Europe conventionally one of the seven continents of the world. Although referred to as a continent, Europe is actually just the western fifth of the Eurasian landmass, which is made up primarily of Asia. Modern geographers generally describe the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, part of the Caspian Sea, and the Caucasus Mountains as forming the main boundary between Europe and Asia. The name Europe is perhaps derived from that of Europa, the daughter of Phoenix in Greek mythology, or possibly from Ereb, a Phoenician word for “sunset.”
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The second smallest continent (Australia is the smallest), Europe has an area of 10,355,000 sq km (3,998,000 sq mi), but it has the third largest population of all the continents, 730 million in 2008. The northernmost point of the European mainland is Cape Nordkinn, in Norway; the southernmost, Punta de Tarifa, in southern Spain near Gibraltar. From west to east the mainland ranges from Cabo da Roca, in Portugal, to the north-eastern slopes of the Urals, in Russia. Europe has long been a centre of great cultural and economic achievement. The ancient Greeks and Romans produced major civilizations, famous for their contributions to philosophy, literature, fine art, and government.
Romans had many minor influences on their food — as food came in from various parts of the expanding empire — and perhaps two major influences. Their own Roman agricultural roots, which continued to be seen as a noble ideal throughout the history of the Empire, and the Greek influence. The wealthier Romans had Greek slaves, who would cook for them. R.W. Davies in “The Roman Military Diet,” in 1971 writes that there is archaeological evidence that Roman soldiers in the Northern provinces would eat more meat than people back in Italy, and even acquired a taste for beer. And certainly as more Germans became Roman soldiers, they would have brought their preferences into the army and back to Rome. www.hezel.com/globalreport/IntrotoEurope.pdf
Much of Roman food was based on combining sweet, sour and savoury tastes all in one dish, just as Chinese food still does today. The taste for seasoning dishes in this way not only survived the fall of Rome, it remained the practice through the Dark Ages, the Middle Ages and right up until it was finally overthrown by the revolution in French cooking that was to occur in the 1600s.
The Natural regions
The geological underpinning of Europe includes, from north to south, an ancient mass of stable, crystalline rocks; a broad belt of relatively level sedimentary materials; a zone of mixed geological structures created by folding, faulting, and volcanism; and a region of comparatively recent mountain-building activity. This geological pattern has helped create the numerous natural regions that make up the landscape of Europe. One of the major criteria accessing the type of food people eat is geographical location and the climate i.e. People living in coastal areas eat more of sea food and people living in plains prefer food as per the availability in the region.
Although much of Europe lies in the northern latitudes, the relatively warm seas that border the continent give most of central and western Europe a moderate climate, with cool winters and mild summers. The prevailing westerly winds, warmed in part by passing over the North Atlantic Drift ocean current, bring precipitation throughout most of the year. In the Mediterranean climate area-Spain, Italy, and Greece-the summer months are usually hot and dry, with almost all rainfall occurring in winter. From approximately central Poland eastward, the moderating effects of the seas are reduced, and consequently cooler, drier conditions prevail. The northern parts of the continent also have this type of climate. Most of Europe receives 500 to 1,500 mm (20 to 60 in) of precipitation per year. Climate is one of the most important factors determining the consumption of food i.e. People living in cold places prefer hot foods and vice versa.
Although it is not precisely known when humans first lived in Europe, they probably migrated there from the east in several waves, mostly via a no longer extant land bridge from Asia Minor into the Balkans and by way of grasslands north of the Black Sea. Parts of Europe had a substantial human population by about 4000 bc. Geographical barriers such as forests, mountains, and swamps helped divide the peoples into groups that remained largely separate for long periods. Some intermixing of peoples occurred as a result of migrations, however. europeanhistory.about.com
Europeans speak a wide variety of languages. The principal linguistic groups are the Slavic, which includes Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian, Polish, Slovenian, Macedonian, and Serbo-Croatian; the Germanic, which includes English, German, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, and Icelandic; and the Romance, which includes Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian. These languages have basically the same origins and are grouped as Indo-European languages. Other Indo-European languages include Greek, Albanian, and Celtic languages such as Gaelic, Welsh, and Breton. In addition to the Indo-European language speakers, the continent has groups of people who speak Finno-Ugric languages, such as Finnish, Hungarian, and Saami, as well as speakers of the Basque and Turkish languages. Many Europeans use English or French as a second language. europa.eu/languages/en/home
In the early 2000s the great majority of Europeans were Christians. The largest single religious group, Roman Catholics, lived mainly in France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Belgium, southern Germany, and Poland. Another large group was composed of followers of Protestant faiths, concentrated in countries of northern and central Europe such as England, Scotland, northern Germany, The Netherlands, and the Scandinavian nations. A third major Christian group was composed of members of an Orthodox church. They lived principally in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro. In addition, there were Jewish communities in most European countries (the largest of them in Russia), and the inhabitants of Albania and Turkey were predominantly Muslim.
