History Of London The Capital City History Essay
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London is the capital city in England of United Kingdom; it is a largest city in the United Kingdom and the largest measure in the European Union. London knows as the one of the world's key global cities and the important international financial centre, has the highest GDP's city in Europe. Its five international airports, which make its airspace was the busiest by the number of international passengers; London most visited city in the world. There are 43 universities from the assembly of higher education in European countries. London has a different range of people, religion and cultures, and more than 300 languages were use in its. There are four World Heritage Sites of London and other famous land marks. London was developed evolutionary economy, arts and architectures since the period of middle ages that provide the key characteristics as a created economy and temples of great significance and complexity. London found by Romans about 50 AD who called it Londinium. London was the most important and biggest city during the medieval times. The essay would be discussing the main section of daily life of population, government, economy, architectures and arts in medieval period.
We can know about the London in the history was the place where the Roman took control and kept it as the storage depot for Roman's military in 43 AD. Since then, the London was slowly became the trade center for linking the whole continent due to its location is near the ocean. Later on the place was developed to be an important port for the doing trade. The Queen of the Iceni had done the revolt against the Roman in order to fine the independence for the Britain in 61 AD. The city was destroyed during the bloody period of fighting for sovereignty of the country, and it was re-built in the year 100 and was named as Londinium. The city rapidly updated to be the provincial capital and administrative as well as the business center of the Roman Britain. The growth of population had been up to 30000 people that time, and the infrastructures had not been developed as today yet, most people did not have their own houses. People mostly lived in the paved street, temple, glasswork, or public bath. And the houses that time were built to be very tall and wide style, surrounded of the house was about several miles of the stone wall from their house, and the height of the house was about 20 feet height. Later on, after the period of the collapse of Roman Empire in 4th century, the Roman Londinium had not been recorded in the history between the years 457 to 600, the trading of the city was still survival and the Christianity was introduced during that time however. We can only know that, in the year of 883, the city was invaded by the Danes, but the city seemed to be still steadily.
Medieval London ( 5th-15th )
The Middle Ages of London, population was about 10,000 in 1066. Its population has grown 18,000 in 1100, which a number very large by the standard of the time. In 1300, it population expanded to 80,000 but the average life span of a Londoner was about lower 35 years old. London's population may have grown 50,000 by 14th century; however, the Black Death in mid-fourteenth century (1348-49) killed nearly two-third of the population and it surrounding areas. Therefore, its population grew about 70,000 by the end of the Middle Ages and people started to move all over England or surrounding areas to find jobs and better lives for their families to London.
The life in Medieval London was a very different changed that the London's inhabitants changed from fruit-sellers to fine ladies. Childhood in the period was a dangerous time. Children were easier to influence or attack from disease and accident and most of children did not survive into adulthood. The education of medieval London was taught by parish clerk or at the grammar school; however, a lot of children could not attend school especially poor children, parent need to earn more money in order to give their children to have a chance to attend school. Crimes in Medieval London were robbery, forgery and drunken fighting; it is familiar from later in the period. And it is notable in medieval time, that quite 35 years old is the average of death age and it concludes the high death rate of the infant. Some evidence form St Nicholas Shambles (10002-1100s), cemetery suggests that 38% of people buried before they were 25, they could live long lives if they made it into adulthood. The rituals of burial changed in the medieval period that the Saxons buried body with grave goods like jewelers, weapons, and pottery, but in Christians, buried was more simply than Saxons buried though their decorated gravestones often survives. Food and drink in London was available for choice because London controlled market prices and stockpiles of corn and fuel. Londoners could buy pancakes, muffins, and other tasty snacks from street hawkers. Culinary skill were influences wholesome tradition of English cooking, men held most prestigious and high cater jobs, but there were many women cooks in London too. People in London got up so early and worked long hours, but they still had time for leisure ant the light summer evenings. People take a short walk because medieval London was small city, and people out of gates and they find place that they could practice archery or ice-skating in the winter. Londoner very like watching the