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In literature, many writers use animals as symbols to convey their message to their readers. Many writers use animals as metaphors. In literature, writer’s job is simplified if their stories talk through animals because the reader’s understand the story better. This is because writing in terms of animals makes it interesting to read, and it is less controversial for the reader as well. Also animals are used for confidentiality purposes. Animals are used to represent politicians because both act for their own benefit without worrying about the side effects of their behavior. The Animal Farm by George Orwell and the “The Camel, the Jackal and the Crow” from the Panchatantra are stories that use animals as metaphors to criticize politicians.
In the Panchatantra story, “The Camel, the Jackal and the Crow”, the lion named Madotkata acts as a metaphor to criticize politicians. Madotkata in the story is treated typically as a president of a country, who has three assistants; the leopard, the jackal and the crow. Madotkata has power and respect, similar to a country’s president. Madotkata one day see’s a camel in his forest, and was curious to find out whether a camel is a “domestic animal or a wild animal” (Panchatantra). The research by the assistants resulted in the conclusion that a camel is a domestic animal. The crow however gave the suggestion of killing the camel for he was perfect to be eaten as prey. However, Madotkata refused because it was against his principles to do so. The camel named Kradanaka was brought forward to Madotkata and asked about the reason of him existing in the forest of Madotkata. Kradanaka said “he was a part of a trade caravan and got lost” (Panchatantra). Then, Madotkata convinced Kradanaka to become a resident instead of a tourist. The camel felt good and accepted the offer. The lion acts as president here because even a president of any country would want more residents so that his or her country’s GDP could increase. The lion’s power and the way he thinks show how he is used to criticize politicians.
In the Panchatantra story, “The Camel, the Jackal and the Crow” the jackal acts as a politician. The jackal, an assistant of Madotkata, is a very cunning animal. The jackal symbolizes a cunning politician. Since the jackal is an assistant, it acts as a deputy president in human nature. When Madotkata was injured after a fight with an elephant, he needed food desperately. The assistants fetched hard so that they could find appropriate prey for their lord, Madotkata. After failing to find prey for Madotkata, the jackal thought of serving Kradanaka as prey. However the lion was an animal with principals and refused in anger. The jackal as mentioned was a very cunning animal, and convinced that if Kradanaka offers himself to be eaten as prey to Madotkata he can be killed and eaten. The jackal, smartly planed a way to trap Kradanaka into his own death. The jackal is like a deputy president who stays on its position even than the president does, which is till it retires. So, the jackal is a highly experienced politician, and knows exactly how politics is played. So, the jackal was successful in trapping Kradanaka. Kradanaka was tore into pieces the moment he offered himself as meal. The jackal represents those politicians who know exactly how to examine politics on different politicians regardless of their superiority. The jackal acts as a metaphor to criticize the cunning politicians all around the world.
In the story by George Orwell, Animal Farm, Napoleon acts as a metaphor to criticize politicians. Napoleon is a very cunning and smart animal, who is waiting to become the leader of the animals. Napoleon is like a minister who is waiting for the next elections to take place, or till the death of the existing minister (which is Snowball), and hence resembles many cunning politicians around the world. Napoleon trained the puppies as if he was there father, from the time there actual father, the dog died during a war with Mr. Jones and all soldiers with him. When Mr. Jones left, “Napoleon showed the way, but Snowball took the lead in entering the place where their tyrant had lived” (Orwell). Both Napoleon and Snowball tried to take the lead, but Napoleon succeeded. Napoleon however waited till his time came, any minister must have patience till the public accepts him or her as their minister. But Napoleon after waiting for long, with help of the dogs got Snowball killed, and became the new leader of the animal farm. Not many people are aware of the risks a minister would have taken before he or she becomes a minister. When Napoleon became the king, almost half of the rules developed and agreed by all animals were broken by him. The animal farm started globalizing with the outside world; other animals could be killed with a reason. Such rules developed hatred from animals towards Napoleon. Napoleon seemed like Mr. Jones to all the animals and was considered as another minister who tried imperializing the animal farm. He was chased away by all the animals, like the population of the countries who wanted to be anti-imperialist chased away the countries that imperialized them. Napoleon criticizes all those politicians who in the 1800’s to 1900’s had imperialized many countries all around the world. The political leaders who had imperialized other countries had to go back to their own countries, when the population of these countries stroke against them, similar to what happened with Napoleon.
In the story by George Orwell, Animal Farm, Snowball acts as a metaphor to criticize politicians. In the story, when Mr. Jones was removed as the leader of the manor farm, and the old major had died, Snowball stood forward. When many countries accomplished freedom, there was always a person who stood up to be the leader of the country. However there were many people who tried but only one succeeded. In this story Snowball acts as the successful president or minister of a newly freed country. The president of a newly freed country always would be successful at becoming the president because they had the power of the public, and its competitors either had less or no power of the public like Napoleon. Snowball was the only president in Orwell’s story who deserved to be the president of the farm. Snowball first developed a constitution for the farm. Then the next good thing Snowball did was to educate the animals of the farm. Snowball developed a way to bring electricity to the farm. Under Snowball’s management, “That summer the animals without any help or any interference made a going proposition of the animal farm” (Orwell). A country could be considered to have three statuses which are undeveloped, developing and developed. In the 1900’s many countries achieved freedom they were considered undeveloped. However after freedom there were some ministers or presidents who changed that status from undeveloped to developing. Snowball as animal criticizes these ministers or presidents by acting as a metaphor.
Criticism of politicians in literature is easier with the help of animals as metaphors. In “The Camel, the Jackal and the Crow”, the jackal acts as a metaphor for a majority of types of politicians that are cunning. While from the animal farm, Napoleon and Snowball are used as metaphors to represent the category of the cunning politicians. These animals are not just cunning they are selfish as well; and most of the politicians become leaders for their own benefit rather than their country’s which proves they are also selfish. Use of animals keeps the confidentiality of all the names of these presidents criticized in the two stories. By the use of animals, the author shows how the actual truth about many politicians. Not many people around the world are aware about the facts about politicians. Stories such as “The Camel, the Jackal and the Crow” and the animal farm are pieces of literature which simplify the understanding of politicians by its reader with the help of animals.
Orwell, George. Animal Farm;. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1954. Print.
“Panchatantra The Camel, The Jackal and The Crow.” Panchatantra Welcome to Panchatantra. Web. 06 Dec. 2010.
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