The British Isles
Over decades British cuisine have seen lots of changes because of trade, war, empire, immigration and inheritance of different cultures.
United Kingdom is located in Western Europe, islands including the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea, northwest of France and North and west at this, the land tends to be higher and the climate colder and wetter. To the south and east hills are generally low and summers warmer and drier. The British cuisine is influenced by the British climate.
Climate plays important role in formation of cuisine. Britain has a cold and beautiful climate which is suitable for growing apples and other fruit vegetables so there are more fresh vegetables. Ireland is popular for potatoes and because of cold climate lot of people are prefer to eat meat and beef so this strongly affects cuisine of great Britain . Britain food traditionally been based on fresh vegetables and meat with some sauces as well as beef lamb chicken and pork also famous in the United Kingdom. We can see British cuisine has been multicultural. In ancient times influenced by the Romans and in medieval times the French. When the Frankish Normans invaded, they brought with them the spices of the east: cinnamon, saffron, mace, nutmeg, pepper, and ginger. Sugar came to England at that time, and was considered a spice — rare and expensive. Before the arrival of cane sugars, honey and fruit juices were the only sweeteners.
Because the agriculture practices of the Roman and Norman periods of England greatly influenced the recipes and culinary atmosphere in early kitchens long after those areas were through. Stewing and stuffing various farm and game meats originated from those periods, as well as roasting and spicing. Wales was famous for raising sheep, so lamb with mint sauce was a staple Welsh dish. In England, dishes such as steak and kidney pie, bangers and mash and Yorkshire pudding have embedded themselves in the food history of the country. Some of these traditions carried over to continental Europe and beyond, especially during the height of trading and colonization in the 17th and 18th centuries.
British Empire got a lot of benefits from different countries cousins such as from East Asia adopted tea and that was exported to India. Then Indian curry style also adopted in Britain and some famous sauces such as ketchup , mint sauce , Worcestershire sauce and Controversy has raged throughout the whole of Britain though after former foreign secretary Robin Cooke hailed Chicken Tikka masala as ”Britain’s true national dish.”(http://britishfood.about.com/od/introtobritishfood/f/questions.htm).
During two world war Britain faces lot of problem to transport goods from one country to another so that also effected to British as well as worldwide cuisine because many of goods and commodities become short. Because of that reason Britain cuisine got lot of changes such as they only based on the regional food and meat which they used to produce.
UK divided in to 4 main parts
We may have a several ideas about proper British Food.
But the most popular dish in England at the moment is â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦ Curry?
The national dish of England is not a chicken Tikka masala; it is a well known fact. Honestly, unless you are from England yourself, you really won’t get it properly. It’s just a good example of how England takes on other cultural elements and makes them part of their own heritage. Or something less cheesy to that effect. The other thing is that those who have worked in the curry houses before, have got better jobs, or gone to university.
England’s immigration policy has become very aggressive recently, and while I think such a policy should be based on food, if it has such a significant effect on the restaurant and hospitality industry,
British food has traditionally been based on beef, lamb pork, chicken and fish in other words we can say is based on meat and meat products.
The most common typical foods eaten in Britain include Sandwich, Fish & Chips, and Pies & curries.
British cuisine is based with their geographical background and their temperature. Originally England has natural traditional cooking ingredients i.e. meat fresh herbs and green leafy vegetables with honest flavour because of that they got strong flavour traditional dishes such as roast beef , pork chop, mash potatoes , steamed vegetables and sauces. Being an island, Britain has always a fresh supply of sea food from sea, salmon, Dover sole, mackerel. As well as after some time, it includes different European and Asian cuisines interaction that’s started from British Empire during time of post war.
