Fascist Italy And Nazi Germany History Essay
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Fascism is actually an Italian word which was used by early Italians as a symbol of sovereignty and authority of Roman Empire. The actual meaning of the word is axe headed rods. The dominancy of Roman Empire was over their forces of nineteenth century as they aspire at combining the muscular nationalism with an aggressive style of activism characterized by anti-materialism, idealism and violence. (Front, 2012) Fascism projected Benito Mussolini who was the leader into premiership and it directs to the formation of new political dictatorship.
Nazism is linked to political philosophies and the government of Adolf Hitler. The main purpose of Nazism was the tribal pre-eminence of the Aryan people, the eradication of the Jews who were substandard, aggressive foreign policy in relation to the eastern European nations and the importance of Hitler to be maintained.
Similarities between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany:
Both groups have some aspects in common that is, both had rejected the importance of enlightenment over individual rationality and had put a special emphasis on emotional aspects and role of will on individuals.
Italian fascists and German Nazi wants to dominate as leaders and were much concerned about their authoritative positions despite of the rights of masses; they want their intellectual aspects to be highlighted above all. (Mackel, 2012) The groups hold on the same philosophies and had rejected the theory of liberalism, political institutions of liberal democracy and the ideologies of Marxism.
Fascists and German national Socialists had followed theories of social Darwinism by arguing that human development is based upon an elementary effort for existence in which only the strong individuals and strong nations can survive at the expense of others. (Front, 2012)
Differences between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany:
Nazi German and Fascist Italy had different attitude towards race; racialism was very strong in the ideology of Nazism but less in Fascism ideology. Besides racism, both groups had a difference of opinion about nature of the State, tradition and modernity and the objectives of foreign policy.
Speaking about nature of State, then Italian Fascism was analyzed by the theories of Totalitarianism and Corporatism whereas totalitarianism were rejected by German Nazi as they want to promote their own race, cast or creed. As far as technology is concerned then Germany has realized technology to be most important whereas Italian fascist wants to have technology along with their traditions. (Price, 2009)
Factors of Power behind the Groups:
The factors that allowed Italian to come into power are their fascism that is authoritarianism and superiority, where as for Germans, they have the power of Nazi as well as military rule. At that time German Nazi were having dominancy because of their propaganda campaigns, Hitlerâ€™s speaking skills and intelligence, Nazi policies, they had got a huge support from big business or enterprises and criticism of the Weimar system of government. (Mangion, 2008) They were weak due to depression, cooperation and attitude of Germans that forced them to have power
Speaking about Italian then they were holding dominancy because of their forces and other factors that motivate them were huge territorial gains and economic benefit for switching sides in World War One.
Ultimate Goals of Two Groups:
The ultimate goal of Italian Fascism was to rule the world or to hold dominancy or authority that is they want Roman Empire to rule the world forever. They want glories of Roman Empire to be maintained and to eliminate the turmoil rife that is anti-democracy and totalitarianism where as the purpose of Hitlerâ€™s Nazi Pact was to was to put the Germanic people at the peak of humanity. (History, 2012) He was more concerned with ethnic purification and dependence to create and work the space, than waging war itself.
Role of Women in both Societies:
Italian women were more to follow traditions whereas German women came forward to work with shoulders to shoulders. Actually before World War II, women were not given equal rights as compare to men; they were obliged to marry and to sit at home, but after World War II there was a severe shortage of men that become impossible for each and every women to marry so equal employment and opportunity programs were developed. (Levy, 2009)
German women also took part in World War; they hold guns and transfer proper medication to the army. In Italy, there was a financial crisis due to war so they have to come forward their women to work for the survival.
Due to Adolf Hitler and his philosophies, there was a rise of Germany to a fascist state in 1920's and early 1930's, before that Germany was unstable socially, economically and politically where as fascist economy was one of the biggest user of propaganda in the fascist regime, and something that Mussolini took great personal interest in. (Culture, 2012) Both struggled to keep their state and practices as dominant, but Italy was excessively influenced by German military power.
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