Geopolitical Position Of Pakistan History Essay
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The impact created by a country on other neighboring countries due to its geopolitical position is called geo politics. This impact also affects the politics of the region as a whole.
Pakistan's Location on map
Pakistan has a significant geopolitical position as it is situated in a region that is of high grandness due to its political, economic, and strategic position. This part of continent has always been apple of eye for super powers like U.S.A., Great Britain and USSR. Its importance during soviet cold war and US war against terrorism was eminent. Pakistan is bordered by countries like china, India and Iran. It also shares its boundaries with Afghanistan.
Indo-Pak neighbor hood
Pakistan came into existence in 1947 as a result of efforts made by Muslims of subcontinent for their separate homeland. It was a detachment from joint Hindustan too. Since earlier time, the relations between Pakistan and India have gone through many ups and downs. The Clashes started on the time of insulation when the freshly born Muslim state was not awarded aboveboard with its share in the mingled assets of joint India. The other clash point was that some of the Muslim majority areas were allotted to India. On these grounds a military action was also imposed in 1948. Two major wars in 1965 and 1971 have been fought between them. In September 1965, India attacked on Pakistan and imposed warfare. India was on the brink of defeat but United Nations played its disruptive role and made the contenders to put an end to the fight. In 1971, some anti government elements in east part of Pakistan started movement for separation. India's deportment towards Pakistan was hostile and its back up for the rebelling forces was remarkable both morally and financially. It facilitated them with strategic assistance and sent its army corps to the East Pakistan. As a result of which, the freedom fighters overcame and Pakistan was divided. This was an irremediable calamity for whole nation indeed. In 1999, kargal issue developed distrustful atmosphere menacing the War Between the States.
Pakistan is an agricultural land and its main stream is habitant of rural areas. Agriculture has its significance as the backbone for economy of state. Main water resources on which the agriculture and economy of the Pakistan depends have their origin points in India. An intentional disturbance in the flow and amount was continuously produced by India. This dispute was settled down in 1960, with the help of World Bank by signing a treaty named as Sind Taas pact between the rivals.
Bone of content
Kashmir has always been the bone of content for both the neighbors. At the time of division, Kashmir was a Muslim majority state with a non Muslim ruler. He made a deal and gave away the state to India. People of state stood against this injustice and started movement for freedom. As a result of which, half part of state was as taken back by freedom fighters. The rest of state is still Indian Territory. A free and impartial referendum under the supervision of the UN is the ultimate solution. The people are waiting for United Nations to take action for their right of freedom.
Traditional foes often blame each other for terrorist acts in each other's arena. Now days, rivals are willing to establish friendly relations and prevailing peace in the region. Both nations are launching commercial and trading ties as they have reached the only possible outcome that war is never a safer way to walk through.
Pak-Iran brother hood
Pakistan relations with Iran were initiated at the time of its independence. Iran was the very first country to accept Pakistan as newly born Muslim country. Pakistan warmly welcomed the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979; Pakistan played its role for stopping the prolonged gulf war in the region.
Free Trade Agreement
Now days Pakistan and Iran are in strong trading ties. In 2005, Iran and Pakistan had conducted US$500 million of trade. The land border at Tafton is the conduit for trade in electricity and oil. Iran is extending its railway network towards Tafton but the gauges are of different sizes, 1435 mm and 1676 mm respectively.
'The Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline is currently under discussion. It could be a major development between all three nations. India has been pressured by the US not to go ahead with the deal and appears to have heeded American policy after it signed the US-India nuclear deal. In addition, international sanctions on Iran due to its controversial nuclear program could derail the project altogether. Trade between the two countries has increased by £1.4 billion in 2009. The Iranian governor general says that President Ahmadinejad remains keen to strengthen ties between the two countries.'(Turquoise Partners: Iran Investment Monthly, 2011)
A gas pipe line project is also under discussions between the countries. As a part of Muslim world, both play their prominent role for the betterment of Muslim umah.
Chino-Pak brother hood
Chino-Pak brother hood needs no words for explication. These two neighbors are very close to each other. Pakistan and china have strong relations from 1949. Since that time, both are supporting each other in all aspects. Pakistan helped china in being the member of United Nations. China's significant moral and strategic support played important role during the wars of 1965 and 1971. One of the cogent evidences of chino-Pak friendship is Karakorum high way. Now China is providing technical aid to Pakistan in establishing the gawadar port, an international hub for trade.