Some of the best pudding comes from England such as sticky pudding. As well as some black pudding also popular in England. Looks like a black sausage. It is made from dried pigs blood and fat. Eaten at breakfast time
Traditionally England has been known as a country of beefeaters and beef because the United Kingdom is largest beef producer in the Europe and third largest beef producer in the world. British beef is finest in the world it is based on the breeds, the grass, and climate and farming skills. Kent is a garden of cattle’s.
Yorkshire pudding is most popular in England. It’s made with the mixture of flour, egg and milk. Yorkshire pudding always goes with beef because it absorbs all the juice from meat and taste great with beef.
England is famous for onion gravy and mash this mostly serves as accompaniment of beef, meat and chicken and some vegetable dish. In England many restaurant serve typical breakfast and that is really healthy because its includes bacon, pork sausages, fried & scrambled egg fried smelt smoked haddock, tomato, fried green tomatoes, grilled whole mushroom baked beans, oven roasted potatoes fresh fruits and juices.
A sandwich has always been a very popular snack, but the first to eat one was the earl of sandwich 1718 – 1792. He was a dedicated gambler and refused to leave the gambling tables to eat. During the marathon gambling sessions he asked a waiter to bring him a piece of ham between two pieces of bread, and so invented the sandwich. That’s got really famous in England and sandwich also got included into the high tea. High tea is a basically meal and tea which is served between four and five o clock in afternoon. Afternoon tea includes cake, pastries, sandwich, clotted cream and tea.
England is traditionally famous for its traditional classic dessert such as from pies to fruit crumbles and summer puddings made with berries as well as cakes flavoured with spices and dried fruits, filled with jam. Plum pudding with brandy sauce is considered English traditions.
Scottish food is simple, with a heavy emphasis on meat. Roast lamb, roast beef & steaks. From the past few centuries Scottish cuisine centered on making use of every scrap of food available. This attitude is seen in the Scottish national dish called haggis. It is made up of chop heart, liver, and lungs of sheep put these ingredients in a bag made up of sheep stomach. Scotland is famous for their oatcakes which made with pinhead oat and it’s really healthy and nutritious
One of the famous stocks served in the Scotland which is made with mutton, beef, chicken and some diced vegetables is known as Scotch broth. It should be thick and served piping hot. Scotland is famous for sea food for example Oysters, Mussels, Prawns, Scallops, Crabs and Lobster. Because Scotland is surrounded with water and have good climatic condition to produce a good quality sea food.
Example of Scottish sea food dishes –
Glasgow Oyster Shot
Oysters, with horseradish dressing, lemon, Tabasco and a shot of Vodka.
Seared Tuna Steak
Cous and red onion, sesame seed soya dressing
Pan Fried Bream
With beetroot rosti and beurre blanc
Black pudding crust
Scotland is known specially for its shortbread which is made with traditional way and black bun it is rich fruit cake made with raisins almonds brown sugar, cinnamon and ginger. Scottish game food is also famous.
Such as grouse, Wild Scottish Pheasant, Wild Scottish Pheasant is very lean, with a rich game flavour found only in truly wild.
Wales is famous for its traditional laver bread which is made with boiled seaweed and served with fine Welsh oatmeal into little cakes and fried into crisp patties with eggs, bacon and cockles for a traditional Welsh breakfast.
The components of a Welsh breakfast. Some common features are bacon, sausages, cockles, laver bread, eggs, fried mushrooms, tomatoes, and smoked fish. It is also possible to see some cold ingredients, like fresh fruit and cereals, although these may not always be of Welsh origin. The bacon and sausages in a Welsh breakfast are ideally made in Wales, with traditionally Welsh ingredients. The Welsh tend to like their bacon thick, and it may also be heavily marbled with
Fat, depending on what part of the pig it comes from. Cockles are small shellfish which are harvested from the rocky coastline of Wales; cockles are said to be particularly fine. Only two vegetables cultivated in Wales’s i.e. leeks and cabbage. The national dish of Wales is cawl a word for broth or soup that is a classic one pot meal. Cooked in an iron pot. Is made up of bacon lamb, cabbage, new potatoes and leeks.
