, so they need to carry on those prescribed callings since they were born by inheriting from their parents till they died. Otherwise, we can say that they are based on birth. However, the castes are strictly separated in the village more than in the big cities because the society has changed. It is not important as in the country because nowadays many people have been rebelling against the injustice of this system and less strict to this system.

6. Discuss the historical significance of South Asia in terms of trade, culture and political.

The economic history of south Asia seemed to be backward and under-developed. More than 80% of population were farmers or worked on agricultural. They were poor and had low salary. Also, low living standard could be commonly found. There are enormous populations in this region whereas the populations were rapidly increased. And that was the major problem for the economic development in each country in this region. Moreover, the industrial development was not advanced. Most of it was just a basic industry which produced only consumer goods in general. Except for India, where the computer techniques were evolved. However, people in India who worked in industrial sector had a small number, and they also gathered together in a big city.

In social and cultural history in South Asia, they were traditional society. Most people in this region were still strict to the traditional belief and values, and old culture which were passed from one generation into another generation. That could be easily seen in the rural areas. The caste system is still being the primary hierarchy in India society. Nevertheless, today society has changed. The caste system was not too strict comparing within the past, but the areas which are small community or villages still strictly follow those systems unlike in the big cities. Families were firmly to old traditions and values by being in extended family or big family which each family tended to have more than two child. Specially, in Hinduism, they do not support people to control their birth rate. Originally, women in India had the lower status than men, but now they are equal in educations, occupations, and politics. However, Islamic society in Pakistan and Bangladesh, the role of women were not clearly appearing to be equal. In the past, the culture in South Asia was the origin of knowledge and belief that affected most various religious teaching especially Brahminism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Later, Islam was diffused. Most people in India believe Hinduism, Islam in Pakistan and Bangladesh, and Buddhism in Sri Lanka.

In term of political significance, South Asia had the ancient civilization in the world. Humans had formed the various developments near the Indus River and Ganges since a long time. When Aryans permanently immigrated into India, they governed by promoting republic and kingship. When the Islam was diffused into India in late 10s, they started the new governing including Sultans in Dali and Mokun dynasty. In 1858, India was colonized by British who taught the new governing to India such in laws, education, and parliament. That created the positive consequences to India directly and made Indian democratic system stronger until now. After independence, in 1947, India was divided into two countries which are India and Pakistan due to the religion problems. Lastly, it could be divided the system of governing by using democratic republic in India, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh; democratic form of government with the King as Head of State in Nepal; and Islamic republic and military dictatorship in Pakistan. ss


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