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Anwar Ibrahim is without a doubt one of the most influential politician ever to emerge after our nation`s Independence Day in 1957.Without any sufficient political background he struggles through the political period during his University life.
Although not famous at that time, his social, political and economical ideas gained a rapid support from the community when he became the Deputy Prime Minister in 1993. His involvement in politics was a success, with his ideology being accepted by the community in a great variety from the aspect of social to politics.
Anwar Ibrahim was born on 10th August 1947 in a small village on the mainland in Sungai Bakap, Seberang Prai and was raised in Cherok To’Kun.He received his early education in Sekolah Melayu Cherok To’Kun and Sekolah Rendah Stowell, Bukit Mertajam, one of the renown primary school in Penang.
Anwar Ibrahim was raised in a comfortable middle class family with his father, Ibrahim Abdul Rahman who was a porter in a hospital and his mom, Che Yan, a housewife. However, both his parent got involved in politics when, his father became a politician and retired as a Parliamentary Secretary for the Ministry of Health.
Similarly his mother also joined the UMNO. After finishing his high school in 1967, he enrolled his secondary education in Malay College Kuala Kangsar (MCKK) till 1966.during his period MCKK, he actively involved himself in interschool debate competitions and was subsequently elected as the students` president prior to his achievements and reputations in MCKK.
Anwar pursued Malay Studies in one of Malaysia’s top University, University Malaya. In University Malaya, Anwar’s potential as a politician leader became obvious. He became the President of “Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia (PKPIM)”.At the same time he was also the President of Malay Language Society. In University Malaya, Anwar gained his reputation and support by involving himself fiercely in defending the Malay community and the Muslims during the black days, 13th May 1969.
One of the most daring act he had done during the racial war was, joining forces with Dr.Mahathir Mohamad in critising Tunku Abdul Rahman ruling who was the Prime Minister at that time. Since then, Anwar was known as a leader who always fights for students and social rights in his university.
In 1971, he graduated in University Malaya by receiving the “Ijazah Sarjana Muda Sastera”. At the end of the year, the Muslim Youth movement of Malaysia was founded and Anwar became the first president. The Muslim Youth movement by Anwar proved to be one of the most influential societies when Anwar successfully formed a group of potential leaders who implies the teaching of Islam in daily life as well in leadership. His quality as a leader for this society was even approved and appreciated by the President of Pakistan, Zia Ul-Haq.
The 1970’s period is well known for its economical crisis in Malaysia due to the decrease in rubber price. Anwar saw his opportunity to solve the problem and gain more support, therefore, he rushed to solve the poverty issue in Baling. He leaded the anti poverty riot in 1974 which has landed him a punishment in ISA without trial where he spent almost two years in Kamunting detention center.
In the year 1982, the supporters were astonished by the news saying that Anwar was stepping into the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO). This is because he was a organisation which is also known as Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM) during that year too. It is known as the most organized force in Islamic revivalism in Malaysia. Meanwhile, United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) was lead by Tun Dr Mahathir bin Mohamad in the year 1981.
Anwars involvement in defending the rights and justice of the society made the UMNO to set an eye on him. The UMNO sees him as a potential leader and soon, he was brought in the political party. In 1982, Anwar became the parliamentary speaker for Permatang Pauh. Later, he was designated as the Deputy Prime Minister.
Anwar Ibrahim was a potential leader who has the ability and power to influence and affect human behaviour and accomplished mission. Due to his leadership qualities, he obtained a lot of support from the public. This was the main factor Anwar was elected as the president of the National Union of Malaysian Muslim Students from the year 1968 to 1971.
In 1983, Anwar became the Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports. He also held the position of Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Education and finally as the Minister of Finance in 1991.
In the 1990’s, Anwar’s relationship with Prime Minister, Dr.Mahathir Mohammed had begun to deteriorate. 1990’s witnessed the downfall of Anwar, Anwar was framed and claimed to be involved in many foul play in politics such as corruption. He was alleged under nepotism and cronyism in 1999 and was sentenced to prison for six years. In the year 2000, he was sentenced for another nine years for a sodomy case.
After his release, Anwar won the Permatang Pauh by-election in 2008.This marks the rise of a politician after all the struggles he went through.
Anwar Ibrahim is a very influential man. He is known to have numerous connections with various politicians in different countries. He too, took part in a lot of uprising political activities.