Welsh cakes & breads include Bara brith the famous bread with raisins and orange peel.
In Irish history there are three major periods they are before potato arrived, after potato arrived and after the potato failed. Potato came to Ireland by way of South America and then staple over there. All the population of ire land was depended on potato because it was more profitable than other crop after 1844 all crop regularly failed nationwide about 20 years and there many people start getting weak and starved to death. Then there was big change in diet they start importing a cheap cornmeal and eating pork but that doesn’t work so they again moved to oatcakes carrots turnips and local vegetable.
Irish stew is a classic example made from mutton, potatoes, onion with flavoured parsley and thyme. Traditional food include soda bread originally made in the huge black cooking pot and leavened with baking powder and soured milk. In old days is made up of milk left from previous day.
Colcannon is a dish made up of potato, cabbage and garlic.
Carrageen moss is another Irish delicacy, seaweed that is collected and dried
Seasonal availability of British Ingredients:
January: Cornish cauliflower, Sprouts, forced rhubarb.
February: spring shallots, purple sprout sprouts, celeriac, and leeks
March: garlic shoots, new-seasons garlic, nettles, sea kale.
April: razors clams, guinea fowl and pheasant eggs, Jersey Royal potatoes, wild sorrel, St. George’s mushrooms.
May: asparagus, peas, broad beans, watercress.
June: new season’s carrots, sprouting broccoli, wild salmon, sea trout, radishes, sea beet, wild fennel, horseradish, strawberries, apples, chamomile.
July: tomatoes, runner beans, lettuce, gooseberries, strawberries, raspberries, cherries, thyme, sweet corn.
August: gooseberries, pears, Dorset blueberries, sloes.
September: pumpkins, beetroot, chard, pears, field mushrooms, crab apples, blackberries.
October: mussels, turbot, chanterelles, oysters, oyster mushrooms, puff balls, Cox’s orange pippins, walnuts, Kentish cob nuts.
November: Swede, parsnips, Jerusalem Artichokes
December: quince, goose.
Type of cooking in United Kingdom
Top of Form
Cooking in water
Crabs – example crab bisque. Pulses and legumes (lentils, chickpeas), fish – seafood chowder. Meat and poultry – poached chicken breast.
Meat, fish – steamed sea bass
Poultry – smoked duck breast, vegetables, potatoes and pasta.
Meat. Example – roast turkey with chipolata and Yorkshire puddings served with cranberry sauce. Roast leg of lamb served with mint sauce
Meat and fish. Example – rib eye steak, pork chop, fillet mignon
Vegetables, meat and fish.
Meat example Irish stew
Cooking equipments used in British cuisine
Deep fryer- This method involves frying food by submerging it completely in fat. It used as a commercial means of cooking fast food. This process is carried out at a higher temperature so that the food is sealed, becomes crisp and brown.
Stock pot: stock pot is very popular in United Kingdom. Stock pot is type of slow and long cooking and stock pot is a cylindrical, deep pan with a heavy lid. (http://yowspot.com/Buy_Sell2/Image/smc3/35351.jpg)
Salamander: “When the heat source is above the grill bars, it is called as a salamander”.
Grill: Grill is traditional British equipment were food is cook in grills may be charcoal or gas.
Braising pan: braising pan is a specially designed for braising a beef meat etc. it is two handled oval or rectangular pan with perfect lid. It braising pan are used on stovetop or in the oven.
Jelly mould is very popular in the Britain. Jelly moulds used to come in different shapes and sizes. It made up of copper or tin
Pie dish: pie dish used for baking fish, for different traditional pie such as chicken pie, mushroom pie and pork pie. It is made up of earthenware or metal dish.
Tart mould is used for making different sweet and savoury tart. Tart mould is made up of still or metal.
Yorkshire pudding moulds:
Yorkshire pudding mould is specially made with non-stick metal and it’s available in different shapes like round and rectangular
Frying pan: frying pan is basically made for shallow frying or some time deep also it is made up of metal with one handle.
