In this essay I will do a critical evaluation of a health promotion literature called "Being SunSmart can reduce your cancer risk", based on the theoretical and practical knowledge of psychological processes in health behaviour. I will focus on the aims and objectives of the leaflet, who it is aimed at, how the information in the leaflet takes what we know about why some people undertake health behaviours and others do not into consideration, as well as how some people change their health behaviours when they are introduced to these health concerning information. I will also critically evaluate the "Being SunSmart can reduce your cancer risk" leaflet and discuss what can be improved to raise more awareness in the cause.
The World Health Organization defines health as a "state of complete physical, psychological, and social well-being and not simply the absence of disease or infirmity." ADD REFERENCE. Everyday people die from preventable deaths, which could have been avoided if people changed their health behaviour, this is encouraged with health promotion. Health Promotion is an endorsement that aims to encourage people to amend their behaviour when it concerns to their health, its purpose is to persuade people to want to change their lifestyle and to seek help from doctors and GPs. Health promotion extracted in different forms of advertising like television commercials, magazine ads, leaflets, posters, billboards etc. They address harmful health issues that are common amongst the public, how it affects their health as well as lifestyle and then establish the options they can take to get better. The World Health Organization's definition of health promotion is "the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and thereby improve their health". This suggests that health promotion gives...ADD MORE.
What are the aims and objectives of the leaflet? (300)
The aims and objectives of the leaflet is raise awareness of skin cancer and to educate people about how too much can lead to skin cancer. The leaflet's aim was to give information on how harmful too much sun without protection is, as well as how you can be sun smart and avoid harming your health. It also answers common questions that the public may have about the sun and their health. The leaflet also aims to develop the public's interest in the sun and how it affects their health, in hopes that they would read the leaflet and then go on to do more research on the topic. The key objective of the leaflet is that people will change their lifestyles and consider the UV radiation when out in the sun. The objective of the leaflet is also that people choose to protect themselves by avoiding the sun at certain times when it is at its peak and to wear sun cream if they do go out in the sun to decrease the risk of skin cancer. ADD MORE.
Who is the leaflet aimed at? Should the leaflet be developed to take account of different groups of users? If so, why and how? (300)
The "Being SunSmart can reduce your cancer risk" leaflet is aimed at teens, adults and parents who may be spending time out in the sun. The leaflet targets both females and males of all ages. The leaflet is specifically aimed at those who are at risk to likely to burn easier while under the sun, for example those with fair skin, red or fair hair, lots of moles or freckles and also anyone with a history of skin cancer amongst themselves or their families. The SunSmart campaign chooses to aim their
The World Health organization (2010) declare that in the UK cervical cancer is the eleventh predominantly common cancer in women, and from the ages of 15-44 is the second most frequent cancer. Cancer research UK (2010) and NHS (2009) both announce that in the UK there were 2828 new cases detected in 2007, also women under the age of thirty five had 702 new cases which were identified.
The leaflet should be developed to take account of other different users that are also affected by the sun and in risk of sun bun or skin cancer ADD MORE.
How does the information included in the leaflet take account of what we know about why some people undertake health behaviours and others do not? (400)
Health behaviour is the action someone takes to either sustain or change his or her health in hopes not to get ill or injured. Some people undertake health behaviours while some choose to not. Some people choose to undertake health behaviours because they want to not risk illness or injury, although some people do change their health behaviour because they didn't before and they did either fall ill or injure themselves therefore they have to change their health behaviour to recover and prevent further illness or injury. However, some people choose to not undertake health behaviours being because they do not believe they need to, in the mind frame that just because they do not have symptoms of any sort that they are okay and do not need to change their health behaviour which could affect their health long term. Another reason why some people don't undertake health behaviours because they would rather not pay attention to their health in fear of finding out they are ill, they would rather live in ignorance than actually face the possibility. The most major factor on why people choose not to undertake behaviour change is because they do not know how to, they do not have the knowledge they need to be able to take action and change their lifestyle to help prevent illnesses like sunburn or skin cancer.
The information in the leaflet takes into account of what we know about why some people undertake health behaviours and others do not because it gives information on how to reduce the risk of skin cancer, when you need to protect yourself and how to be sun smart. It gives the target audience the information of what can happen if they stay under the sun during high UV radiation by informing them the risks they can face if they do not change their actions. With this information, people are more likely to want to change their health behaviour, start using sun protection, stay out the sun during high UV hours because they would be aware of the risks, and want to avoid skin cancer or sunburn.
How does the information included in the leaflet take account of what we know about how people change their health behaviours? (400)
The health belief model was originally established in 1974 by Irwin M. Rosenstock who stated that the health belief model was both psychological and demographic and suggesting that people were more likely to take action of their health behaviour if they perceived a threat or if they found benefits in doing so. Although the leaflet explains how the sun and high levels of UV radiation are a threat, the leaflet can be improved if it identified benefits that they will gain from staying out of the sun or away from sun beds.
How can the leaflet be improved to take account of your critical evaluation? (300)
In 1977, Becker ADD NAME also studied the health belief model and explained that people only change their health behaviour for the better if something happens to them
Common-sense framework simplifies health-related representational processes .
Theoretical components broadly defined therefore different operationalisations may not be strictly comparable.
Lack of specification of a causal ordering.
Neglects social factors.
Cannot make testable predictions via counterfactuals.
May be responsible for "blaming the victim" for his/her illness when factors are beyond the individual's control.