Anwar Ibrahim : The Rise
The first stage as we can see began during his years at the University of Malaya. He was the president in many societies. As we can see, he was the president of the Malay Language Society University (PBMUM). Persatuan Bahasa Melayu Universiti Malaya (Malay for University of Malaya Malay Language Society) (PBMUM) is a Malay language, literature and culture oriented student body that has played an active role in the development of the modern Malay language in Malaysia and Singapore.
It is marked as one of the most influential bodies in history of language development in Malaysia. The mission of PBMUM is committed towards the development of the Malay culture and language. The core of PBMUM’s principle in 1954 was to persuade the Malayan government to recognise the Malay language as its national language.
So, by recognising PBMUM’s voice and struggle, the Majlis Undangan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu (Malayan Council) finally agreed on to make the Malay language as Malaya’s national language on 31 march 1995. PBMUM believes that it represents the voice of the people. PBMUM stands strongly against racism and upholds the view that its primary principle is in the development of the nation. Anwar, as the president of PBUM, had championed the implementation of Malay as the national language of our nation.
By the time he completed his university studies, Anwar was already a popular national figure actively pursuing the reform agenda. He formed the Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia (ABIM) in 1971. It is to promote and uphold the principles of moderate Islam and to campaign for moral uplifting and social justice. After Anuar had been completed his study in university, he holds many ministerial post. He also had been married to Wan Azizah Wan Ismail. They also have 6 children, Nurul Izzah Anwar Ehsan Anwar Nurul Nuha Anwar and 3 others.
In the year 1982, the supporters were astonished by the news saying that Anwar was stepping into the United Malays National Organization (UMNO). Anwar was invited to join the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) in 1982 by Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad. Anwar has also been highly engaged in the international arena.
He has been a strong advocate for dialogue among civilizations and has worked tirelessly towards the ideals of the mutual coexistence of civilizations and the interplay of different social, cultural, and spiritual ideas. Between 1995 and 1998, he organized a series of conferences on the Asian Renaissance, aimed at crossing geo-political barriers between societies and nations and creating political structures to promote dialogue across cultures.
His first posts in the government were as the Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports in 1983. After that, in 1984 he headed the agriculture ministry before becoming Minister of Education in 1986. By then, speculation was rife about Anwar’s ascent to the Deputy Prime Minister’s position as it was a commonly-occurring phenomenon in Malaysia for the Education Minister to assume the position of Deputy PM in the near future.
Anwar introduced numerous pro-Malay policies in the national school curriculum when he was in office as Education Minister. He wanted to make many changes in education system, for example one of the major changes that he did was to rename the national language from Bahasa Malaysia to Bahasa Melayu. However, the changes were criticized by Non-Malays. It was because, they had thought this move would cause the younger generation to be detached from the national language, since they would attribute it to being something that belongs to the Malays and not to Malaysians. Furthermore in 1991, he had been appointed as Minister of Finance.
In 1993, he became Mahathir’s Deputy Prime Minister after winning the Deputy Presidency of UMNO against Ghafar Baba. Because of that, Anwar had been accused at using large cash payments to win support. To secure his position as deputy president of UMNO, Anwar was alleged to have resorted to money politics. Anwar’s followers were seen by foreign journalists handing out packets of money to acquire support of UMNO division leaders.
The followers, after a brief interview, are said to be working under Anwar’s instructions. Anwar was being groomed to succeed Tun Mahathir as Prime Minister, and frequently eluded in public to his “son-father” relationship with Tun Mahathir. So, Tun Mahathir appointed Anwar to be acting Prime Minister while he took a two-month holiday in early 1997. However, the relationship with Mahathir had begun to deteriorate, towards the end of the 1990s. It also triggered by their conflicting views on the governance of the country.
In Mahathir’s absence, Anwar had independently taken radical steps to improve the country’s governing mechanisms which were in direct conflict with Mahathir’s capitalist policies. Issues such as how Malaysia would respond to a financial crisis were often at the forefront of this conflict. Mahathir angered when Anwar’s frontal attack against what he described as the widespread culture of nepotism and cronyism within UMNO. It shows that as did his attempts to dismantle the protectionist policies that Mahathir had set up.
