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India And Pakistan Traditional Enemies History Essay

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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016

India and Pakistan are traditional enemies and both are developing states. They had fought three wars, 1965, 1971 and 1999 Kargil war. There are three nuclear states present in Asia. They are China, India and Pakistan. This is the only place on the where three nuclear weapons states are present together. So, the strategic importance of this region has increased. Both India and Pakistan are competing each other economically, socially, military, politically from last sixty three years and now there race is starting in space. Before this they both were fighting on earth but now they are trying to militarizing space.

History of Pakistan Space Program:

The period of 1957 to 1991 was the dawn of the space age. But the Pakistan space Program was started in 1961, Space technology is playing a very important role in various fields, such as communication, disaster management, environmental management, global positioning, resource surveying and many others [1] . President Ayub khan decided to set up a committee dealing with space sciences on the advice of Dr.Abdul Salam. Pakistan Space agency has the responsibility of nation’s public space program he space and the upper atmosphere research commission (SUPARCO) is responsible for all the space programs [2] .

The Space Science Research Wing Members were as follows:

Dr Abdul Salam, FRS-Chairman.

Dr I H Usmani, Chairman PAEC-Vice- Chairman.

Mr. Sibte Nabi Naqvi, Director, Pakistan Meteorological Department – Member.

Dr Innas Ali, Member PAEC Member.

In Sep 1961, Pakistan Metrological Department sent following members to NASA for training in rocket launching.

Mr. Tariq Mustafa – Principal Engineer PAEC.

Mr. Salim Mehmnd – Scientific Officer PAEC.

Mr. Sikandar Zaman – Assistant Engineer PAEC.

Mr. A Z Farooqi – Scientific Officer PAEC.

Mr. M Rehmatullah – Regional Director.

On 7 June 1961, Pakistan was launched a two stage rocket, Rehbar -I from the Sonmiania satellite launch Center. After this, Pakistan was the third country in Asia and 10 in the world to conduct such a launching. The other countries were USA, UK, France, USSR, Italy, Sweden, Canada, Israel and Japan. On 9 June 1962, Pakistan had successfully launched Rehbar II from Sonmiani Rocket Range- Rehbar -I and Rehbar- II gave information on wind shear and also structure in the layers of upper atmosphere extending beyond the stratosphere. The Date received by these satellites also helped in the study of weather over the Arabian Sea, Cyclones and cloud formation [3] .

In a meeting of 25 July 1964, the SUPARCO was placed under the direct control of the president of Pakistan. On 8 March 1966, President of Pakistan separated SUPARCO and gave the administration control to Dr. Abdul Salam. He was only the person in Pakistan with Nobel Prize. He knew the importance of both space technology and nuclear technology. SUPARCO had started its work with three tier structure.

The Governing body

The Executive committee.

The technical committee of and run SUPARCO affairs.

When SUPARCO was started working, Pakistan was the first South Asian country to start a space program. But on the other side, Pakistan space program has been frozen a number of times. First, in 1970, President General Yahya Khan and than Prime minister of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto frozen the Pakistan space program for more than a decade. In early 1990, SUPARCO faced strict sanctions on the import of several material required to launch and manufacture rockets. In 2005 General Musharaf gave a new vision to SUPARCO and Pakistan space program was unfrozen and on the other side satellite development program was developed fastly. Our neighbour India space agency ISRO progressed very fast and infact a notable agency like ESA, NASA, ROS COSMOS, JASA and Chinese Space agency.


SUPARCO facilities are present in Karachi including its Headquarters on University road, Karachi. SUPARCO plant located at the place of Hub Karachi and FTR (Flight Testing Range) present in Sonmiani, Balochistan near Karachi.

Communication satellites of Pakistan:


Pakistan had launched its first satellite called Badr-1.It was the first digital communication satellite of Pakistan. On 16 July 1990, This satellite was launched from the Xichang launch center, China. After the success of Badr-1, SUPARCO started working on Badr-B satellite.

