Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methodologies in Health and Social Care

1896 words (8 pages) Essay

8th Feb 2020 Health And Social Care Reference this

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Table of Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Background

Outline of Topic

Aims and Objectives

Discussion

Conclusion

References

Bibliography

Abstract

This report was devised to examine both quantitative and qualitative methodologies and how these can assist in data collection and examination. This allows conclusions to be drawn from the data, which can contribute to existing research or establish new ideas/theories, ensuring practice is based on the best available evidence. This report aims to demonstrate understanding in this area, before summarizing both methodologies, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of both.

Introduction

This report was complied to give readers a brief introduction into the research methodologies of qualitative and quantitative data. It aims to summarize both methods separately, highlight advantages and disadvantages, and examine how data derived using these methods can contribute to health and social care.

Background

What are qualificative and quantitative methods and how do they assist within the health and social care sector. 

Outline of Topic

Qualitative and quantitative researching how the two methodologies collect data and what results can be obtained. What methods are used to collect the necessary data. Are there pros and cons between the two.

Aims and Objectives

Aims

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The aims of this report was to explain how both these research methods work and to give the reader some basic information into the two methodologies, how  can they help researchers in todays society and associate that both qualitative and quantitative can be used in the health and social care environment.

Objectives

The objectives was to expand on how qualitative and quantitative research is conducted and how the evidence is collaborated.  Further explain the differences between the two and the different stages of the study in each of the two methods.

Discussion

According to Creswell and Creswell (2018), qualitative research is a perspective for understanding and exploring the explanation groups or individuals assign to a human or social problem,

Creswell and Creswell (2018), state that qualitative methods are explanatory research process. It is used to demonstrate an understanding of opinions, motivations and underlying reasons behind the research area. This then enables the researcher to analyse the meaning of data, before drawing conclusions. Due to the nature of qualitative research information is gathered over a longer period of time.

There are various data collection methods used to contribute to a qualitative research method. Semi structured interviews are conducted by asking questions in any order. The researchers tend to use unstructured techniques, allowing the research participants to speak openly and honestly about the area of research. Structured interviews are made up of already predetermined questions and have to be asked in order. Unstructured interviews have very little organisation, Bhat (2018). Qualitative focuses on getting data by asking questions that are open ended and conversational communication. This method is to investigate the reasons behind how people think and why they think in that specific way. It is designed to reveal the perception and behaviour of a targeted audience. The results are found to be more descriptive and generated larger data for researchers to analyse, Bhat (2018).

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Qualitative data methods enable participants to demonstrate thoughts, feelings and attitudes. It does this by encouraging openness which motivates participants to go into detail. This proves advantageous in collecting data using these methods, DeFranzo (2011).

There are also some disadvantages to this method. Less people are being studied, so this will result in more time being needed which may not prove cost effective. There would have been a reduced number of individuals participating in the research, Analyze this (2008).

Quantitative research involves overseeing statistical on data that has numerical values. Quantitative data generates information by the collection of numbers. Quantitative research is described as using a collection of numerical data as showing an outlook of the partnership between research and theory as deductive and preference in gathering information quicker due to its design, Bryman (2012).

There are many forms of data collection methods in quantitative research. These range from; surveys, polls, questionnaires and observations. The data collection is based on theories and hypothesis. Quantitative focuses on gathering statistics, mathematical and objective measurements. The aim of this research method is to explain a particular phenomenon. The data can then be showed by using graphs, tables, and pie charts, Trefry (2018).  

Advantages within quantitative methods could have been that it allows for a larger study to be carried out and this develops into significant and exactness of the results. The data collected can be reproduced and therefore analysed and contrasted with studies that maybe familiar. It can allow for a wider study and involve a larger number of participants. Analyse This (2018).

The disadvantages that should be considered would be that the results could possibly be limited as it is based on a collection of numbers and not a detailed account there may have been a lack of control over the study as these are carried out in unnatural or false environments, Analyse This (2008).

Differences between the two methodologies are one collects data by talking with the participants and the other by collecting information via written participation. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies differ in many aspects they collect data and process the information differently, DeFranzo (2011).

The differences that stand out between these two methodologies are that the one collects data via numbers the other by communication. Snap surveys (2018)

Quantitative is more precise in its findings and uses a conclusive approach and is structured. Whereas qualitative draws data from generalization and uses an explanatory approach and is unstructured, Evasys (2018).

Qualitative research is beneficial to health and social care as it can provide the methods to be able to carry out interviews and this can gather data by speaking with patients, staff, doctors and all healthcare staff, Baker et al (2002).

Quantitative can also be utilised within health and social care by carrying out surveys on patients, staff, doctors and all staff within a hospital setting, New perspectives (2002).