Cronyism was identified by Anwar as a major cause of corruption and misappropriation of funds in the country. The events of late 1998 marked the beginning of Anwar’s descent within UMNO and his subsequent ouster from the party and from Malaysian politics. Asian Financial Crisis occurred in 1997. During that period Anwar, in his capacity as finance minister, supported the International Monetary Fund (IMF) plan for recovery.
An austerity package slashed government spending by 18%, cut ministerial salaries and deferred major investment projects were also instituted by him. Large-scale infrastructure development projects known as “mega projects” were set back as well, despite being a cornerstone of Tun Mahathir’s plans for developing the nation. , Anwar declared: “There is no question of any bailout” although many Malaysian companies faced the threat of bankruptcy.
The banks will be allowed to protect themselves and the government will not interfere. Anwar advocated a free market approach, sympathetic to foreign investment and trade liberalization, whereas Mahathir favored currency and foreign investment controls, blaming unchecked speculation by currency speculators like George Soros for the shrinking economy. There is disagreement among economists whether Anwar’s policies would have been more or less successful than Mahathir’s.
The Malaysian economy had plummeted to its lowest level yet since the recession of the early-1980s, so by the time Mahathir decided to impose currency controls and preventive measures to keep hedge funds in check Anwar had been named as the “Asian of the Year.” in 1998 Newsweek magazine.
However, in that year, matters between Anwar Ibrahim and Tun Mahathir came to a head around the time of the quadrennial UMNO General Assembly. It would initiate a debate on cronyism and nepotism had been given noticed by The Youth wing of UMNO, headed by Anwar’s associate, Ahmad Zahid Hamidi. The response was swift, as Tun Mahathir issued lists of cronies who had benefited from government share allocations and privatizations. Anwar and Zahid, along with several of Anwar’s other allies also included in the lists.
Anwar’s father and his two brothers are showed to have received shares allocated by the government for the bumiputra. The shares amounted to an amount of about more than 7.1 million units in three companies held by his father Datuk Ibrahim Abdul Rahman and his brothers, Farizan and Marzukhi. On 2 May 1998, Dato’ Ibrahim Abdul Rahman, owned 250,000 shares of Pengkalen Holdings Berhad and 3,790500 on Nissan Industrial Oxygen Incorporated.
Farizon owned 250,000 shares of Pengkalen Holdings Berhad. Marzukhi owned 2,800,000 shares in Penas Corporation. In the list, Datuk Ibrahim Abdul Rahman owned 2,000,000 shares in Industrial Oxygen Incorporated Bhd on 1993. In 1998, Anwar was also chairman of the Development Committee of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. During his tenure he strongly endorsed the initiatives of debt cancellation and reprieve for poor countries, particularly those in Africa.
Anwar was awarded the Presidential Medal by Georgetown University, USA, and an honorary doctorate by the Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines because of his contributions, in 1996. In 1993, shortly after becoming finance minister, Euromoney named him as one of the top four finance ministers; in 1996, Asiamoney named him Finance Minister of the Year. Anwar has held lecturing positions at St. Anthony’s College at Oxford and at the School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University since 2004.
He was also a Distinguished Visiting Professor in the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. Anwar is a consultant to the World Bank in the areas of governance and accountability and was also appointed as honorary president of the London-based group, Accountability in March 2009. He is chairman of the board for the Foundation for the Future and also serves as an adviser to the People’s Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) in Malaysia. He is an internationally renowned speaker on the subjects of democracy, freedom, governance, Islam and democracy, and the need for accountability.
In November 2006, Anwar made a public statement indicating that he would run for Parliament in 2008, after his disqualification is expired. Since he was released from the prison, Anwar has been critical about our government policies, which provides the affirmative action for the Bumiputeras. One of his quotes policies is units of housing and initial public offerings that must be met.
In the year of 1997, Malaysia had to undergo an economic crisis which was known as the Asian Economic Crisis. During this turbulent period, Anwar Ibrahim was holding the post as Minister of Finance of Malaysia. As a capable leader, Anwar had taken an action by introducing a series of economic reforms and austerity measure in order to overcome the economic crisis.
However, this action was intensified a great negative feedback because Anwar was nominated for the controversial amendments for the Anti Corruption Act. This act was being notorious to raise the power in Anti Corruption Agency. On the other hand, the Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammad sacked Anwar from all his post, due to the unsatisfactory towards these measurements. As a result, this incident had led to protest from the public and finally formed the Reformasi movement.