A brat pan gets its name from the German word “to fry”, though in German they are called tilting pan, & do far more than fry. These large, rectangular tilting pans still have a place in larger kitchens for mass catering, with built-in heating (gas or electric) and are a versatile cooking device. The tilt feature can be electrically operated or a manual hand driven mechanism. They can boil, braise, steam, poach, stew and fry – either deep or shallow frying.
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There are few meals as quintessentially British as the Sunday Roast. Even if you don’t bother with other British classics like steak and kidney pie, or Cornish pasties there is hardly anyone (except vegetarians of course) who doesn’t enjoy some variation of the good old Sunday lunch. It could be roast beef with Yorkshire pudding, or roast lamb with mint sauce, roast chicken with stuffing or roast pork with crackling and apple sauce, but whichever meat you choose there should be some wonderful crisp roast potatoes to eat with the gravy or pan juices.
These are the equipment are most popular in United Kingdom
Map of Spain
Spain is situated in southwest Europe. It borders Portugal in the west and in the northeast Spain borders France and the Principality of Andorra. In the south, the region of Andalusia borders the British territory of Gibraltar. There are several languages used in Spain but the official language is Castilian Spanish, which is often thought of as just Spanish.
Spain and Portugal are surrounded by water; the Iberian Peninsula is comprised of these two countries. Spain’s northern coast is washed by the Atlantic Ocean.
The north east coast looks onto the Bay of Biscay. The Atlantic Ocean also surrounds the west of the Iberian Peninsula, which is largely Portuguese territory: the exception being Galicia in the northwest of Spain. Some parts of the southern Spanish coast also face the Atlantic, but moving eastwards through the Strait of Gibraltar; the Spanish coast meets the Mediterranean Sea.
HISTORY OF SPAIN
Many cuisines are influenced with the other cultures and this happens even with the SPAINISH Cuisine, but that was long time back and as other influences incorporated, Spain has developed the cuisine which is uniquely its own.
Most of the Spain is surrounded with water and shares the border with northeast France and Morocco which is just short distance where the Mediterranean meets the Atlantic. So it is very obvious for Spain to get exposed to the cultures and cuisines to the neighbouring countries. Every region of Spain has added own variations to these different cultures. Seafood is largely added into the cuisine as it is largest coastal area in the Europe. Spain got many things from different countries and cultures .Phoenicians brought sauces by sailing through Mediterranean, Roman gave the ingredients of spices and knowledge of understanding it, and the Greek gifted them with the olives and olive oil and the cultures who influenced Spain are Jews, Carthaginians, but the moors who influenced the Spanish cuisine very strongly.
Ref – International cuisine. www.wiley.com
Moors ruled Spain for more than five hundred years and left their mark on the Spanish cuisine, they brought fruits such as almonds, figs, bananas, oranges. Which Spanish people eat even now a day’s. The spices brought by the moors included cinnamon, cumin and nutmeg, served with chicken they way they are now, and the magnificent golden saffron. Paella and Gazpacho the world famous rice dish and cold soup is a gift from moors to the Spanish cuisine. Without moors Spanish cuisine would never be the astronomical pleasure. While Christians taught the Spanish to eat pork.
While Columbus sailed in late 14th century Introduced tomatoes to Europe which is now the base to the Spanish cuisine.
So we can imagine as Spanish cuisine is influenced with many other cultures of other countries which makes the cuisine more and more popular day by day.
Food cultures in Spain In general, in Spain the food culture, the way that a meal is planned and eaten is more relaxed than in the UK, people seem to be in less of a hurry to get through their food.
The cuisine of Spain is amazingly varied. The gastronomy “the art and science of good eating,” varies by region dramatically.
The gastronomy in Spain is heavily influenced by the different cultures which have passed through the Iberian Peninsula: Roman, Visigoth, and Arabic. Other major influences are the Phoenicians, the Greeks and important events such as the discovery of the Americas. For this, Spanish cooking is rich in flavour and aromas. spanishfood.about.com/
Of all the mentioned events, the ones that have had the most influence on Spanish gastronomy are:
â€¢ The Roman Invasion. They developed wine, oil and wheat production. Part of this production was exported to other areas of the Roman Empire.
â€¢ The Invasion of the Moors. They contributed their knowledge of water management for agriculture to what the Romans had left. They also introduced oranges, lemons, rice and aubergines to Spain.