Examples of some research that has been carried out using qualitative and quantitative are listed below.

Parenting and childhood obesity research: a quantitative content analysis of published research 2009 – 2015.

Communication about children’s clinical trials as observed and experienced: qualitative study of parents and practioners.

Conclusion

This report allowed the writer to demonstrate an understanding on the research methods qualitative and quantitative, and how data is acquired, briefly exploring the contrast between the two and some pros and cons of both methods. Exploring further into how the data is collected via either numbers or communication, and considering the two methodologies benefits to researchers within the health and social care setting.

Words 1006

References

         Analyse This (2008) Learning to analyse qualitative data. Available at: http://www.learnhigher.ac.uk-quantitative (Accessed 13 November 2018).

  • Baker, R., Pope, C and Royen, P. (2002) ‘Qualitative methods in research on healthcare quality’, BMJ Journals ,11(2) [online] Available at: https://qualitysafety.bmj.com/content/11/2/148.info (Accessed 15 November 2018).
  • Bhat, A. (2018) Quantitative Research: Definition, Methods, Types, and Examples. Available at: https://www.questionpro.com/blog/quantitative- research/ (Accessed: 13 November 2018).
  • Bryman, A. (2012) Social research methods.4th edn. Oxford: Oxford University press.
  • Creswell, J, W, and Creswell, J, D. (2018) Research Design. 5th edn. London: Sage Publications.
  • DeFranzo,S (2011) ‘ what’s the difference between qualitative and quantitative research’, Snap Surveys, 16 September, Available at http://www.snapsurveys.com/qualititative-vs-quantitive-research/(Accessed13 November 2018).
  • Evasys (2018) Qualitative Vs Quantitative Research – Discovering the Best Research Approach. Available at https:/www.achievability.co.uk/evasys/qualitative-research-discovering-the-best-research-approach (Accessed 14 November 2018).
  • New perspectives (2015) How Quantitative Research Helps Improve Healthcare Facilities. Available at https://new-perspectives.net/quantitative-research-improves-healthcare-facilities (Accessed 15 November 2018).
  • Trefry, R, G. (2018) What is Quantitative research. Available at: https://www. Apus.libguides.com/research_methods_guide/research_methods_quantitative_
  • research (Accessed: 13 November 2018).

Bibliography

Table of Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Background

Outline of Topic

Aims and Objectives

Discussion

Conclusion

References

Bibliography

Abstract

This report was devised to examine both quantitative and qualitative methodologies and how these can assist in data collection and examination. This allows conclusions to be drawn from the data, which can contribute to existing research or establish new ideas/theories, ensuring practice is based on the best available evidence. This report aims to demonstrate understanding in this area, before summarizing both methodologies, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of both.

Introduction

This report was complied to give readers a brief introduction into the research methodologies of qualitative and quantitative data. It aims to summarize both methods separately, highlight advantages and disadvantages, and examine how data derived using these methods can contribute to health and social care.

Background

What are qualificative and quantitative methods and how do they assist within the health and social care sector. 

Outline of Topic

Qualitative and quantitative researching how the two methodologies collect data and what results can be obtained. What methods are used to collect the necessary data. Are there pros and cons between the two.

Aims and Objectives

Aims

The aims of this report was to explain how both these research methods work and to give the reader some basic information into the two methodologies, how  can they help researchers in todays society and associate that both qualitative and quantitative can be used in the health and social care environment.

Objectives

The objectives was to expand on how qualitative and quantitative research is conducted and how the evidence is collaborated.  Further explain the differences between the two and the different stages of the study in each of the two methods.

Discussion

According to Creswell and Creswell (2018), qualitative research is a perspective for understanding and exploring the explanation groups or individuals assign to a human or social problem,

Creswell and Creswell (2018), state that qualitative methods are explanatory research process. It is used to demonstrate an understanding of opinions, motivations and underlying reasons behind the research area. This then enables the researcher to analyse the meaning of data, before drawing conclusions. Due to the nature of qualitative research information is gathered over a longer period of time.

There are various data collection methods used to contribute to a qualitative research method. Semi structured interviews are conducted by asking questions in any order. The researchers tend to use unstructured techniques, allowing the research participants to speak openly and honestly about the area of research. Structured interviews are made up of already predetermined questions and have to be asked in order. Unstructured interviews have very little organisation, Bhat (2018). Qualitative focuses on getting data by asking questions that are open ended and conversational communication. This method is to investigate the reasons behind how people think and why they think in that specific way. It is designed to reveal the perception and behaviour of a targeted audience. The results are found to be more descriptive and generated larger data for researchers to analyse, Bhat (2018).