At first, the Gerakan Reformasi or Reformation started when Anwar`s wife, Dr Wan Azizah formed Parti Keadilan Nasional (National Justice Party), on 4th April 1999. The party was then joined by the Democratic Action Party (DAP), the Malaysian People’s Party (PRM) and the Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) completing a fully fledged opposition coalition known as, Barisan Alternatif (Alternative Front) to take on the ruling Barisan Nasional (National Front) coalition in the 1999 general elections.
For which, in the election held that year, he party entered the campaign with many of its key leaders under arrest and as a result saw it winning only five parliamentary seats in the elections despite gaining 11.67% of the total votes cast. The Barisan Alternatif as a whole gained 40.21% of the total votes cast with PAS gaining 27 seats and DAP gaining ten seats.
After the elections, there were negotiations between Parti Keadilan and Parti Rakyat Malaysia (PRM) regarding a possible merger of force. Despite some opposition in both parties to the move, a 13 point Memorandum of Understanding was eventually signed by the two parties on 5 July 2002. On 3 August 2003, the new merged entity was officially launched and assumed its current name.
(Current main/head advisor of PKR)
Anwar Ibrahim controversial issues
The first issues that that involve Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim was in 1999 when he was charged under the corruption case. He was sentenced to six years in prison. At the time, Dato Seri Mahathir bin Mohammad was the Prime Minister of Malaysia.
Dato Seri Mahathir bin Mohammad is the people who expose the Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim activity and his colony. Then, Dato Seri Mahathir Mohammad was direct the Public Prosecutor to charged Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim under the case of corruption. According to the special branch of the police, Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim also involve in illegal activity. Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim was arrested by the police on charged of receiving bribes from the other people using his power as the minister and also the deputy of prime minister at that time.
Then the case was bring to the court and the case is the most controversional issues in Malaysia. Then, the case of Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim was bring to the trial. The trial was held at the Federal Court. The chief judge at that time was Tun Haji Mohamed Salleh bin Abbas. Tun Salleh bin Abbas was the Lord President of the Federal Court of Malaya. Because of the constitutional crisis he was dismissed from his post during the 1988 Malaysian Constitutional crisis. At that time, the executive branch tried to interfere with the judicial branch system.
Dato` Seri Anwar Ibrahim`s second controversial issues was the case of sodomy. At that particular time, the case is look very weird because it is impossible that he is the homosexual. In 1999, Anwar brought legal action against Prime Minister Mahathir for defamation for allegedly uttering accusations of immoral acts and calling Anwar a homosexual at a news conference in Malaysia.
The police were instructed to investigate the veracity of the claims that Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim was the people who make the sodomy. Then, the trial began and Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim was charged with sodomy. He found guilty and was convicted to 15 years in prison sentence. This is because the person who was charged was the Deputy Prime Minister and Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim also has his own followers.
This started a crisis in the government. At this time also, a lot of riot was held. This is because the people were not satisfied with the government who tried to interfere with the judicial system at that time.
(Anwar Ibrahim was released from jail in the year 2004, Federal court acquitted Anwar and Sukma of the sodomy charge. However one of the three judges, Abdul Hamid Mohamad said he was inclined to believe that the alleged incident at Tivoli Villa did take place)
Other issues, that hit Dato` Seri Anwar Ibrahim was charged for a second sodomy trial. This time, Dato` Seri Anwar Ibrahim was charged because of the case sodomy his former private assistant who is Saiful Bukahri. This case was calamity the public because this is the second charged on the same person but different victim. This case also has many doubts about the evidence presented by the prosecute officer evidence presented by the prosecute officer evidence presented by the prosecute officer.
In this case also, the people involved were mostly of the politically active individuals. So, it can be a political technique to not trust the people who involve in the case. If the person is involved this case, he or she would be a political person, his reputation in the politic will go down and the people will not trust anymore about him. This is maybe only the political propaganda.
Besides that, the competitions between the political parties nowadays make the authority lose their power. This is maybe the reason why is this particular thing happening now days. The other issues that Involve Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim is about the Malaysian Defence System. The government said that Dato` Seri Anwar Ibrahim was an America spy in Malaysia.