Pakistan shares its long boundary with Afghanistan. Afghanistan is a Muslim country which has been in state of war from several decades. Pakistan, being the nearer Muslim nation has always been playing its role for establishing peace in Afghanistan. During soviet cold war, Pakistan helped afghan Muslim government to get rid from USSR. During this war Pakistan open heartedly helped its brother country by providing shelter to the afghan refugees.
After the 9/11 attacks, Pakistan joined hands with all world and played eminent part in US war against terrorism. Pakistan provided its army bases and land routes for supplying goods to the belligerents. In consequences of that, the number of terrorist activities in Pakistan enhanced greatly and Pakistan is still suffering from internal problems.
Another major issue is the sprouting traffic of drugs. This is the source of finance for the militants too. The Both countries are trying to solve these security issues.
Pakistan shares one of its borders with Arabian Sea which is of high importance. It plays an important role for the economy of state because Pakistan makes its level best merchandizes through water.
Pakistan is always eager to keep friendly relations with the nations all over the world. Relations between Russia and Pakistan are very crucial. In 1950, Pakistan preferred America over Russia which put negative impact on pak USSR relations.
'In 1949, Soviet Union under its leader Joseph Stalin sent an invitation to Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan to visit the country, followed by the U.S. invitation after learning the Soviet move. In May 1950, Prime Minister Ali Khan paid a state visit to the United States after being persuaded to snap ties with the Soviet Union, and set the course of Pakistan's foreign policy towards closer ties with the West; despite it was the Soviet Union who sent its invitation of Ali Khan to visit the country.' (Lacey and James, 1991).
During soviet war, Pakistan stood with Afghanistan and assisted America in casting out USSR. Now days both countries are willing to cooperate with each other in the field of commerce and industry. Russia has no access to warm waters so it seeks alternate routes for trading. Most nearest water route is through Pakistan so it needs Pakistan for its trade. This is the key of Pak Russia relations.
Pakistan is a gateway to central Asian republics also. These states also use Pakistan for freight transactions.
Pak-American relation ships
Pakistan relations with America have gone through many ups and downs during the past. In the earlier days, Pakistan preferred America over Russia as described earlier. During 1965 war, America did not provided any help to Pakistan regardless of having strong economic and strategic ties. The same story was repeated during 1971 war. In the cold war Pakistan became the right hand of America in kicking Russia out of region. A new era of relations established between Pakistan and America after 9/11 attacks. Keeping harmony with all the world, Pakistan joined hands with United Nations and provided its land and routes for the attacking forces. This caused anger in Afghan localities against Pakistan. During this war a new wave of terrorism entered in Pakistan that harmed Pakistan badly. Pakistan is still under its consequences. As a reward of this support, America furnishes Pakistan with financial aid and strategic assistance.
America has a remarkable influence in the national politics of Pakistan also. America tries to establish a government in Pakistan that would care about American profits in the region. Some Pakistani think tanks suggest ending up relations with America but that is not a option worth choosing. Anyhow, Pakistan should maintain friendly relations with America.
Gawadar has become a key point in settling the economy of Pakistan. It has greatly enhanced the importance of Pakistan in the era. This project is being completed by both china and Pakistan and an evidence of chino-Pak brotherhood. It will bring a revolution in trade after being operational. Not only Pakistan but the entire region will be among its beneficiaries. Gawadar port will prove itself as backbone in the economy of Pakistan. As well as it will lessen the burden on Port Qasim. Pakistan's relations with gulf region are also nearly based upon gawadar port.
Pakistan plays its healthy role for prevailing peace in the world and especially in the region. It cooperates with regional organizations like SAARC as well as world organizations like UNO. Pakistan responds to world issues according to its foreign policy for the betterment. In working with other nations, Pakistan makes sure that its self respect and solidarity is not scratched. Compromise on solidarity of the state is not acceptable for any nation.
Lacey, James, M. (1991). The Truman Presidency. Cambridge University Press. p. 358.
Turquoise Partners: Iran Investment Monthly (2011). www.turquoisepartners.com/iraninvestment/IIM-Feb11.pdf
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