Qualitative data methods enable participants to demonstrate thoughts, feelings and attitudes. It does this by encouraging openness which motivates participants to go into detail. This proves advantageous in collecting data using these methods, DeFranzo (2011).

There are also some disadvantages to this method. Less people are being studied, so this will result in more time being needed which may not prove cost effective. There would have been a reduced number of individuals participating in the research, Analyze this (2008).

Quantitative research involves overseeing statistical on data that has numerical values. Quantitative data generates information by the collection of numbers. Quantitative research is described as using a collection of numerical data as showing an outlook of the partnership between research and theory as deductive and preference in gathering information quicker due to its design, Bryman (2012).

There are many forms of data collection methods in quantitative research. These range from; surveys, polls, questionnaires and observations. The data collection is based on theories and hypothesis. Quantitative focuses on gathering statistics, mathematical and objective measurements. The aim of this research method is to explain a particular phenomenon. The data can then be showed by using graphs, tables, and pie charts, Trefry (2018).  

Advantages within quantitative methods could have been that it allows for a larger study to be carried out and this develops into significant and exactness of the results. The data collected can be reproduced and therefore analysed and contrasted with studies that maybe familiar. It can allow for a wider study and involve a larger number of participants. Analyse This (2018).

The disadvantages that should be considered would be that the results could possibly be limited as it is based on a collection of numbers and not a detailed account there may have been a lack of control over the study as these are carried out in unnatural or false environments, Analyse This (2008).

Differences between the two methodologies are one collects data by talking with the participants and the other by collecting information via written participation. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies differ in many aspects they collect data and process the information differently, DeFranzo (2011).

The differences that stand out between these two methodologies are that the one collects data via numbers the other by communication. Snap surveys (2018)

Quantitative is more precise in its findings and uses a conclusive approach and is structured. Whereas qualitative draws data from generalization and uses an explanatory approach and is unstructured, Evasys (2018).

Qualitative research is beneficial to health and social care as it can provide the methods to be able to carry out interviews and this can gather data by speaking with patients, staff, doctors and all healthcare staff, Baker et al (2002).

Quantitative can also be utilised within health and social care by carrying out surveys on patients, staff, doctors and all staff within a hospital setting, New perspectives (2002).

Examples of some research that has been carried out using qualitative and quantitative are listed below.

Parenting and childhood obesity research: a quantitative content analysis of published research 2009 – 2015.

Communication about children’s clinical trials as observed and experienced: qualitative study of parents and practioners.

Conclusion

This report allowed the writer to demonstrate an understanding on the research methods qualitative and quantitative, and how data is acquired, briefly exploring the contrast between the two and some pros and cons of both methods. Exploring further into how the data is collected via either numbers or communication, and considering the two methodologies benefits to researchers within the health and social care setting.

Words 1006

References

         Analyse This (2008) Learning to analyse qualitative data. Available at: http://www.learnhigher.ac.uk-quantitative (Accessed 13 November 2018).

  • Baker, R., Pope, C and Royen, P. (2002) ‘Qualitative methods in research on healthcare quality’, BMJ Journals ,11(2) [online] Available at: https://qualitysafety.bmj.com/content/11/2/148.info (Accessed 15 November 2018).
  • Bhat, A. (2018) Quantitative Research: Definition, Methods, Types, and Examples. Available at: https://www.questionpro.com/blog/quantitative- research/ (Accessed: 13 November 2018).
  • Bryman, A. (2012) Social research methods.4th edn. Oxford: Oxford University press.
  • Creswell, J, W, and Creswell, J, D. (2018) Research Design. 5th edn. London: Sage Publications.
  • DeFranzo,S (2011) ‘ what’s the difference between qualitative and quantitative research’, Snap Surveys, 16 September, Available at http://www.snapsurveys.com/qualititative-vs-quantitive-research/(Accessed13 November 2018).
  • Evasys (2018) Qualitative Vs Quantitative Research – Discovering the Best Research Approach. Available at https:/www.achievability.co.uk/evasys/qualitative-research-discovering-the-best-research-approach (Accessed 14 November 2018).
  • New perspectives (2015) How Quantitative Research Helps Improve Healthcare Facilities. Available at https://new-perspectives.net/quantitative-research-improves-healthcare-facilities (Accessed 15 November 2018).
  • Trefry, R, G. (2018) What is Quantitative research. Available at: https://www. Apus.libguides.com/research_methods_guide/research_methods_quantitative_
  • research (Accessed: 13 November 2018).

Bibliography

  • Bowden, J. (2011) Writing a Report. 9th edn.  London: Robinson.

 

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