Anwar Ibrahim`s Contributions In Umno
Anwar Ibrahim joining the United Malays National Organization known as UMNO now days that lead by Dato Seri Mahathir Bin Mohammad, who had become the Prime Minister in 1981. Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim moved up the political ranks very quickly and his first ministerial office was in charged by him is the Minister of Culture, Youth, and Sports in 1983. When he held the post, he administered the government well. At that time also, he had numerous supporters with him.
After that, he was the person who headed the Ministry of Agriculture in 1984 and he moved his post to the Minister of Education on 1986. At that time, he made lots of changes in the Malaysian education system. He also made the education system more sophisticated and systematically advanced. During that period, he wanted to make sure that all citizens will be able to get and enjoy a proper education for the benefit of everyone.
Then, we have heard about speculations regarding Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim holding the post of the Deputy Prime Minister and it was commonly occurring phenomenon in Malaysia or Minister of Education to assume the position of Deputy Prime Minister in the near future.
During his time as Education Minister, Anwar introduced numerous pro-Malay policies in the national school curriculum. One of the major changes that he did was to rename the national language from Bahasa Malaysia to Bahasa Melayu. Non-Malays criticized this move as it would cause the younger generation to be detached from the national language, since they would attribute it to being something that belongs to the Malays and not to Malaysians.
In 1991, Dato` Seri Anwar Ibrahim was appointed Minister of Finance. When he became the Minister of Finance, the government people says that he takes o lat of the government money for his private usage. In 1993, he became Dato` Seri Mahathir Mohammad Deputy Prime Minister after winning the Deputy Presidency of UMNO against Ghafar Baba. There was a report on Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim using large cash payments to win support.
Dato’ Seri Anwar Ibrahim is alleged to have resorted to money politics to secure his position as deputy president of UMNO. Anwar followers were witnessed by even foreign journalists handing out packets of money to acquire support of UMNO division leaders. These followers are said to be working under Anwar’s instructions. Dato` Seri Anwar Ibrahim had a lot of followers and he could achieve many things. Dato` Seri Anwar Ibrahim at that time had a lot of influence.
Towards the end of the 1990s, however, the relationship with Tun Mahathir had begun to deteriorate, triggered by their conflicting views on governance. In Mahathir’s absence, Anwar had independently taken radical steps to improve the country’s governing mechanisms which were in direct conflict with Mahathir’s capitalist policies. Issues such as how Malaysia would respond to a financial crisis were often at the forefront of this conflict.
Anwar’s frontal attack against what he described as the widespread culture of nepotism and cronyism within UMNO (and the ruling coalition as a whole) angered Mahathir, as did his attempts to dismantle the protectionist policies that Mahathir had set up. “Cronyism” was identified by Anwar as a major cause of corruption and misappropriation of funds in the country. The events of late-1998 marked the beginning of Anwar’s descent within UMNO and his subsequent ouster from the party and from Malaysian politics.
Dark period of Anwar Ibrahim
Dark period of Anwar Ibrahim was started on 2 September, when Prime Minister Mahathir dismissed Anwar from the government. He was no longer a deputy prime minister and also finance minister. He was also expelled from UMNO.
Before that, the Youth wing of UMNO, headed by Anwar’s associate Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, gave notice that it would initiate a debate on “cronyism and nepotism”. The response was swift, as Prime Minister Mahathir issued lists of cronies who had benefited from government share allocations and privatizations. The list included Anwar and Zahid, along with several of Anwar’s other allies.
Anwar’s trial and subsequent conviction were widely discredited by the international community. Many world leaders called for his release from prison. On September 29, 1998 Anwar appeared in court and pleaded innocent to charges of corruption and sodomy. The black eye was explained by Mahathir Mohamad and Rahim Noor as being “self-inflicted” and caused by “pressing a glass over his eyes”. Only after a Royal Commission was convened did Rahim Noor admit that he had administered the beating to Anwar.
Rahim apologized for the incident in August 2005. Rahim Noor was eventually charged for the assault and was given a two-month prison sentence and fined 2,000 ringgit.
In 1999, he was sentenced to six years in prison for corruption, and in 2000, to another nine years for sodomy. The police were instructed to investigate the veracity of the claims that he was being a homosexual guy. Anwar was charged with sodomy, convicted and given a 15 year prison sentence.