Telecommunication Satellite of Pakistan:


The real name of PAKSAT is “Palapa”, It was launched by an Indonesian company named as “Hughes Space and Communications Company”. In 2012 this satellite will be decommissioned from its services.

PAKSAT-1R Communication Satellite Project:-

Now, China is working on PAKSAT-1R and in the end of 2011, Pakistan will replace PAKSAT-1 with a new PAKSAT-1R. This is also manufactured and launched by china.PAKSAT-1R satellite will support conventional and modern Fixed Satellite Services (FSS) applications.

Earth observational Satellite:

Badr-B: (Low Earth Observational Satellite):-

The project manager of Badr-B satellite was Dr. Abdul Majid (Physicist).This satellite was launched because SUPARCO was given ordered to develop its first low- Earth observation satellite. This satellite was to launched on June 1996 but because of number of severe kind of sanctions this program took time. Government of Pakistan said that SUPARCO has upgraded the Badar-B Low-Earth observational satellite and according to Interior Ministry of Pakistan, this satellite is being using to monitor Pakistan’s Western border [4] .

In 2005, General Pervaiz Musharaf outlined his vision for SUPARCO, he had made it clear that: “Pakistan would need to catch up to the world space leaders and make up for lost time and neglect in the past and future” In the Line of Fire: A memoir- Musharaf has also expressed his desired that: “SUPARCO has suffered severe economic and global sanctions but in future Pakistan will send its satellites from its soil” [5] .

History Of Indian Space Research Organization(ISRO):


The “India Space Research Organization” was established on15 of August 1969.The Headquarter of ISRO is present in Antariksh Bhavan (India). ISRO is the main body of space research. It is under the control of Indian Government. ISRO is working very well and a number of scientists are part of this organization, they have conducted a number of operations for both India and foreign countries.

Before independence of India, there was important development made in space research in India. There were two scientist who started space research in India. Vikram Sarabahi, the founder of the physical research laboratory at Ahmedabad and the other was Homi Bhabha, who played a very important role in the establishment of TATA Institute of Fundamental Research in 1945.In 1950 Indian Department of Atomic Energy was founded, Homi Bhabha joined this department as a secretary. This department provided funding for space research. The Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru worked a lot for the encouragement of space research. The Indian National Committee for space research (INCOSPAR) was found in 1962 and Vikram Sarabhai becomes its chairman [6] .

There is a big hand of Soviet Union in developing the Indian space program. In 1960, India and Soviets, relations of both countries get closed and soviets helped Indian to develop their space program and also in advance nuclear power in India. From 1960 to 70s,this period was very important for India, because significant developments rook place. Some of them are as follows:-

Founding of Space Science and Technology Center (SSTC).

Experimental Satellite Communication Earth Station (ESCES, 1967).

The Sviharikota Base

The Indian Satellite System Project (ISSP).

Goals and Objectives of ISRO:-

The primary objective of ISRO is to develop Indian space technology and its application to various national tasks.Dr. Vikram Sarabhai stated:-

“There are some who question the relevance of space activities in a developing nation. To us, there is no ambiguity of purpose. We do not have the fantasy of competing with the economically advanced nations in the exploration of the moon or the planets or manned space-flight. But we are convinced that if we are to play a meaningful role nationally, and in the community of nations, we must be second to none in the application of advanced technologies to the real problems of man and society” [7] 

Dr APJ Kalam Sarabhi also pointed out that:

“Many individuals with myopic vision questioned the relevance of space activities in a newly independent nation, which was finding it difficult to feed its population. Their vision was clear if Indians were to play meaningful role in the community of nations, they must be second to none in the application of advanced technologies to their real-life problems. They had no intention of using it as a mean to display our might” [8] 


Pakistan and India both are Nuclear weapon states and both states are struggling to enhance their conventional and strategic capabilities. Pakistan conducted its nuclear test in 28 May1998 and became nuclear power. After these tested, Being a nuclear weapon state Pakistan responsibility has been increased.