â€¢ The discovery of the Americas. The Spanish brought from the Americas: potatoes, maize, cocoa, tomatoes, and peppers. All of these products form a part of our current gastronomy. spanishfood.about.com/
Eating out in Spain is relatively cheap and meals are usually substantial instead of gourmet. The Spanish tradition of tapas is a good way to sample the local food. Tapas are small dishes of snacks which are served anytime especially in small bars. They cover all types of foods from seafood to vegetables. Many Spanish people make an evening in bar to trying different tapas. Another of Spain’s favourites is Serrano Ham. Spain is famous for its fish delicacies and simply must be sampled, especially if you get to coastal areas. Paella has long been a Spanish favourite, based on either meat or seafood. Every region in Spain has its own specialities.
CLIMATE OF SPAIN
Spanish cuisine is made of very different kinds of dishes due to the differences in geography, culture and climate. It is heavily influenced by the variety of seafood available from the waters that surround the country, Spain being the second largest (after Japan) consumer of fish. As Spain has had a history with many different cultural influences, the richness and variety of its cuisine is overwhelming, but all these ingredients have made up a unique cuisine with thousands of recipes and flavours. The international influences are perhaps most obvious in Barcelona.
Regions of Spain
The Spanish regions are divided by many mountain ranges. This separates them geographically, but has also led to cultural differences as well. The climate too varies enormously, both across the regions and from winter to summer. Both these factors have contributed to the creation of distinctive local food traditions.
Typical images of Spain are of the south
The region comprises the whole of the south coast, looking east on the Mediterranean from Almeria province, south to malanga and out on to the Atlantic beyond Gibraltar. Attracts the tourist beaches and another of fishing farming. A wide variety of shellfish are found in the warm Mediterranean, and from the Atlantic come big fish such as shark and tuna.
Wonderful crops of asparagus and strawberries grow in the Guadalquivir Delta.
Almeria, with the help of irrigation supplies tomatoes & Peppers to all of Europe. The grey green olives grow where nothing else will, and orange and lemon trees loaded with fruit, surrounded the hamlets.
Andalusia is said to be zone of frying. But in villages old fashioned stews of beans or chickpeas are common. Gazpacho is traditional Spanish soup made up of tomatoes and green peppers.
Ref – International cuisine. www.wiley.com
Sangria the chilled mixture of wine and citrus juice made in a big jug is another summer cooler. It belongs to a world of siesta – afternoon of pure peace.
To the east of Andalusia lies Murcia, another Moorish province, indeed they ruled here until 1609. This is another garden area with the Huerta de Murcia
Growing bright green parsley and broad beans. They cook the beans in slow fire when it’s tender mix with tomato sauce and served in a breakfast. Stuffed peppers with aubergines and cous – cous flavoured with parsley are popular in this region. Ref – International cuisine. www.wiley.com
At 700m/22300ft the Meseta is the high heart of Spain and comprise nearly half the country. This is Castilla a great plain with Madrid in the middle, which divided in to two rather different halves. Ref – International cuisine. www.wiley.com
Northern Castile and Leon
Tierra de pan y vino (land of bread and wine) is one description of the Duero Valley. Bread has mystical significance in the great grain plains of Old Castile. Because In the Middle Ages there were a number of Jewish converts to the Church who had become convinced Christians by studying and practicing the Jewish Mystical Tradition
The bread basket of Spain produces round hogazas, big close grained loaves, and houses retain their circular ovens, even when they are no longer work.
Legumes are dairy fare, well flavoured garlic. Chickpeas and lentils grow here. In the north east region sheep’s milk is used to make cheese- soft, white Burgos and the celebrated manchego. Ref – International cuisine. www.wiley.com
The city dish is cocido, is probably one of Spain’s national dishes. Cocido is based on a, which simmers away all day, hardly bubbling. In the old days households made it every day, for poached meat used to be the hallmark of the middle-class kitchen. From this pot comes a series of magnificent things. But callos (tripe) is so popular that it has moved from the home to become bar fare.
Caldo This is clear stock, rich with many meat juices. Famous as clear soup with sherry in it, it is drunk world-w
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