Assess The Success Of The Cuban Revolution History Essay
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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016
Even though the leader of the Cuban Revolution was Fidel Castro the revolution’s success could not have been accomplished without the work of one man: Ernesto “Che” Guevara. He was Castro’s wingman and an essential contributor towards the success of the revolution, Guevara had a pivotal role in the successful two year guerrilla campaign that defeated the Batista regime and government. A natural born strategist and learned fighter Guevara took the Rebel Army under his wing and inspired his men with cold heat to continue fighting. In many ways he was a military genius; it was Guevara’s military strategy that formed the turning point of the revolution. He fought and planned numerous battles against Cuba’s enemies and his role was very crucial to the success of the Cuban Revolution.
The Cuban Revolution was an important time in Cuban history. Ordinary men became guerrilla warriors and violence plagued the streets. At least during one point the Cuban revolution was a success, an armed revolt led to the overthrow of the cruel dictator Fulgencio Batista, and this would not have been accomplished without the participation of Guevara. The Cuban Revolution experienced short term success, from 1959 through the late 1980s; it accomplished its major goals which were: sovereignty and independence, equalizing income and developing social justice. Before the revolution Cuba was an informal United States colony governed by Batista. Batista was cruel towards the common people of Cuba, then Fidel Castro realized that Cuba needed a change for the better, and he recruited Guevara to assist him in overthrowing the Batista government, the success of the Cuban Revolution depended on the participation of Guevara, he had one of the most vital roles in the revolution being the army’s official doctor, the revolution’s logical strategist and the revolution’s main ideologist, his leadership guided the Revolution to success. After the revolution Cuba was transformed from a restricted colony to a proud nation. In the 1970s and 80s, Cuban troops fought battles in Angola that changed the history of southern Africa.
Che’s first real military success was the conquest of Santa Clara on December 29, 1958, a significant moment in the history of Cuban revolution. After two years of guerrilla war in Santa Clara on the streets of Havana were finally free and on January 1, 1959, the dictator Batista abandoned Cuba. Encouraged by his success Guevara continued to thrive and plan, he presented new principles based on successful guerrilla war against the oppressive regime arrangements of The first principle was inspired by Guevara’s previous success – the victory against Batista. These principles proved correct as they allowed Cuba to win battle and gain popularity amongst an idealistic army. Not only was Guevara a military specialist he was also logical and an intellect, under his wing the Cuban economy flourished, particularly after he was appointed Director of the National Bank of Cuba on the 26th of November 19.
One of the major contributions that lead to the success of the Cuban Revolution was made by Ernesto, his idea of guerilla focus to create revolutionary advantages for the rebel army by repressing the opposition. “The revolution is not an apple that falls when it is ripe. You have to make it fall” Ernesto Che Guevara, this quote proves that Guevara was a dedicated revolutionary and that he was committed to fighting for the cause and for the independence of his country.Guevara had great responsibility over the army’s performance, since he was the leading strategist. His logical and military skills proved effective during the capture of Santa Clara. Santa Clara was an important city as it was the last hurdle that Castro faced before defeating Batista. Guevara and his group of “suicidal soldiers” took the role of capturing the city. Many believed this was an impossible mission as Santa Clara was armed and heavily fortified by federal and American soldiers. The army battalion at Santa Clara consisted of 2,500 soldiers and officers, ten tanks: a thousand soldiers were scattered at key points throughout the city. In addition, an armored locomotive containing another 400 well-armed soldiers was on its way from Havana. Understandably many thought that this was the end of Guevara and his men. His battalion consisted of 300 weary men, he was outgunned and outnumbered 10 to 1. However, Guevara was focused on making sure that his men were inspired and filled with passion for the cause of which they were fighting for. The opposition at Santa Clara had no such state of mind and was heavily demoralized. This lack of emotion caused many of Santa Clara’s occupants to side with Guevara and his team. December 28, 1953 Guevara and his men arrived in Santa Clara and prepared for battle. Guevara knew for certain that his success heavily relied on: keeping the large opposing battalion bottled up, neutralizing the armored train and getting the civilians of Santa Clara involved. With the help of Santa Clara’s civilians Guevara and his men were able to restrict the movement of the opposing army. The 1st of January 1954 the battle was over and Guevara emerged victorious. This victory was the first of the many successes that were planned and lead by Ernesto himself, the defeat of the opposition at Santa Clara allowed Fidel Castro to defeat Batista’s government, this proves Guevara’s role to be essential in the success of the Cuban Revolution.