Pakistan military command and control can be centralized by communication satellites. Better Communication is the necessity of every nuclear weapon state. Communication satellites used for both Military and Civilian purposes. These satellites used in telecommunication and also used in military for military communication such as Global Command and Control systems. There are military system that used communication satellites like MILSTAR, the DSCS, and the FLTSATCOM of the United States, NATO satellites, United Kingdom satellites, and other satellites of the former Soviet Union. Most of the military satellites operate in the X-band, and some are also used in UHF radio links, while MILSTAR also utilizes Ka band.


There is a need of strong command and control for strategic forces. This will help Pakistan in so many ways. Pakistan should have to launch satellites to check the nuclear weapon sites of enemy. That would be a very credible step towards the checking of adversary strategic forces. In future, Pakistan will increase its war heads and make credible delivery system.

Hatf Ballistic Missile Project:-

SUPARCO scientist worked for both space and nuclear technology. In the early 1980s SUPARCO worked on Pakistan’s nuclear and missiles development program. These scientists worked together with KRL scientist in developing of Hatf Missile series. In January 1989 a successful launch of an “indigenous multistage rocket in to deep space” was reached an altitude of more than 480km.Pakistan have aimed to build satellite launchers and longer range missiles, but it is not clear how for it has progressed [9] .

Pakistan and China are friendly relations. China always helped Pakistan military and economically. Pakistan had import ballistic missiles from China in late 1980s.Pakistan`s Foreign Minister stated:

“These missiles were bought keeping in mind Pakistan’s security needs”.

On the other side in late 1995, CIA had discovered that: “China was not only selling missiles to Pakistan but was also helping to build a factory to manufacture them”.

In 1996, the government of Pakistan quickly mobilized its space facilities as well as its nuclear installations. SUPARCO has already tested two high altitude hypersonic sounding rockets:-

1) Shahpar.

2) Rakhnum.


It is seven meter solid fuel rocket. It is a two stage rocket and carries a payload of 55-70 kilograms to an altitude of 950 kilometers.


It is a 3 stage; liquid fuel rocket. It can carry a pay load of 38-56 kilograms to an altitude of 1000 kilometers. These both rockets are part of Pakistan civilian space program, not part of Pakistan nuclear program


Pakistan space satellite will help to give accurate data, and this data helped Pakistan to enhance the targeting capability to attack enemy conventional and strategic assets. These satellites also give the accurate position of enemy forces. Pakistan is working on these satellites and hopefully in future they will get more accurate results.


SPY Satellite is a Earth Observation Satellite or Communication Satellite System. Pakistan has no SPY satellite this is not good for the future of Pakistan’s. There is a need of Spy satellite because with SPY satellites Pakistan will get the secret movements of the enemy like enemy movements, radar system and the communication system of the enemy. through these satellites Pakistan will compete others countries and enhance its intelligent system. These satellites will help to detect the enemy forces.


India’s Space Ambitions:

Indian President A.P.J. Kalam addressed the Indian Air Force (IAF) and said “I visualize

the Indian Air Force of 2025 to be based on our scientific and technological competence in the development of communications satellites, high-precision resource mapping satellites, missile systems, unmanned supersonic aerial vehicles and electronics and communication systems,” Indian president predicted that in 2025 the IAF will be the model force for all the countries of the world, able “to succeed in the electronically controlled warfare in the midst of space encounters, deep-sea encounters, and ballistic missile encounters. [10] ” But on other side, New Delhi has continues its objective of preventing space militarization and emphasize the peaceful uses of space and civilian benefits.

India as an Emerging Space Power:

There is no doubt in this that Indian space program is the one of the best program in the world, and its space program is progressing day by day. Indian is trying to compete China’s space program. She is spending a large no of amount on its both civilian and military space programs. They have a number of developments on civilian sites like indigenous rocket and satellite production infrastructure and are planning projects to visit the moon and other planets such as: Mars. and on the military site they are working on ISR satellite capacity and building up their space control and defense capabilities, especially after the Chinese anti-satellite weapons test in January, 2007 [11] .