cockfights at school, horse-racing at Smithfield, playing football, and jousts were the other entertainments for Londoner spends their leisure time. The practice in the teachings of Arab and Greek philosophers and writers was the roots of medieval medical that emphasis on a holistic form of medicine which sought to treat the patient's body, mind and soul. People believed the resulted of illness from imbalance and imperfection, and treatment rested upon the ability of the patient and physician to restore equilibrium and harmony. Londoner their believed in religion, praying to saints and carrying flasks of 'holy water' in ampuallae (small bottles), and many relied on magic, amulets and the potions of apothecaries and quacks. Although some people were wealthier than others, poor and rich lived cheek by jowl in medieval London. Many citizens were generous and the city's welfare schemes were helpful that providing work for the unemployed and poor and dowries for poor girls. However, in the early 1550s showed that out of a population of some 50,000 over 20,000 needed help. The geography of London was
London after fall of Romans Empire, it is developed and leading European economy (commercial and trade) after AD 1000. The Thames, which is the Roman bridging and the northern bank of the city, made advantages for the merchants by an extensive network of roads and river to the sea. English exports were dominated the production and London dominated the trade. Trade was the basic of London's commercial power. The creation of the consumers demand to be met locally, the importance of the oversea trade cannot overestimated but it was not for the native Londoners that controlled the business. Alien groups from northern and southern Europe, was active to join the London's relative open to foreigner underscored, its success as a trading metropolis. London performed an important role as a centre of marketing and distribution, to send out goods to the provinces to meet local demand. London was not only distinguished by the scale economic activity but also by the diversity of its economic structure. London started to promote the craft production for the conspicuous consumption by using valuable raw materials. In the twelfth century the shopkeeper was only found in London for the display and sale of goods. The creation of this services demands of the local market and began to increasing specialization as scriveners, apothecaries and others provided for people needs and wants, it is make economic activity create. The important things of the increasing of economic activity, was creation of specialized commercial and business make trade with distinct neighborhoods.
In the middle ages the government of London is based on feudalism. The king offered the land to those noble and in return they will dedicate their services and loyalty back to the king. Then those higher noble will do the same to the one who are lower than them and through this the pyramid structure of support was created. Feudalism is associated with a relatively weak central government, so the power is spread out. Therefore, territories belong to the feudal lords, and they extended their power to control over the people and they had to pay taxes. The lords were indeed alarmed at the growing wealth of the town and also for providing shelter to run-away serfs (a runaway serf became free if he was not caught after one year and one day). If the cities or towns want freedom or to be free from the feudal lords control, they must paid a huge sum of money as ransom to them. This charter that their received which allowed to have back their self-government and self-regulation of trade and industry. At the time, there are many nobles were collected huge sums of money and gave the charter of freedom to the cities or towns. They need the amount to pay for the holy war again the Muslims. After the time of crusades, citizen were helped their king in the way for growth of national monarchies and to destroy the power of nobles.
Architectures and Arts
In Middle Ages, people almost Christian and member of Roman Catholic faith. Art and Architectures was created to let people know how important religion was. Paintings on walls showed stories, they are use contained symbols: familiar scenes, colors, objects and people's expressions. The art of books, were made by monks for church use. Books had to handmade; the skilled writers called scriveners copied each of them out. Painters often used complex patterns and gold or silver to the first letter in a chapter. These were called "illuminations" because they reflected the light. Before, a large building could take more than a hundred year to build. From the 12th century, new style architecture was emerged that the new style was light and spacious. It had pointed arches, slender columns and high ceilings, and the large windows were filled with stained glass.
The Middle Ages is a period in European history traditionally dated from the fall of the Roman Empire to the height of the Renaissance in the late 15th century. London populations were 18,000 in 1100, but lost population near third of the dark ages in mid-fourteenth century. London was based on the commercial and business and market price were controlled by London. At the time, London government was based on feudalism that population need to paid tax a huge amount indeed. The new Architectures style was changed to more light and spacious from 12th century.
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