European Voyages Of Discovery History Essay
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The main reason there are 4 points. First economic causes, second social origin, third business crisis, fourth objective conditions.
First, According to Historical objective factor as well as society's development demand then, As well as the colonialist power then continued to develop the foreign trade to open the new mainland, therefore had the new route's opening .
Then the new route opens objective cause, Economical root. The Western Europe capitalist production relations develop gradually, the trade activity is day by day frequent, commodity economy's development enlarges demands the overseas market.
Social root. Follows the economical the development, the currency demand increases day by day, the westerner longed for that obtains the gold. 'Mark · the Polo Line Records' the myth description which does to the East, caused the westerner to raise crazily "has sought the gold to be hot". The westerner to the gold greedy pursue, from had reflected essentially the capitalist production relations regarding the plundering wealth and the acceleration primitive accumulation of capital's urgent demand, this kind of urgent need become the Western Europe country exploration to lead to the Eastern new route's formidable driving force.
Commercial crisis. The 13th century Osman Turkey rose has shut off the traditional East and West trade channel, caused in the European market the Eastern product to be scarce, the price rose suddenly. East the Western Europe merchant, the aristocrat can not but try another method, arrives.
Detachment condition. The astronomical geography activity's progress (round theory proposes), Marine Technology's enhancement, the compass applied in the navigation enterprise and so on has prepared the essential condition for the long-distance voyage.
The new route opens influence:
The new route opening, has caused the "commercial revolution" and "the price revolution".
"commercial revolution" was developed the world market, and the Europe's trade route and trade center shift, Italy's commercial monopolistic position by Portugal, Spain, UK is replaced. "price revolution" Enables the industry and commerce bourgeoisie to gain the sudden and huge profits, causes the feudal lord social class decline. The new route's opening had proven round theory's correctness, makes the European country to start to step onto colonizes conquers the path.
Another historical result Spain Portugal take the lead to step onto colonize conquer the path. Spain colonizes the expansion by the Americas primarily, Portugal colonizes the expansion by Asia primarily. Both countries plunder the wealth hands over inflow countries and so on industry and commerce developed Holland, UK, France, has accelerated the advancement which these national capital accumulates. The European country colonized plundering to America and Africa, the Latin American people to bring the disaster and the pain, but simultaneously also caused the world to become a mutual influence, day after day.
-- 15 century's ends to the early 16th century, the European opened led to Indian and Americas' route, thus had discovered the Americas mainland, this event the custom was called "the geography in the history to discover greatly". The European opens the new route certainly not history accidental, it has the profound social root and the economical root.
(1) after the 15th century, along with feudal economy's development rapidly, the commodity money relations starts from the internal corrosion feudalism natural economy foundation, disintegrates the feudalism, the promotion capitalism seed. At that time, the commodity exchange was very widespread, this needed the massive currencies, by now the Western Europe currency already transited from the silver standard the gold monometallic, the gold, the silver with was between the various European countries and the various European countries the international trade payment means that the status is very high, thus at that time the people thought that held the money to hold all, the gold could lead to the heaven for the soul opening the path, therefore, Western Europe society various social strata, especially the merchant and the bourgeoisie, craved in the pursue money, the wealth, however the Europe continent produced the money to be limited, therefore they changed to the attention East.
(2) the East leads to West's path to have three originally: A land route, by Central Asia along the Caspian Sea, Black Sea arrives at small Asia; Two sea routes, namely enter Persian Gulf by the sea route, then after two river basins to Mediterranean Sea east bank Syria area, or first from sea route to the Red Sea, then from land route to the Egyptian Alexander port. After the 15th century middle period Ottoman Empire emerged, has seized the Balkan Peninsula and the Asia minor area, soon has seized Crimea, has controlled traditional trade route between East and West's, extorted taxes ruthlessly to the intercourse in the Mediterranean Sea region's various European countries merchant, created obstacles in every possible way, therefore, transported to Europe's commodity, quantity were few, and the price was high, but Europe upper classes of society regarded as the Asian luxury goods to live essential, did not hesitate the high price purchase, this kind of trade created Western Europe's unfavorable balance of trade, massive gold outflow, therefore the Western Europe various countries aristocrat, the merchant and the bourgeoisie anxious wanted to bypass east Mediterranean Sea, moreover opened a route to lead to India and China, obtained the massive luxury goods directly from Asia.
(3) the Western Europe productive forceps's development, science's and technology's progress, to discover that the new route has created the essential condition, causes the oceangoing voyage possibly to become. The 15th century Western Europe appeared has been suitable for the multi-mast fast sailing ship which navigated in the sea, of a compass needle China Four Big Inventions, spread to Europe from the Arab, by now obtained the universal application, the European uses it to discern the geography position, vectoring. Along with science's and technology's development, the ancient Greece place round theory accepts in the intellectual circle for more and more people, inside by Florence's astronomers, the geographer holds Si to endure is firmest, he is sphere this hypothesis embarks from the earth, thought that may arrive at India and China to the west navigation, and has drawn up the summary world map. In brief, the 15th century astronomical geography knowledge's progress, the world navigated experience's accumulation, caused Europe's navigation seamen to dare to be far away from the seacoast, to has never gone in the ocean navigates, thus caused the new route's opening to obtain successfully finally. (daxia,2005-08-29 from Internet )
European voyages of discovery Promote dealings between countries closer ties, Makes the sea into the unprecedented strong development period and Change the pattern of the world . Open a new route for the development of western capitalist accumulation of large quantities of gold .And then capitalism to a new height.
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