The Revolution really begun after the troops defeated the enemy at Santa Clara, this victory lead to the defeat of Batista to Fidel Castro and this was the initial start of the ongoing success of the Cuban Revolution and it could not have been possible without the fine leadership skills of “Che” Guevara. Guevara and his men had also captured a large number of important weapons which later came to Castro’s use in the duration of other battles. Guevara’s role as a strategist and military expert cemented the success of the revolution. The weapons captured by Guevara assisted the rebel army in emerging victorious from the battles faced later on during the revolution, this proves Guevara to be a very functional member of the revolution, his contributions helped lead the revolution to success. The victory of Santa Clara overthrew Batista and the revolution was well under way, if Ernesto Guevara had not succeeded in defeating the opposition at Santa Clara, the revolution would have been an utter failure, this triumph was the spark of the revolution.
Ernesto “Che” Guevara’s original role was being the official doctor for the rebel army, the solid reason behind his position as the army’s doctor was his previous experience and knowledge in the field of medicine which he studied in Buenos Aires, and this was not the only position he ended up attaining, Ernesto became the strategist of the army and was also trusted enough by Fidel Castro himself to become his chief lieutenant after proving himself to be a resourceful guerilla leader of the troops in the rebel invasion of Cuba in 1956, his leadership role was crucial for the army’s success in the Cuban Revolution. Guevara, being the army strategist, had the responsibility of making sure each and every soldier had a pure Marxist mind, “Che” believed this enabled them to fight in a flawless manner, and not allow the opposition to sense out and target their weaknesses. His role as a doctor was crucial for the soldiers, without complete recovery of injuries and wounds, they would not have been fit to fight in their next battles, and the soldiers’ health would have been a major concern to the revolutionaries because of the low number of fighters they had. Ernesto’s medical training allowed him patch up his men so that when they reached Santa Clara they were able to fight. The soldiers had sustained so many injuries because it was a long hard walk and they were attacked by other federal forces along the way, and Che’s medical advice and assistance was the only reason they got through the brutal ambushes. Ernesto’s role as a doctor for the rebel army is a solid factor that has contributed towards the success of the rebels in their battles, which later on lead to a triumphant revolution.
“Che” Guevara was not only a powerful strategist and guerilla fighter, he was also an intellectual. His intelligence and previous success convinced Castro to appoint him as head of the Ministry of Industry and head of the Cuban Bank. Prior to the Cuban Revolution Cuba was in a state of economic downfall. Sugar cane had been part of the Cuban picture since the sixteenth century. Cuba was naturally abundant in sugar cane and this provided the basis of the country’s economy. However, North American banks and capitalists soon controlled the commercial management of sugar and because of this control they were able to seize a good share of the industrial output of the land. The United States was controlling the Cuban economy and this led to a great deal of distress amongst Cuban citizens.” Che” Guevara was adamant at breaking this control that capitalist America had Cuba in. Once he rose to the position of head of the Ministry of Industry, he quickly changed Cuba’s economic policies with the permission of Fidel Castro. Guevara’s style was not slow and steady, he believed the only way to create a good revolution was to cause a huge upheaval within a short period of time. This philosophy explains why Guevara’s success was short lived. However, his role as head of the Ministry of Industry allowed the revolution to progress further. Taking advantage of his position “Che” Guevara oversaw the conversion of much of Cuba’s economy to communism. It can be said that Guevara was the one who ended the dominating forces that had Control over Cuba’s economy. This allowed the revolution to progress even further because Cuba was no longer under the control of capitalist countries such as North America.
The revolution was allowed to flow much more freely and Castro was able to quickly implement change and form new ties and alliances with Cuba. Castro was not the only man forming alliances; Guevara was a key instrument when it came to forming ties with China and the Soviet Union. Both China and the Soviet Union were communist countries and had also undergone revolution and important change. These communist countries boosted Cuba’s economy with the increase of exports and imports and also strengthened Cuba’s political immunity. Guevara was advertently facilitating the success of the Cuban revolution. Revolution would not have been possible or simple without a strong economy and strong alliances. Even though Guevara was responsible for the success of Cubas revolution in terms of economy, his success was only short lived and after the Missile Crisis Guevara resigned and focused on guerrilla warfare, this proves that Che’s role was an important one in the success of the Cuban Revolution even though it was short lived, he succeeded in stabilising Cuba’s economy and was very effective in his role as the head of the Ministry of Industry.
Ernesto “Che” Guevara was a key instrument in the thriving success of the Cuban Revolution, even though this success was limited in some stages, Guevara still contributed in every way possible to assist his fellow revolutionaries to achieve the success they have been longing for. Ernesto facilitated the revolution by managing multiple roles being the army’s official doctor, the revolution’s logical strategist, experienced guerrilla strategist, learned fighter and the revolution’s main ideologist. Ernesto “Che” Guevara implemented change for the better of Cuba through his strong philosophies and extensive knowledge on guerrilla warfare, his logical strategies affected his role as a leader, by proving him to be an active protestor and key part of the success of the Cuban Revolution. The Cuban revolution would have been a more difficult task to succeed in if it was not for the involvement of Ernesto “Che” Guevara, his roles throughout this major struggle helped attain justice in Cuba throughout the success of the Cuban Revolution.
Raymond Shalala. 22735625
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