Anwar’s trial and subsequent conviction were widely discredited by the international community. Many world leaders called for his release from prison. In 1999, Anwar brought legal action against Prime Minister Mahathir for defamation for allegedly uttering accusations of immoral acts and calling Anwar a homosexual at a news conference in Malaysia. However, this verdict was partially overturned in 2004, resulting in Anwar’s release from prison. A panel of three judges of the Federal Court (Malaysia’s highest court) overturned the sodomy conviction by 2 to 1, finding contradictions in the prosecution’s case on 2, September 2004.
After Anwar released from prison, he was reportedly suffering from serious back problem. His family said was the result of the beating by the ex-police chief. the UMNO-owned newspaper, the New Straits Times, alleged that the injuries had actually been caused by a fall from a horse in 1993 during Anwar’s tenure as deputy prime minister. His wife had argued that during his imprisonment that he required treatment for his condition at a clinic in Germany.
The government refused, claiming that such treatment was readily available in Malaysia, offering medical treatment if necessary. However, in September 2004, after the Federal Court quashed his conviction for sodomy, Anwar was free to travel to Munich for back surgery. On August 28, 2008, Tan Sri Pandikar Amin Mulia. formally declared Anwar, the leader of the 3-party opposition alliance. Anwar continued to attack Najib first day as prime minister, stating he found inconsistencies in the latter’s decision to release 13 Internal Security Act detainees.
He said as long as the ISA existed, Barisan Nasional (National Front) could still detain citizens at will. Anwar has already missed several deadlines he himself set for the transfer of power, each of which came and went: the most recent was Tuesday 16 September 2008. Deputy Prime Minister Najib Razak chose that day to initiate a broadband internet program Anwar opposes, saying that he had not doubted that the government would still be in office on 16 September. Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi too pointed out that Anwar had missed his own deadline, and dismissed his claim to have secured the defection of 30 MPs.
On 24 October 2008, Anwar admitted problems with his stalled bid to topple UMNO’s majority, saying that Pakatan Rakyat is running out of options to create a majority. His “credibility among ordinary Malaysians has been somewhat dented after Sept 16 and the new promise of forming the Government has not generated the sort of anticipation or excitement as before. Media within the country have taken an increasingly hostile view towards Anwar’s protestations and failed threats to assemble a majority government.
Anwar Ibrahim has voiced support to allow the former leader of the Communist Party of Malaya, Chin Peng to be allowed to return to Malaysia. However, his remarks have been slammed by UMNO leaders who called them regrettable to accusation as a plot to gain support of the Chinese community.
On June 29, 2008, an online news portal Malaysia Kini, reported that an aide of Anwar Ibrahim had lodged a police report claiming that he had been sodomised by Anwar. The news has since been updated with reports that SMS messages are being distributed claiming that the person who made the report is Anwar’s aide, Mohd Saiful Bukhari Azlan, who was arrested and allegedly forced to make a false confession. The same text message also claimed the possibility of Anwar being arrested.
Malaysian police issued an arrest warrant on July 15 for Anwar Ibrahim, and investigating Officer Jude Pereira signed and issued the letter requiring Anwar to appear at a police station for questioning before Wednesday at 2 p.m. local time.
Anwar has said that the possibility of a prison sentence as a result of these allegations could be seen as an attempt to remove leadership and transference of power issues caused by his growing support and by-election victories. He also reaffirms his innocence and cites proof in the form of medical reports.
Conspiracy to Bring Anwar Ibrahim down
During the year of 1997 saw Malaysia’s economy being affected by the Asian Financial Crisis. Anwar Ibrahim, as the Finance Minister during that period, in his capacity as a Finance Minister, has taken action to support the International Monetary Fund (IMF) plan for recovery. He also instituted an austerity package that slashed the government spending by 18% by cutting down ministerial salaries and deferred major investment projects.
Not only that, large-scale infrastructure development projects known as ‘mega projects’ were set back as well. Anwar had advocated a free market approach, sympathetic to foreign investment and trade liberalization, whereas Mahathir favored currency and foreign investment control, blaming unchecked speculation by currency speculators for the shrinking economy.
Anwar Ibrahim has also instituted a series of economic reforms and austerity measures in response. These actions were exacerbated when he tabled controversial amendments to the Anti Corrupt Act that sought to increase the powers of the Anti Corruption Agency. Dr. Mahathir, who was the Prime Minister at that time, disagreed with the measures taken by Anwar and had ultimately sacked Anwar from all of his posts and positions.
In my own opinion, there is a great disagreement among economist whe
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