India and Pakistan capable of developing space weapons:


India has highly advanced space program. The Indian Air Force Chief, S. Krishnaswamy, said that:”Any country on the fringe of space technology like India has to work towards such a command as advanced countries are already moving towards laser weapons platforms in space and killer satellites.” Pakistan industrial base is smaller than Indians industrial base; So Pakistan should follow Indian ASAT efforts, to get the same advantages that India derives from the use of space for military operations [12] .

Conventional and Strategic Advantages to India:

Indian space program has a symbolic value, it is focus on both scientific and commercial uses of space, like urban development projects and reclaiming barren farmland, India’s satellite is based on Military Surveillance and Reconnaissance System, set to become operational in 2007, They will provide Indian military satellite intelligence. The set-up of extensive ground-based surveillance systems, linked to the country’s remote sensing satellites and it will allow India to keep a watch on all unstable regions, missile silos, sudden military build-ups, and troop movements in the region. Although this capability is not totally new to Indian defense forces, the Military Surveillance and Reconnaissance System would significantly increase India’s ability to monitor security interests and military developments in the region.

In 2001, India had launched Technology Experiment Satellite (TES) by the Indian Space Research Organization, This satellite can differentiate objects and details on Earth as small as one square meter. This satellite is capable of identifying troop movements along the Pakistani border, but would not be able to identify individual personnel. The ISRO stance is that its programmes are civilian-related. In 1992, the U.S. Department of State imposed trade sanctions against the ISRO for its missile proliferation activities in India. As ISRO Chairman Dr K Kasturirangan commented after launching TES, “It will be for civilian use consistent with our security concerns.” The TES has since successfully

transmitted high-class images of the war in Afghanistan and also the movement of Pakistani troops along the border.

Indian satellite capabilities have implications for current nuclear deterrence stability with Pakistan. The planned Military Surveillance and Reconnaissance System would provide India a no of advantages such as ,with daily coverage of Pakistan’s military installations, enhancing its capability to counter Pakistani forces and military operations. for example, India would have the option of launching a conventional strike against Pakistan’s F-16s and other nuclear weapon delivery systems at their bases

On the other side India’s satellite intelligence capabilities can also provide its armed forces the tactical and strategic information on Chinese military forces in Tibet. This Satellite would give Indian military sufficient early warning about the movement of Chinese armed forces from central China towards Tibet and India, So it is very easy for Indian forces to counter the movement of Chinese troops.


There are many countries which are cooperating with Pakistan on Space program. China is a very good friend of Pakistan and there are a number of agreements between India and Pakistan. In 2006, China committed with Pakistan to launched three Earth- resource satellites in next five years. China is a strategic Partner of Pakistan and in May 2007, China and Pakistan signed an agreement to enhance cooperation in Space Science and Technology. In the year of December 2006, there was MOU (Memorandum of Understanding) signed between Turkey and Pakistan.

Both countries India and Pakistan are enhancing their space program, but comparison to Pakistan’s space program,Indian space program is highly developed.But militarize the space is not easy for India also because a large amount of money, which being a developing state India can’t effort it. India is emerging power of southasia, So its objective is to also compete china. Now,India will must build up military space program to counter china.

The United States Air Force is also developing space plane, they have announced that they will launch a secret space plane that has sparked speculation about the militarization of space. This plane known as the X-37B Orbital Test Vehicle (OTV), The U.S. has a leading role in space and they want to maintain it, the development of the new ‘space weapon’ at a time when other countries like China and India are expanding their space programs. On the other hand, A U.S. military official says that the X-37B will only be used for transporting payloads and facilitating space experiments.


Pakistan is not in a position to militarize its space program because we have few satellites for communication,weather,and intelligence purposes. Pakistan internal situation are not allowing her to think about space, we are suffering from a no of problems such as poverty, lack of resources, bad economical condition and since 9/11 Pakistan is fighting war on terrorism. But on the other side we should have to solve all these issues and prove Pakistan a strong Independent state.


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